Power Head Test Article (PHTA) for SCE-200
Country of originIndia
DesignerLPSC, ISRO
ManufacturerGodrej & Boyce[1][2]
ApplicationMain engine
StatusUnder Development
Liquid-fuel engine
PropellantLOX / RP-1
Mixture ratio2.65[3]
CycleStaged combustion
Thrust, vacuum2,030 kN (460,000 lbf)[4]
Thrust, sea-level1,820 kN (410,000 lbf)[4]
Throttle range60% to 105% [3]
Chamber pressure18 MPa (2,600 psi)[3]
Specific impulse, vacuum335 seconds (3.29 km/s)
Specific impulse, sea-level299 seconds (2.93 km/s)
Dry weight~2700 kg

The SCE-200 (also referred as Semi-Cryogenic Engine-200) is a 2 MN thrust class liquid rocket engine, being developed to power ISRO's existing LVM3 and upcoming heavy and super heavy-lift launch vehicles. It is being developed by Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC) of ISRO and is expected to have first flight in 2020s.

Burning liquid oxygen (LOX) and RP-1 kerosene in an oxidizer-rich staged combustion cycle [5] , the engine will boost payload capacity of LVM3 replacing current L110 stage powered by 2 Vikas engines. It is also expected to power ISRO's upcoming Next Generation Launch Vehicle (NGLV)[6] rockets (previously planned as ULV) as well as ISRO's future reusable rockets based on RLV technology demonstrations.[7][8][9][10][11]

The engine in September 2019 reportedly had become ready to begin testing in Ukraine and enter service no earlier than 2022. The use of engine of India's first human spaceflight, hence was ruled out by ISRO. By November 2022, SCE-200 had neared completion of its qualification tests. Stage and development had been complete and a facility to test it at ISRO Propulsion Complex Mahendergiri was getting ready for ground tests.


On June 2, 2005, India and Ukraine signed the Framework Agreement between the Government of Ukraine and the Government of the Republic of India on Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, which would enter in force on February 15, 2006.[12] Agreement also involved the transfer of blueprints for a rocket engine by the Yuzhnoye Design Office. The engine blueprints supposedly transferred by Ukraine to India, have been identified as the RD-810 which in turn is a variant of Russian RD-120.[13][14][15]

According to official press release on March 26, 2013, by Ukrainian Ministry of Economic Development and Trade, development of a rocket engine for Indian launch vehicles initiated in 2006 under a joint Indian-Ukrainian project named “Jasmine”[16][17][13][18][19]


In 2009, SCE-200 program was approved for 1,798 crore (US$230 million) and program to develop a 2 MN class main engine began.[20]

During May and June 2015, ISRO and Roscosmos signed a wide-ranging Memorandum of Understanding for cooperation in space.[21] A. S. Kiran Kumar, Chairman of the ISRO, stated that one of the first benefits would be the availability of Russian test stand for initial testing of the SCE-200, while the Mahendragiri semi-cryogenic test stand being built. The engine is a part of the 1,800 crore (US$230 million) semi-cryogenic launch vehicle program, which would be capable of placing 6,000–10,000 kilograms (13,000–22,000 lb) in GTO.[21][22] The engine however will not be the part of first flight of Gaganyaan, India's first crewed mission to space, given timelines and schedules.[23]

In 2017, Ukrainian firm Yuzhmash was contracted by ISRO to conduct tests on critical components of SCE-200. First stage of contract was reportedly complete and tests were expected to be completed by 2019.[13][24][25] In April 2022, ISRO chairman S. Somanath stated that tests within the country were to begin in next 3 months.[26] By November 2022, the test facility and stand had been nearly ready for engine as well as SC120 stage test which would upgrade India's existing LVM3 rocket.[27][28]

Development and testing

SCE-200 Power Head Test Article (PHTA)

See also


  1. ^ M Ramesh. "Godrej Aerospace to make semi-cryogenic engines". The Hindu Business Line.
  2. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 2 November 2015.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  3. ^ a b c "Semi-cryogenic Propulsion". Retrieved 24 April 2019.
  4. ^ a b "SCE-200 a liquid-fuel, staged combustion semi-cryogenic engine being developed by the Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC) lab of ISRO". IITTEN. 6 May 2015. Archived from the original on 8 July 2015. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
  5. ^ K. N. Jayachandran; Arnab Roy; arthasarathi Ghosh. "Numerical investigations on Direct Contact Condensation (DCC) of oxygen vapor at the inlet duct to the main LOX pump in a staged combustion cycle based rocket engine" (PDF). Cryogenic Engineering Centre and Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur.
  6. ^ "ISRO readies plan for next generation launch vehicle". The Hindu. 8 June 2023. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 17 July 2023.
  7. ^ "Space Transportation System - Semi-cryogenic Project". ISRO. Archived from the original on 6 August 2019. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
  8. ^ "Government of India, Department of Space, Annual Report 2015 - 2016" (PDF). 26 May 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 December 2016.
  9. ^ Raj, Gopal (5 June 2017). "ISRO's heaviest rocket is ready but is it enough for the load that lies ahead?". The Ken. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
  10. ^ "Post successful launch of India's heaviest rocket, ISRO sets its eyes on 10-tonne class payload launcher". NewIndianExpress. Retrieved 7 June 2017.
  11. ^ "Annual Report 2016 -2017 (English) - ISRO". Archived from the original on 13 February 2018. Retrieved 13 February 2018.
  12. ^ "Legal basis of Ukraine and India". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
  13. ^ a b c "Ukraine to test components of a powerful Indian rocket engine". Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  14. ^ "Semi-Cryogenic Engines" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 December 2015.
  15. ^ "ISRO moves on, gears up to test semi-cryogenic engine in Ukraine". 19 September 2019. Retrieved 3 July 2023.
  16. ^ "Урядовий портал :: Україна розробляє ракетний двигун для індійської ракети-носія". Retrieved 15 March 2016.
  17. ^ "Урядовий портал :: Ukraine designs rocket for Indian launch vehicle". Retrieved 15 March 2016.
  18. ^ "Україна розробляє ракетний двигун для індійської ракети-носія". 26 March 2013. Archived from the original on 11 January 2018. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  19. ^ "Ukraine designs rocket for Indian launch vehicle". 26 March 2013. Archived from the original on 11 January 2018. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  20. ^ Nair, Nandini (1 November 2022). "ISRO: Semi-cryogenic engine in final phase, will boost GSLV's lift capability". Organiser.
  21. ^ a b "Russian tie-up to boost ISRO's semicryogenic launcher plan". The Hindu. 14 August 2015. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
  22. ^ "Heavy Lift Launcher". Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
  23. ^ "Episode 90 – An update on ISRO's activities with S Somanath and R Umamaheshwaran". AstrotalkUK. 24 October 2019. Retrieved 30 October 2019.
  24. ^ "Ukraine expands industrial rocket building cooperation with south-eastern Asian countries". Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  25. ^ Ramesh, M. "ISRO moves on, gears up to test semi-cryogenic engine in Ukraine". @businessline. Retrieved 19 September 2019.
  26. ^ Sharma, Abhishek (10 April 2022). "वाराणसी में बोले इसरो के चेयरमैन डा. सोमनाथ एस - 'तीन महीने बाद लांच होगा देश का पहला सेमी क्रायोजेनिक इंजन'". Jagran (in Hindi). Varanasi. Retrieved 17 April 2022.
  27. ^ "As GSLV-Mk3 goes commercial, work on semi-cryo picks up pace". The Times of India. Bengaluru. 1 November 2022. Retrieved 17 December 2022.
  28. ^ "Video of ISRO's Semi Cryogenic Integrated Engine and Test Facility". Space Park - Indian Space Research Organisation. Retrieved 17 December 2022.
  29. ^ "Tests commenced on Semicryogenic engine at IPRC, Mahendragiri". Retrieved 10 May 2023. This test demonstrated the complex chill-down operations spanning about 15 hours duration that was conducted successfully, meeting all the required conditions for engine start.After the chill down of the LOX circuit, the feed circuit of kerosene was filled, and LOX was admitted into the gas generator by opening the injection valve. Successful performance of the test article helps derive the sequence of operations for further tests.
  30. ^ "First hot test of the Semi-cryogenic engine conducted at IPRC, Mahendragiri". Retrieved 3 July 2023.