Quasi-Zenith Satellite System

Country/ies of originJapan
Operator(s)Quasi-Zenith Satellite System Services Inc. / Cabinet Office
AccuracyPNT <10 m (public)
SLAS <1 m (public)
CLAS <10 cm (public)
Constellation size
Nominal satellites7
Current usable satellites4
First launch11 September 2010
Last launch26 October 2021
Total launches5
Orbital characteristics
Regime(s)3x GSO
Other details
CostJPY 170 billion
Quasi-Zenith satellite orbit
QZSS animation, the "Quasi-Zenith/tundra orbit" plot is clearly visible.

The Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS), also known as Michibiki (みちびき), is a four-satellite regional satellite navigation system and a satellite-based augmentation system developed by the Japanese government to enhance the United States-operated Global Positioning System (GPS) in the Asia-Oceania regions, with a focus on Japan.[1] The goal of QZSS is to provide highly precise and stable positioning services in the Asia-Oceania region, compatible with GPS.[2] Four-satellite QZSS services were available on a trial basis as of 12 January 2018,[3] and officially started on 1 November 2018.[4] A satellite navigation system independent of GPS is planned for 2023 with seven satellites.[5][6] In May 2023 it was announced that the system would expand to eleven satellites.[7]


In 2002, the Japanese government authorized the development of QZSS, as a three-satellite regional time transfer system and a satellite-based augmentation system for the United States operated Global Positioning System (GPS) to be receivable within Japan. A contract was awarded to Advanced Space Business Corporation (ASBC), that began concept development work, and Mitsubishi Electric, Hitachi, and GNSS Technologies Inc. However, ASBC collapsed in 2007, and the work was taken over by the Satellite Positioning Research and Application Center (SPAC), which is owned by four Japanese government departments: the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, and the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism.[8]

The first satellite "Michibiki" was launched on 11 September 2010.[9] Full operational status was expected by 2013.[10][11] In March 2013, Japan's Cabinet Office announced the expansion of QZSS from three satellites to four. The US$526 million contract with Mitsubishi Electric for the construction of three satellites was scheduled for launch before the end of 2017.[12] The third satellite was launched into orbit on 19 August 2017,[13] and the fourth was launched on 10 October 2017.[14] The basic four-satellite system was announced as operational on 1 November 2018.[4]


QZSS uses one geostationary satellite and three satellites in Tundra-type highly inclined, slightly elliptical, geosynchronous orbits. Each orbit is 120° apart from the other two. Because of this inclination, they are not geostationary; they do not remain in the same place in the sky. Instead, their ground traces are asymmetrical figure-8 patterns (analemmas), designed to ensure that one is almost directly overhead (elevation 60° or more) over Japan at all times.

The nominal orbital elements are:

QZSS satellite Keplerian elements (nominal)[15]
Epoch 26 December 2009, 12:00 UTC
Semimajor axis (a) 42,164 km (26,199 mi)
Eccentricity (e) 0.075 ± 0.015
Inclination (i) 43° ± 4°
Right ascension of the ascending node (Ω) 195° (initial)
Argument of perigee (ω) 270° ± 2°
Mean anomaly (M0) 305° (initial)
Central longitude of ground trace 135° E ± 5°

Planned seven satellites constellation consists of four Quasi-Zenith Orbit (QZO) satellites, two geostationary (GEO) satellites, and one quasi-geostationary (slight incline and eccentricity) orbit satellite.[16]


Name Launch date Status Notes
QZS-1 (Michibiki-1) 11 September 2010 Replaced by QZS-1R Experimental. Lacks MADOCA and PTV signals. Acting as spare since March 2022.[17] Decommissioned on 15 September 2023.[18]
QZS-2 (Michibiki-2) 1 June 2017 Operational Improved solar panels and increased fuel
QZS-3 (Michibiki-3) 19 August 2017 Operational Heavier design with additional S-band antenna on geostationary orbit at 127° E[16]
QZS-4 (Michibiki-4) 10 October 2017 Operational Improved solar panels and increased fuel
QZS-1R (Michibiki-1R) 26 October 2021 Operational Replacement for QZS-1.[19]
QZS-5 JFY2024 Planned [20]
QZS-6 JFY2025 Planned Geostationary at 90.5° E[16][20][21]
QZS-7 JFY2025 Planned Quasi-geostationary around 190° E[16][20][21]
Animation of QZSS
Around the Earth - Oblique view
Around the Earth - Polar view
Earth fixed frame - Equatorial view, front
Earth fixed frame - Equatorial view, side
   Earth ·    QZS-1  ·   QZS-2 ·   QZS-3 ·   QZS-4

QZSS and positioning augmentation

The primary purpose of QZSS is to increase the availability of GPS in Japan's numerous urban canyons, where only satellites at very high elevation can be seen. A secondary function is performance enhancement, increasing the accuracy and reliability of GPS derived navigation solutions. The Quasi-Zenith Satellites transmit signals compatible with the GPS L1C/A signal, as well as the modernized GPS L1C, L2C signal and L5 signals. This minimizes changes to existing GPS receivers. Compared to standalone GPS, the combined system GPS plus QZSS delivers improved positioning performance via ranging correction data provided through the transmission of submeter-class performance enhancement signals L1-SAIF and LEX from QZSS. It also improves reliability by means of failure monitoring and system health data notifications. QZSS also provides other support data to users to improve GPS satellite acquisition. According to its original plan, QZSS was to carry two types of space-borne atomic clocks; a hydrogen maser and a rubidium (Rb) atomic clock. The development of a passive hydrogen maser for QZSS was abandoned in 2006. The positioning signal will be generated by a Rb clock and an architecture similar to the GPS timekeeping system will be employed. QZSS will also be able to use a Two-Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer (TWSTFT) scheme, which will be employed to gain some fundamental knowledge of satellite atomic standard behavior in space as well as for other research purposes.

Signals and services

The QZSS provides the following classes of public service:[22]

The other classes of service are not publicly available:

QZSS timekeeping and remote synchronization

Although the first generation QZSS timekeeping system (TKS) will be based on the Rb clock, the first QZSS satellites will carry a basic prototype of an experimental crystal clock synchronization system. During the first half of the two year in-orbit test phase, preliminary tests will investigate the feasibility of the atomic clock-less technology which might be employed in the second generation QZSS.

The mentioned QZSS TKS technology is a novel satellite timekeeping system which does not require on-board atomic clocks as used by existing navigation satellite systems such as BeiDou, Galileo, Global Positioning System (GPS), GLONASS or NavIC system. This concept is differentiated by the employment of a synchronization framework combined with lightweight steerable on-board clocks which act as transponders re-broadcasting the precise time remotely provided by the time synchronization network located on the ground. This allows the system to operate optimally when satellites are in direct contact with the ground station, making it suitable for a system like the Japanese QZSS. Low satellite mass and low satellite manufacturing and launch cost are significant advantages of this system. An outline of this concept as well as two possible implementations of the time synchronization network for QZSS were studied and published in Remote Synchronization Method for the Quasi-Zenith Satellite System[24] and Remote Synchronization Method for the Quasi-Zenith Satellite System: study of a novel satellite timekeeping system which does not require on-board atomic clocks.[25][non-primary source needed]

Comparison of Tundra orbit, QZSS orbit and Molniya orbit - equatorial view
Front view
Side view
Earth fixed frame, Front view
   Tundra orbit ·    QZSS orbit ·   Molniya orbit ·   Earth

See also


  1. ^ "Quasi-Zenith Satellite Orbit (QZO)". Archived from the original on 9 March 2018. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
  2. ^ "[Movie] Quasi-Zenith Satellite System "QZSS"". Quasi-Zenith Satellite System(QZSS). Archived from the original on 15 July 2017. Retrieved 19 July 2017.
  3. ^ "Start of QZS-4 Trial Service". Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS). Archived from the original on 10 August 2018. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  4. ^ a b "Japan's QZSS service now officially available". 26 November 2018. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  5. ^ "Japan mulls seven-satellite QZSS system as a GPS backup". SpaceNews. 15 May 2017. Retrieved 10 August 2019.
  6. ^ Kriening, Torsten (23 January 2019). "Japan Prepares for GPS Failure with Quasi-Zenith Satellites". SpaceWatch.Global. Retrieved 10 August 2019.
  7. ^ Kawahara, Satoshi (8 May 2023). "Japan plans expansion of homegrown GPS network to 11 satellites". Nikkei Asia.
  8. ^ "Service Status of QZSS" (PDF). 12 December 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2009.
  9. ^ "Launch Result of the First Quasi-Zenith Satellite 'MICHIBIKI' by H-IIA Launch Vehicle No. 18". JAXA. 11 September 2010. Archived from the original on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
  10. ^ "QZSS in 2010". Asian Surveying and Mapping. 7 May 2009. Retrieved 7 May 2009.[dead link]
  11. ^ "GNSS All Over the World". GPS World Online. 1 November 2007. Archived from the original on 23 August 2011. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
  12. ^ http://www.spaceflightnow.com/news/n1304/04qzss/ Japan to build fleet of navigation satellites at the Wayback Machine (archived 2013-04-11)
  13. ^ "Launch Schedule". Archived from the original on 9 August 2018. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  14. ^ "Launch Schedule". Spaceflight Now. Archived from the original on 16 August 2018. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  15. ^ Interface Specifications for QZSS, version 1.7, JAXA, 14 July 2016, pp. 7–8, archived from the original on 6 April 2013
  16. ^ a b c d 準天頂衛星の7機体制に向けた開発について (PDF) (in Japanese). Cabinet Office, Government of Japan. 23 January 2019. Retrieved 4 March 2024.
  17. ^ NAQU 2022059, accessible via "NAQU Message". Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS).
  18. ^ "Suspension of QZS-1 all operations". Quasi-Zenith Satellite System. 15 September 2023. Retrieved 16 September 2023.
  19. ^ "宇宙基本計画工程表 (令和2年6月29日)" [Space Plan Schedule (2020 June 29)] (PDF) (in Japanese). Cabinet Office (Japan). 29 June 2020. p. 54. Retrieved 6 December 2020.
  20. ^ a b c 宇宙基本計画⼯程表(令和5年度改訂) (PDF) (in Japanese). Cabinet Office, Government of Japan. 22 December 2023. Retrieved 4 March 2024.
  21. ^ a b Ryan, Dorothy (3 December 2020). "Lincoln Laboratory is designing a payload to integrate on Japanese satellites". MIT. Retrieved 6 December 2020. The laboratory is working with the Japanese National Space Policy Secretariat and Mitsubishi Electric Company to integrate state-of-the-art sensors on the newest satellites in the QZSS constellation, QZS-6 and QZS-7, which are scheduled for launch in 2023 and 2024, respectively.
  22. ^ Quasi-Zenith Satellite System Performance Standard PS-QZSS-003 (Mar.17, 2022)
  23. ^ a b c Jeffrey, Charles (2010). An introduction to GNSS : GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and other Global Navigation Satellite Systems (1st ed.). Calgary: NovAtel. ISBN 978-0-9813754-0-3. OCLC 1036065024.
  24. ^ Fabrizio Tappero (April 2008). "Remote Synchronization Method for the Quasi-Zenith Satellite System" (PhD thesis). Archived from the original on 7 March 2011. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
  25. ^ Fabrizio Tappero (24 May 2009). Remote Synchronization Method for the Quasi-Zenith Satellite System: study of a novel satellite timekeeping system which does not require on-board atomic clocks. VDM Verlag. ISBN 978-3-639-16004-8.