OMOTENASHI
NamesOutstanding MOon exploration TEchnologies demonstrated by NAno Semi-Hard Impactor
Mission typeTechnology demonstrator, Reconnaissance
OperatorJAXA
COSPAR ID2022-156D Edit this at Wikidata
SATCAT no.55904
Websitewww.isas.jaxa.jp/home/omotenashi/index.html
Mission duration1 day
Spacecraft properties
SpacecraftOMOTENASHI
Spacecraft typeCubeSat
Bus6U CubeSat
ManufacturerJAXA
Launch mass12.6 kg (28 lb)[1]
Dimensions10 cm × 20 cm × 30 cm
Power30 watts [2]
Start of mission
Launch date16 November 2022, 06:47:44 UTC[3]
RocketSLS Block 1
Launch siteKennedy, LC-39B
ContractorNASA
End of mission
Last contactWorking to restore communications[4]
Orbital parameters
Reference systemSelenocentric orbit
Moon impactor
Spacecraft componentOrbiter and lander
Transponders
BandX-band, S-band, P-band[5][2]
Instruments
Radiation monitor
Accelerometer
 
Animation of OMOTENASHI around Earth
  Earth ·    OMOTENASHI  ·   Moon

OMOTENASHI (Outstanding MOon exploration TEchnologies demonstrated by NAno Semi-Hard Impactor) was a small spacecraft and semi-hard lander of the 6U CubeSat format intended to demonstrate low-cost technology to land and explore the lunar surface. The CubeSat was to take measurements of the radiation environment near the Moon as well as on the lunar surface. Omotenashi is a Japanese word for "welcome" or "Hospitality".[2][6]

OMOTENASHI was one of ten CubeSats launched with the Artemis 1 mission into a heliocentric orbit in cislunar space on the maiden flight of the Space Launch System (SLS), that took place on 16 November 2022.[3][7]

After deployment from the Artemis I second stage, JAXA reported unstable communications with the spacecraft.[8] On 21 November 2022, a Twitter message sent by JAXA reported that further attempts to communicate with the lander, which was scheduled to begin its landing sequences that day, had been ended.[9]

Overview

The OMOTENASHI mission was to land the smallest lunar lander up to then on the lunar surface to demonstrate the feasibility of the hardware for distributed synergistic exploration system with multi-point exploration. Once on the lunar surface, the OMOTENASHI lander was planned to observe the radiation environment of the lunar surface. The OMOTENASHI orbiter and lander were designed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). It was a 6U CubeSat measuring 10 cm × 20 cm × 30 cm, and had a mass of 14 kg (31 lb). The principal investigator was Tatsuaki Hashimoto from JAXA.[10] The spacecraft featured two body-fixed solar panels and lithium ion batteries. After measuring the radiation environment as it approached the Moon, OMOTENASHI's lander module was planned to perform a semi-hard landing on the lunar surface.[11]

Flight

JAXA announced that OMOTENASHI had successfully separated from the ICPS interstage around 90 minutes after launch. However, as of November 17, 2022, the spacecraft had yet to achieve Sun acquisition, and communication was unstable. JAXA continued operations to "stabilise attitude, secure power and establish communication,"[12] but after failing to restore operations, they abandoned recovery attempts on November 22.[9][13] Reports indicate that the loss was due to failure of the solar cells to point toward the Sun.[14] They will not be facing towards the Sun until March 2023.[15][16]The team is considering recovery operations if they are able to reestablish contact with the spacecraft.[17]

Payload

The lander's scientific payload consisted of a radiation monitor and an accelerometer.[2]

Propulsion and proposed landing

OMOTENASHI was to use a cold gas thruster to enter a lunar-impact orbit, and a solid rocket motor for the landing phase.[5] The entry and landing phases would have been informed by the use of an X-band two-way Doppler radar.[5] The orbiting module was planned to enter at a shallow flight-path angle of ≤7°, and to be ejected when the solid rocket burn begins the deceleration manoeuvre.[5] The rocket would have been ignited with a laser.[2][18] After the deceleration rocket burn that was planned to last 15–20 seconds,[18] OMOTENASHI's lander would have ejected the retrorocket, experiencing a free-fall of about 100 m. Just before impact, the lander was planned to deploy a single airbag about 50 cm in diameter to minimize the impact,[18][19] estimated to be at 20–30 m/s.[2][5]

Spacecraft
components [18][5]
Units/performance
Modules * Orbiting module
* Retro motor Module
* Surface probe
Surface probe 0.7 kg [19]
Battery: 30 Wh
Consumption: 15 W
Orbiter 7 kg
(including cold gas system)
Propulsion * Solid motor: 6 kg (2500 m/s) - includes solid fuel
* Cold gas jet: (N2, 20 m/s)

See also

The 10 CubeSats flying in the Artemis 1 mission
The 3 CubeSat missions removed from Artemis 1

References

  1. ^ "OMOTENASHI". JAXA. Retrieved 16 February 2023.
  2. ^ a b c d e f "OMOTENASHI" (PDF). JAXA. 29 October 2016. Retrieved 10 March 2021.
  3. ^ a b Roulette, Joey; Gorman, Steve (16 November 2022). "NASA's next-generation Artemis mission heads to moon on debut test flight". Reuters. Retrieved 16 November 2022.
  4. ^ "OMOTENASHI". 22 November 2022.
  5. ^ a b c d e f "Trajectory Design for the JAXA Moon Nano-Lander OMOTENASHI". Digital Commons. 2017. Retrieved 10 March 2021.
  6. ^ "Go To MOON! The World's Smallest Moon Lander: OMOTENASHI" (PDF). JAXA. 2017. Retrieved 12 March 2021.
  7. ^ Clark, Stephen (12 October 2021). "Adapter structure with 10 CubeSats installed on top of Artemis moon rocket". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 22 October 2021.
  8. ^ "Status of the JAXA CubeSats OMOTENASHI and EQUULEUS onboard Artemis I". JAXA. 17 November 2022. Retrieved 21 November 2022.
  9. ^ a b "OMOTENASHI Project official JAXA Twitter message". JAXA. 21 November 2022. Retrieved 21 November 2022.
  10. ^ "International Partners Provide Science Satellites for America's Space Launch System Maiden Flight". NASA. 26 May 2016. Retrieved 10 March 2021. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  11. ^ "International Partners To Launch CubeSats On Orion Exploration Mission-1". Colaorado Space News. 26 May 2016. Archived from the original on 16 April 2021. Retrieved 10 March 2021.
  12. ^ "Status of the JAXA CubeSats OMOTENASHI and EQUULEUS onboard NASA Artemis I". Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. 17 November 2022. Retrieved 21 November 2022.
  13. ^ "JAXA Gives Up on Landing Omotenashi Probe on Moon", Nippon.com, Nov 22, 2022. Retrieved 28 November 2022.
  14. ^ "Editorial: Failure of OMOTENASHI Should Lead to New Lunar Landing Attempts", Japan Forward, 28 November 2022. Retrieved 28 November 2022.
  15. ^ "JAXA's Ultra Small Lander OMOTENASHI Fails to Receive Transmissions from Earth".[permanent dead link]
  16. ^ "OMOTENASHI twitter Update". Twitter. 22 November 2022. Retrieved 6 February 2023.
  17. ^ "OMOTENASHI Twitter about future". Twitter (in Japanese). 22 November 2022. Retrieved 2 February 2023.
  18. ^ a b c d "OMOTENASHI" (PDF). JAXA. 2017. Retrieved 10 March 2021.
  19. ^ a b "OMOTENASHI - Mission Sequence". JAXA. 2017. Retrieved 12 March 2021.