Chandrayaan-3
Mission typeLunar lander, rover, propulsion module
OperatorIndian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)
COSPAR ID Edit this at Wikidata
Spacecraft properties
BusChandrayaan
ManufacturerIndian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)
Start of mission
Launch dateQ1 2023 (planned)[1]
RocketGSLV Mark III[2]
Launch siteSatish Dhawan Space Centre
ContractorIndian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)
Moon lander
Spacecraft componentRover
Landing date2023 (planned)
Landing siteLunar south pole
 

Chandrayaan-3 (candra-yāna, transl. "mooncraft";[3][4] pronunciation ) is a planned third lunar exploration mission by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).[5]

Following Chandrayaan-2, where a last-minute glitch in the soft landing guidance software led to the failure of the lander's soft landing attempt after a successful orbital insertion, another lunar mission for demonstrating soft landing was proposed.[6] Chandrayaan-3 will be a mission repeat of Chandrayaan-2 but will only include a lander and rover similar to that of Chandrayaan-2. It will not have an orbiter, but its propulsion module will behave like a communications relay satellite.[7][8] The spacecraft is planned to be launched in the first quarter of 2023.[9][1] The rocket for the launch of the spacecraft was declared ready and awaits the module.[10]

Background

In the second phase of the Chandrayaan programme to demonstrate soft landing on the Moon, ISRO launched Chandrayaan-2 onboard a GSLV Mk III launch vehicle consisting of an orbiter, a lander and a rover. The lander was scheduled to touchdown on the lunar surface in September 2019 to deploy the Pragyan rover.[11][12]

Earlier reports had emerged about a collaboration with Japan on a mission to the lunar south pole where India would be providing the lander while Japan would provide both launcher and rover. The mission may include site sampling and lunar night survival technologies.[13][14]

The subsequent failure of the Vikram lander led to the pursuit of another mission to demonstrate the landing capabilities needed for the Lunar Polar Exploration Mission proposed in partnership with Japan for 2024.[15] During mission critical flight operations ESTRACK operated by ESA will support the mission according to a contract.[16]

Design

The lander for Chandrayaan-3 will have only four throttle-able engines,[17] unlike Vikram on Chandrayaan-2 which had five 800 Newtons engines with a fifth one being centrally mounted with a fixed thrust. Additionally, the Chandrayaan-3 lander will be equipped with a Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV).[18]

Funding

In December 2019, it was reported that ISRO requested the initial funding of the project, amounting to 75 crore (US$9.4 million), out of which 60 crore (US$7.5 million) will be for meeting expenditure towards machinery, equipment and other capital expenditure, while the remaining 15 crore (US$1.9 million) is sought under revenue expenditure head.[19]

Confirming the existence of the project, ISRO's former chairman K. Sivan stated that the cost would be around 615 crore (US$77 million).[20]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Government Of India, Department Of Space, Lok Sabha Unstarred Question No. 556 to be answered on Wednesday, July 20, 2022 about 'Private Participation In Space'" (PDF). 20 July 2022. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 July 2022.
  2. ^ Park, Si-soo (3 February 2022). "India targets August launch for Chandrayaan-3 lunar lander". SpaceNews. Retrieved 3 February 2022.
  3. ^ Monier Monier-Williams, A Sanskrit-English Dictionary (1899): candra: "[...] m. the moon (also personified as a deity Mn. &c)" yāna: "[...] n. a vehicle of any kind , carriage , wagon , vessel , ship , [...]"
  4. ^ "Chandrayaan-2 FAQ". Retrieved 24 August 2019. The name Chandrayaan means "Chandra- Moon, Yaan-vehicle", – in Indian languages (Sanskrit and Hindi), – the lunar spacecraft
  5. ^ "Press Meet - Briefing by Dr. K. Sivan, Chairman, ISRO". isro.gov.in. 1 January 2020. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  6. ^ Guptan, Mahesh (16 November 2019). "How did Chandrayaan 2 fail? ISRO finally has the answer". The Week. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  7. ^ "NASA - NSSDCA - Spacecraft - Details".
  8. ^ "Chandrayaan-3 to cost Rs 615 crore, launch could stretch to 2021". The Times of India. 2 January 2020. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  9. ^ Kumar, Chethan (6 April 2022). "2 Gaganyaan abort tests in August, December; relay satellites next year". The Times of India. Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  10. ^ "'Chandrayaan-3 rocket is ready; we are waiting for the module' - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 22 January 2022.
  11. ^ Singh, Surendra (5 August 2018). "Chandrayaan-2 launch put off: India, Israel in lunar race for 4th position". The Times of India. Retrieved 15 August 2018.
  12. ^ Shenoy, Jaideep (28 February 2016). "ISRO chief signals India's readiness for Chandrayaan II mission". The Times of India. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  13. ^ "India's next Moon shot will be bigger, in pact with Japan". The Times of India. 7 July 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2020. For our next mission — Chandrayaan-3 — which will be accomplished in collaboration with JAXA (Japanese Space Agency), we will invite other countries too to participate with their payloads.
  14. ^ "Episode 82: JAXA and International Collaboration with Professor Fujimoto Masaki". Astro talk UK. 4 January 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  15. ^ ISRO Will Embark on Chandrayaan-3 by November 2020 for Another Landing Attempt The Wire, 14 November 2019
  16. ^ "ESA and Indian space agency ISRO agree on future cooperation". www.esa.int. Retrieved 16 April 2022.
  17. ^ Kumar, Chethan (15 September 2020). "Chandrayaan-3: No 5th engine on lander". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 15 September 2020. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
  18. ^ Kumar, Chethan. "Chandrayaan-3 plans indicate failures in Chandrayaan-2". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 21 November 2019. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
  19. ^ Kumar, Chethan (8 December 2019). "ISRO seeks 75 crore more from Centre for Chandrayaan-3". The Times of India. Retrieved 8 December 2019.
  20. ^ "Chandrayaan-3 to cost Rs 615 crore, launch could stretch to 2021". The Times of India. 2 January 2020. Retrieved 3 January 2020.