2022 in spaceflight
Starliner approaches the ISS.
NASA
Artist
Top: Starliner approaches the ISS;
Bottom: NASA's Space Launch System (left) and SpaceX's Starship (right) are scheduled to conduct their first orbital launches in 2022.
Orbital launches
First6 January
Last23 June
Total71
Successes68
Failures3
Partial failures0
Catalogued67
Rockets
Maiden flights
Retirements
Crewed flights
Orbital4
Orbital travellers14
Suborbital2
Suborbital travellers12
Total travellers26
EVAs5

This article documents notable and expected spaceflight events during the year 2022.

Overview

Exploration of the Solar System

NASA will continue the mission of the Juno spacecraft at Jupiter, with a fly-by of Europa planned for 29 September 2022.[1][2]

In Mars exploration, the European Space Agency (ESA) had partnered with Roscosmos to launch the Rosalind Franklin rover using the Kazachok lander as part of ExoMars 2022.[3] In March 2022, the launch was cancelled in the wake of the Russian invasion of Ukraine and the subsequent suspension of ESA–Roscosmos cooperation on ExoMars.[4]

Lunar exploration

NASA's CAPSTONE lunar orbiter is planned for launch on June 27. Artemis 1, the first flight of NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) and the first lunar mission for Orion, is scheduled to fly no earlier than August 2022.[5]

The United States will also launch a number of commercial lunar landers and rovers. As part of NASA's Commercial Lunar Payload Services program, the launch of Astrobotic Technology's Peregrine lander and Intuitive Machines' Nova-C lander is scheduled. Russia plans to resume its Luna-Glob exploration programme with the Luna 25 lander. Japan plans to launch the Smart Lander for Investigating Moon (SLIM) and OMOTENASHI lunar landers.

Human spaceflight

China will finish construction of the Tiangong space station with the addition of the Wentian and Mengtian lab modules.[6]

On 19 May 2022, Boeing started the almost six-day (landing 25 May 2022) second uncrewed test flight of its Starliner space capsule in advance of its first crewed test flight later in 2022.[7][8]

Space tourism

On 31 March 2022, Blue Origin's New Shepard vehicle performed its fourth crewed suborbital spaceflight with 6 passengers onboard. On 4 June 2022, New Shepard performed its fifth crewed suborbital spaceflight, also with 6 passengers onboard.

On 8 April 2022, SpaceX's Crew Dragon space capsule was launched by a Falcon 9 rocket for the first American space tourist mission to International Space Station. The crew on board the Axiom Space operated mission included one professional astronaut (space vehicle commander) and three tourists. The mission, known as Axiom Mission 1, lasted a little over 17 days and was the first wholly commercially-operated crewed mission to the ISS.

Rocket innovation

Arianespace's Ariane 6 will make its long-delayed maiden flight,[9] targeting a per-satellite launch cost similar to a Falcon 9.[10] After suborbital tests in 2020 and 2021, SpaceX plans to conduct the first orbital test flight of the fully reusable Starship launch vehicle.[11] In addition, NASA's SLS, which is designed to return humans to the Moon in the Artemis missions, will have a test flight.[12] The maiden flight of Vulcan Centaur is planned for 2022.[9] The launch vehicle is designed by United Launch Alliance to gradually replace Atlas V and Delta IV Heavy at lower costs.[13] Mitsubishi Heavy Industries's H3 launch vehicle, scheduled to enter service in 2022, will cost less than half that of its predecessor H-IIA.[14]

On 21 January 2022, the Atlas V 511 launched for the first time. This was the only planned flight of the Atlas V in the 511 configuration. The launch was successful.

On 29 March 2022, the Long March 6A rocket performed its maiden launch, successfully reaching orbit.

On 29 April 2022, the Angara 1.2 rocket had its maiden launch, successfully reaching orbit.

On 2 May 2022, Rocket Lab attempted first mid-air helicopter capture of the first stage of their Electron rocket. Attempt was successful at initially grabbing the rocket, but the vehicle was dropped in order to ensure the safety of the helicopter and its pilot.[15]

Space debris and satellites management

According to a space monitoring company, in January a Chinese satellite, SJ-21, grabbed an unused satellite and "threw" it into an orbit with a lower risk for the space debris to collide.[16][17] In March, the IAU announced the Centre for the Protection of the Dark and Quiet Sky from Satellite Constellation Interference to coordinate or aggregate measures to mitigate the detrimental effects of satellite constellations on astronomy.[18][19][20]

Consequences of the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine

On 24 February 2022, Russia began an open military invasion of Ukraine,[21] in a major escalation of the Russo-Ukrainian War that had begun in 2014. It is the largest military attack in Europe since World War II.[22][23][24] Following the invasion, a large number of countries imposed further international sanctions against individuals, businesses and officials from Russia, Crimea and Belarus.[25][26] Russia responded with sanctions against a number of countries.

This led to tensions between the Russian space agency and its partners.

Orbital and suborbital launches

Main articles: List of spaceflight launches in January–June 2022 and List of spaceflight launches in July–December 2022

List of orbital launches
Month Num. of successes Num. of failures
January 8 0
February 12 1
March 12 0
April 14 0
May 11 1
June 11 1
July TBD TBD
August TBD TBD
September TBD TBD
October TBD TBD
November TBD TBD
December TBD TBD
Total 68 3

Deep-space rendezvous

Date (UTC) Spacecraft Event Remarks
23 June BepiColombo Second gravity assist at Mercury
3 September Solar Orbiter Third gravity assist at Venus This will be the first fly-by of Venus that will increase Solar Orbiter's orbital inclination relative to the Sun.[31]
29 September Juno 45th perijove On the day of this perijove, Juno will fly by Europa. Orbital period around Jupiter reduced to 38 days.[1][2]
2 October Double Asteroid Redirection Test Impact at a minor planet moon Dimorphos DART will kinetically impact Dimorphos, the minor-planet moon of the 65803 Didymos binary asteroid system. It will also perform a flyby of Didymos.[32][33]
2 October LICIACube Flyby of asteroids LICIACube will flyby the 65803 Didymos binary asteroid system at a target altitude of 55 km (34 mi).
16 October Lucy First gravity assist at Earth Target altitude: 300 km (190 mi).

Extravehicular activities (EVAs)

See also: List of spacewalks since 2015

Start Date/Time Duration End Time Spacecraft Crew Remarks
19 January, 12:17 7 hours 11 minutes 19:28 Expedition 66

Poisk Airlock

Russia Anton Shkaplerov

Russia Pyotr Dubrov

Spacewalk to connect the Prichal Node Module to the ISS. Tasks included: relocating the Strela crane over to Nauka so it can be used as a translation path for this spacewalk and the next one, connecting telemetry and power cables installing handrails, relocating television cameras and docking antennas, installing docking targets, and jettisoning unneeded hardware and trash.[34][35][36]

15 March 2022
12:11
6 hours, 54 minutes 19:06 Expedition 66
ISS Quest
United States Raja Chari
United States Kayla Barron
First spacewalk to install the IROSA mounting brackets on the S4 Truss. Task included installing the struts, mounting brackets, and triangles at the 3A Array in preparation for the delivery of the IROSA solar arrays on SpaceX CRS-25 at the end of May. The astronauts also tied back insulation on S6 so Dextre can replace the Battery Charge Discharge Modules at this location which has shown signs of decay and will be replaced at a later date. As a get ahead the astronauts photographed a worn keel pin cover which has come loose on one of the pins that were used to secure the airlock in the shuttle bay when it was launched.[37][38][39]
23 March 2022
12:32
6 hours, 54 minutes 19:26 Expedition 66
ISS Quest
United States Raja Chari
Germany Matthias Maurer
The astronauts will install and vent ammonia jumpers on the P1 Truss and reposition a radiator beam valve module which has been giving them trouble. The astronauts will also route cables, install cable clamps on the Bartolomeo platform, tie back thermal insulation on the Kibo Exposed Facility Berthing Mechanism, break torque on the P4 electronics boxes, replace Camera 8 on the truss which has a bad filter and light, outfit the radiator grapple bars for a future spacewalk, and also do other maintenance task outside the station.[40]
18 April 2022
14:01
6 hours, 37 minutes 21:37 Expedition 67

Poisk Airlock

Russia Oleg Artemyev
Russia Denis Matveev
Third spacewalk in a series to activate Nauka and Prichal and to commission ERA. During the spacewalk the cosmonauts will remove covers and install electrical cables so ERA can be activated at the end of the spacewalk. They will also install handrails, experiments, and work platforms outside, and break torque on bolts that secure ERA to the lab.[41]
28 April 2022
10:58
7 hours 42 minutes 18:40 Expedition 67

Poisk Airlock

Russia Oleg Artemyev
Russia Denis Matveev
Fourth spacewalk in a series to activate Nauka and Prichal and to commission ERA. During the spacewalk the cosmonauts will jettison thermal cover, release launch locks, and lube the joints and the grapple fixtures before they walk off the arm to its stowage point on the side of the lab in preparation for its first grapple at the end of the spacewalk.[41]

Artemyev and Matveev completed their major objectives during the spacewalk, which included monitoring the first commanded movements of the robotic arm from its grapple fixtures after removing thermal blankets and launch locks. The duo monitored the robotic arm as its end effectors translated one at a time to a new base points. The crew also installed more handrails on Nauka multipurpose laboratory module. Shortly after the spacewalk ended, cosmonaut Sergey Korsakov completed the grapple of the second of the two end effectors on the new European Robotic Arm to a grapple mechanism on the Nauka module to successfully wrap up the major tasks of the excursion.[42]

Orbital launch statistics

By country

For the purposes of this section, the yearly tally of orbital launches by country assigns each flight to the country of origin of the launch vehicle, not to the launch services provider or the spaceport. For example, Soyuz launches by Arianespace in Kourou are counted under Russia because Soyuz-2 is a Russian launch vehicle.

China: 21Europe: 1India: 1Iran: 1Israel: 0Japan: 0North Korea: 0Russia: 9South Korea: 1UK: 0USA: 37Circle frame.svg
Country Launches Successes Failures Partial
failures
Remarks
 China 21 20 1 0
 Europe 1 1 0 0
 India 1 1 0 0
 Iran 1 1 0 0
 Russia 9 9 0 0 Includes Soyuz launches from Kourou
 South Korea 1 1 0 0
 United States 37 35 2 0 Includes Electron launches from Mahia
World 71 68 3 0

By rocket

5
10
15
20
25
30
Ariane
Astra
Atlas
Electron
Falcon
H-series
Long March
R-7
SLV
Vega
Others

By family

By type

By configuration

By spaceport

10
20
30
40
China
France
India
Iran
Japan
Kazakhstan
New Zealand
Russia
South Korea
United States
Site Country Launches Successes Failures Partial failures Remarks
Baikonur  Kazakhstan 3 3 0 0
Cape Canaveral  United States 17 15 2 0
East China Sea  China 1 1 0 0
Jiuquan  China 10 9 1 0
Kennedy  United States 9 9 0 0
Kourou  France 2 2 0 0
Mahia  New Zealand 3 3 0 0
MARS  United States 1 1 0 0
Mojave  United States 1 1 0 0
Naro  South Korea 1 1 0 0
PSCA  United States 1 1 0 0
Plesetsk  Russia 5 5 0 0
Satish Dhawan  India 1 1 0 0
Shahrud  Iran 1 1 0 0
Taiyuan  China 4 4 0 0
Vandenberg  United States 5 5 0 0
Wenchang  China 2 2 0 0
Xichang  China 4 4 0 0
Total 71 68 3 0

By orbit

10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Transatmospheric
Low Earth
Medium Earth / Molniya
Geosynchronous / transfer
High Earth / Lunar transfer
Heliocentric
  •   Transatmospheric
  •   Low Earth
  •   Low Earth (ISS)
  •   Low Earth (CSS)
  •   Low Earth (SSO)
  •   Low Earth (polar)
  •   Medium Earth
  •   Molniya
  •   Geosynchronous
  •   Inclined GSO
  •   High Earth
  •   Lunar transfer
  •   Heliocentric
  •  
Orbital regime Launches Achieved Not achieved Accidentally
achieved
Remarks
Transatmospheric 0 0 0 0
Low Earth / Sun-synchronous 65 62 3 0 Including flights to ISS and Tiangong
Geosynchronous / GTO 5 5 0 0
Medium Earth / Molniya 1 1 0 0
High Earth / Lunar transfer 0 0 0 0
Heliocentric orbit / Planetary transfer 0 0 0 0
Total 71 68 3 0

Suborbital launch statistics

By country

For the purposes of this section, the yearly tally of suborbital launches by country assigns each flight to the country of origin of the rocket, not to the launch services provider or the spaceport. Flights intended to fly below 80 km (50 mi) are omitted.

Brazil: 0Canada: 4China: 4France: 0India: 1Iran: 2Israel: 3Japan: 0The Netherlands: 0North Korea: 7Pakistan: 1Russia: 3South Korea: 4Taiwan: 0Turkey: 0USA: 10Ukraine: 0Yemen: 5Circle frame.svg
Country Launches Successes Failures Partial
failures
Remarks
 Canada 4 4 0 0
 China 4 4 0 0
 India 1 1 0 0
 Iran 2 2 0 0
 Israel 3 3 0 0
 North Korea 7 7 0 0
 Pakistan 1 1 0 0
 Russia 3 3 0 0
 South Korea 4 4 0 0
 United States 10 10 0 0 2 crewed flights
 Yemen 5 5 0 0
World 44 44 0 0

Planned maiden flights

References

  1. ^ a b Talbert, Tricia (8 January 2021). "NASA Extends Exploration for Two Planetary Science Missions". NASA. Archived from the original on 16 January 2021. Retrieved 10 February 2022. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  2. ^ a b "NASA's Juno Mission Expands Into the Future". nasa.gov. 13 January 2021. Archived from the original on 13 January 2021. Retrieved 10 February 2022. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  3. ^ Amos, Jonathan (12 March 2020). "ExoMars Rosalind Franklin: Rover mission delayed until 2022". BBC. Archived from the original on 12 March 2020. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
  4. ^ a b Foust, Jeff (17 March 2022). "ESA suspends work with Russia on ExoMars mission". SpaceNews. Retrieved 17 March 2022.
  5. ^ Clark, Stephen (26 April 2022). "NASA's moon rocket rolls back to Vehicle Assembly Building for repairs". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 26 April 2022.
  6. ^ Jones, Andrew (24 August 2021). "China's Tiangong space station". Space.com. Archived from the original on 9 December 2021. Retrieved 10 February 2022.
  7. ^ Clark, Stephen. "Live coverage: SpaceX rocket, Starlink satellites launch from pad 39A – Spaceflight Now". Retrieved 20 May 2022.
  8. ^ "Starliner OFT-2 Targeted for May 19". Boeing (Press release). 14 April 2022. Retrieved 26 April 2022.
  9. ^ a b Foust, Jeff (13 December 2021). "New launch vehicles face schedule pressure". SpaceNews. Archived from the original on 30 January 2022. Retrieved 19 December 2021.
  10. ^ Clark, Stephen (13 August 2016). "Ariane 6 rocket holding to schedule for 2020 maiden flight". Spaceflight Now. Archived from the original on 13 August 2016. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  11. ^ Foust, Jeff (17 November 2021). "Musk predicts first Starship orbital launch in early 2022". SpaceNews. Archived from the original on 30 January 2022. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  12. ^ Dunbar, Brian (29 January 2018). "Artemis-I". NASA. Retrieved 10 February 2022. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  13. ^ "ULA's maiden Vulcan flight delayed to 2022 due to payload readiness". 18 June 2021. Archived from the original on 24 June 2021. Retrieved 23 June 2021.
  14. ^ Tomii, Tetsuo (28 June 2016). "JAXA、新型ロケット「H3」の基本設計−打ち上げコスト半減の50億円". Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 17 March 2018. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  15. ^ Iemole, Anthony (2 May 2022). "Rocket Lab makes first booster catch attempt during successful There And Back Again mission". NASA Spaceflight. Retrieved 5 May 2022.
  16. ^ "Chinese 'space cleaner' spotted grabbing and throwing away old satellite | DW | 09.02.2022". Deutsche Welle (www.dw.com).
  17. ^ Gough, Evan. "A Chinese space tug just grappled a dead satellite". Universe Today / phys.org. Retrieved 12 February 2022.
  18. ^ "Astronomers stand up to satellite mega-constellations". BBC News. 4 February 2022. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
  19. ^ "Protection of the Dark and Quiet Sky from Satellite Constellation Interference". Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, Bonn. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
  20. ^ "International Astronomical Union | IAU". www.iau.org. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
  21. ^ Parker, Claire (23 February 2022). "What counts as an 'invasion,' or as 'lethal aid'? Here's what some terms from the Russia-Ukraine crisis really mean". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 23 February 2022. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
  22. ^ Herb, Jeremy; Starr, Barbara; Kaufman, Ellie (24 February 2022). "US orders 7,000 more troops to Europe following Russia's invasion of Ukraine". Oren Liebermann and Michael Conte. CNN. Archived from the original on 27 February 2022. Retrieved 27 February 2022. Russia's invasion of its neighbor in Ukraine is the largest conventional military attack that's been seen since World War II, the senior defense official said Thursday outlining United States observations of the unfolding conflict
  23. ^ Karmanau, Yuras; Heintz, Jim; Isachenkov, Vladimir; Litvinova, Dasha (24 February 2022). "Russia presses invasion to outskirts of Ukrainian capital". ABC News. Photograph by Evgeniy Maloletka (AP Photo). Kyiv: American Broadcasting Corporation. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 27 February 2022. Retrieved 26 February 2022. ... [a]mounts to the largest ground war in Europe since World War II.
  24. ^ Tsvetkova, Maria; Vasovic, Aleksandar; Zinets, Natalia; Charlish, Alan; Grulovic, Fedja (27 February 2022). "Putin puts nuclear 'deterrence' forces on alert". Reuters. Writing by Robert Birsel and Frank Jack Daniel; Editing by William Mallard, Angus MacSwan and David Clarke. Kyiv: Thomson Corporation. Archived from the original on 27 February 2022. Retrieved 27 February 2022. ... [t]he biggest assault on a European state since World War Two.
  25. ^ Overland, Indra; Fjaertoft, Daniel (August 2015). "Financial Sanctions Impact Russian Oil, Equipment Export Ban's Effects Limited". Oil and Gas Journal. 113 (8): 66–72. Archived from the original on 22 February 2018. Retrieved 3 March 2022 – via ResearchGate.
  26. ^ "UK announces first wave of sanctions against Belarus". The Guardian. 1 March 2022. Retrieved 3 March 2022.
  27. ^ "Suspension of Soyuz launches operated by Arianespace & Starsem". 4 March 2022. Retrieved 15 March 2022.
  28. ^ "With Soyuz off the table, OneWeb back in the mix". 3 March 2022. Retrieved 15 March 2022.
  29. ^ "Russia removes flags of US, UK and Japan from its space rocket; leaves India's flag untouched". 4 March 2022.
  30. ^ "Former NASA astronaut Scott Kelly giving back Russian spaceflight medal". Space.com. 9 March 2022.
  31. ^ "Solar Orbiter: journey around the Sun". esa.int. 27 January 2020. Archived from the original on 29 November 2021. Retrieved 29 November 2021.
  32. ^ Northon, Karen (11 April 2019). "NASA Awards Launch Services Contract for Asteroid Redirect Test". NASA. Archived from the original on 8 January 2022. Retrieved 10 February 2022. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  33. ^ Talbert, Tricia (30 June 2017). "Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) Mission". NASA. Archived from the original on 19 April 2019. Retrieved 10 February 2022. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  34. ^ Lavelle, Heidi (18 January 2022). "Crew Gets Ready for Spacewalk and Dragon Departure This Week". NASA. Archived from the original on 18 January 2022. Retrieved 10 February 2022. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  35. ^ Garcia, Mark (19 January 2022). "Russian Spacewalkers Exit Station to Service Russian Modules". NASA. Archived from the original on 19 January 2022. Retrieved 10 February 2022. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  36. ^ Garcia, Mark (19 January 2022). "Cosmonauts Wrap Up Spacewalk after Russian Module Work". NASA. Archived from the original on 19 January 2022. Retrieved 10 February 2022. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  37. ^ Garcia, Mark. "Spacewalks Preps Continue, NASA Astronaut Continues Record-Breaking Mission". blogs.nasa.gov. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
  38. ^ "Space Station – Off The Earth, For The Earth". blogs.nasa.gov. Retrieved 15 March 2022.
  39. ^ Lavelle, Heidi. "NASA Astronauts Complete Spacewalk for Solar Array Work". blogs.nasa.gov. Retrieved 15 March 2022.
  40. ^ Dodson, Gerelle (10 March 2022). "NASA to Air Briefing, Spacewalks to Upgrade Space Station". NASA. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  41. ^ a b Margetta, Robert (13 April 2022). "NASA Sets Coverage for Russian Spacewalks Outside Space Station". NASA. Retrieved 14 April 2022.
  42. ^ "Cosmonauts Set Up Robotic Arm's First Motion, Wrap Up Spacewalk". blogs.nasa.gov.Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  43. ^ Sandra Erwin (3 August 2020). "Small launch startup ABL secures over $90 million in new funding and Air Force contracts". SpaceNews. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  44. ^ "agrees multi-launch deal with Shetland spaceport for the next decade". Skyrora. 12 October 2021. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  45. ^ Andrew Parsonson (1 October 2020). "German startup Rocket Factory Augsburg picks Norway for maiden flight of RFA One smallsat launcher". SpaceNews. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  46. ^ IANS (1 October 2020). "Agnikul Cosmos signs up with US-based Alaska Aerospace to test rocket - Business Insider India". Businessinsider.in. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  47. ^ Payer, Markus (20 January 2021). "Inovor and Gilmour develop Australia's launch capabilities". SpaceWatch.Global. Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  48. ^ Erik Kulu (1 January 2022). "Space Ops - Launcher - NewSpace Index". Newspace.im. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  49. ^ Erik Kulu (1 January 2022). "Eclipse Orbital - Launcher - NewSpace Index". Newspace.im. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  50. ^ "Twitter post". Twitter. Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  51. ^ "About Us - C6 Launch Systems Inc". C6launch.ca. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  52. ^ Erik Kulu (16 October 2021). "Acrux - Launcher - NewSpace Index". Newspace.im. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  53. ^ a b "中科宇航向世界最大固体火箭发起冲击 - 中国日报网" (in Chinese). Cn.chinadaily.com.cn. 19 December 2020. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  54. ^ "Skyroot Aerospace raises $11 million in Series A funding with plans to have Vikram-I on the launch pad by mid-2022 | Business Insider India". Businessinsider.in. 20 May 2021. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  55. ^ "Launch Canada". Launch Canada. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  56. ^ "HOME". SpaceRyde. Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  57. ^ Erik Kulu. "Small Satellite Launchers - NewSpace Index". Newspace.im. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  58. ^ "Smallsat Launch Contract Signed Between Vaya Space + Athens State University – SatNews". news.satnews.com. Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  59. ^ "Twitter post". Twitter. Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  60. ^ Andrew Jones (12 August 2019). "Chinese Linkspace reaches 300 meters with launch and landing test". SpaceNews. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  61. ^ "Chinese Commercial Rocket Startup Space Pioneer Secures Series A". 16 September 2020.
  62. ^ Andrew Jones (1 October 2019). "New Chinese commercial rocket firms move toward maiden launches". SpaceNews. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  63. ^ Wire, Business (16 May 2019). "Space Launch Startup Earth to Sky Announces Launch Services Agreement with Delta Satellite Solutions".
  64. ^ @RocketStarSpace (22 February 2019). "Fly or Die 🚀🌟#CarpeAstra #aerospike #cowbell #rocket #launch #Rocketstar" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
Generic references:
 Spaceflight portal