Poisk
STS-129 ISS-21 Poisk.jpg
The Poisk module attached to
the International Space Station prior to the separation of its propulsion compartment.
Module statistics
COSPAR ID2009-060A
Launch date10 November 2009,
02:22 UTC
Launch vehicleSoyuz-U
Docked
Docking with ISS
Docking portZvezda zenith
Docking date12 November 2009 15:41 UTC
Time docked12 years, 10 months and 7 days
Mass3,670 kg (8,090 lb)
Length4.049 m (13.28 ft)
Diameter2.55 m (8 ft 4 in)
Pressurised volume14.8 m3 (520 cu ft)
Diagram of the Poisk (MRM-2) ISS module
Diagram of the Poisk (MRM-2) ISS module
Yelena Serova works on an experiment in Poisk
Yelena Serova works on an experiment in Poisk

Poisk (Russian: Поиск, lit.'Search'), also known as the Mini-Research Module 2 (MRM 2), Малый исследовательский модуль 2, or МИМ 2, is a docking module of the International Space Station. Its original name was Docking Module 2 (Stykovochniy Otsek 2, SO-2), as it is almost identical to the Pirs Docking Compartment. Added in 2009, Poisk was the first major Russian addition to the International Space Station since 2001.[1] Poisk is overall the same design as the docking module Pirs.[2] Whereas Pirs had been attached to the nadir ("bottom") port of Zvezda, Poisk is attached to the zenith ("top"); Pirs was closer to the Earth with the ISS in its usual orientation, and Poisk is on the other side. Poisk is Russian for explore or search.[3][4] Poisk combines various docking, EVA, and science capabilities.[5] It has two egress hatches for EVAs in addition to the two spacecraft docking ports.[6] Although Poisk is designated as Mini-Research Module 2, it arrived before Mini-Research Module 1 (Rassvet), which had a different design; Poisk looks more like the Pirs docking port, which is not designated as a mini-research module.

Details

Pavel Vinogradov looks out of a Poisk window at someone on EVA. MIM-2 in Russian can be seen written in black script on the inside of the hatch
Pavel Vinogradov looks out of a Poisk window at someone on EVA. MIM-2 in Russian can be seen written in black script on the inside of the hatch

Poisk docked to the zenith port of the Zvezda module on November 12, 2009, and serves as a docking port for Soyuz and Progress spacecraft and as an airlock for spacewalks. Poisk will also provide extra space for scientific experiments, and provide power-supply outlets and data-transmission interfaces for two external scientific payloads to be developed by the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Zenith facing docking port on Zvezda, the docking location of the Poisk module
Zenith facing docking port on Zvezda, the docking location of the Poisk module

Two spacewalks conducted from the ISS in June 2009, successfully completed activities anticipating Poisk module's future berthing.

On 5 June 2009, during Russian Orlan EVA-22 spacewalk[7] Expedition 19/20 Commander Gennady Padalka and Flight Engineer Michael Barratt installed two Kurs docking antennas, a docking target and electrical connectors on the exterior of Zvezda's Service Module.

On June 10, 2009, during Russian Orlan EVA-23 spacewalk[8] Padalka and Barratt replaced a flat hatch cover in the forward section of Zvezda with a standard conical docking cone cover to allow for Poisk's docking.

On January 14, 2010, cosmonauts Oleg Kotov and Maksim Suraev conducted a spacewalk to outfit the Poisk module to prepare for receiving Soyuz and Progress ships in the future.[9] They deployed antennas and a docking target, installed two handrails and plugged the new module's Kurs antennas into the Kurs docking system circuitry.[10] The spacewalk lasted five hours and 44 minutes.

On January 21, 2010, the module was first used when cosmonaut Suraev and Expedition 22 Commander Jeffrey Williams relocated their Soyuz TMA-16 spacecraft from the aft port of the Zvezda module to the zenith-facing port of the Poisk module.[11] The Soyuz TMA-16 spacecraft undocked from the aft end of the Zvezda service module at 10:03 UTC and backed away to a distance of about 30m (100 feet) from the space station. Undocking occurred as the station flew about 343 km (213 miles) high off the southwest coast of Africa. Re-docking occurred at 10:24 UTC after Suraev fired the Soyuz maneuvering thrusters to fly halfway around the orbiting space station and line up with the Poisk module.

Since the EVA on November 18, 2020, Poisk has been used for EVAs instead of the decommissioned Pirs Docking Compartment. In future, it will be standard practice to dock Soyuz vehicles to the nadir ports of Rassvet and Prichal and dock Progresses to the aft port of Zvezda and the zenith port of Poisk. This is because the transfer chamber which connects to Zvezda’s aft port has a small leak which requires the hatches to remain closed as much as possible, which would block access to a Soyuz if it were docked to Zvezda's aft port. In addition, Progress crafts are preferred for Zvezda's aft port as this enables them to perform ISS reboosts using their main engines. Progresses are also preferred for the Poisk zenith port as Poisk is now serving as the Russian Segment's airlock following the departure of Pirs, and access to Soyuz craft docked to Poisk is blocked whilst Poisk is depressurized during spacewalks, which presents safety issues in an ISS evacuation scenario.[12]

Design and construction

The module was designed and manufactured by S.P. Korolev RSC Energia,[13][14][15] the organization engaged in the development and operational use of the ISS Russian segment.

Launch

Poisk arriving at the ISS
The propulsion compartment of the Poisk module departs

The module was launched on November 10, 2009, 2:22 p.m. GMT[16][17] attached to a modified Progress spacecraft, called Progress M-MIM2, on a Soyuz-U rocket from Launch Pad 1 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. The occasion also marked the 1750th launch of a Soyuz rocket in its various configurations.[18] About eight minutes after launch, the three-stage Soyuz rocket delivered Poisk, to a low-altitude injection orbit. According to NASA Poisk carried about 816 kg (1,799 lb) of cargo to the ISS including new Russian Orlan spacesuits, life support equipment, medical supplies and crew hygiene items.

The Progress space tug provided electrical power and propulsion for the Poisk module during its two-day journey to the space station. On 12 November, Progress began its automated final approach to the station on a Kurs rendezvous radar system and at 15:41 UTC[19] Poisk docked to the Zvezda module's zenith port. The docking happened as the space station sailed more than 354km (220 miles) over northern Kazakhstan.

Cosmonauts Maksim Suraev and Roman Romanenko entered the module for the first time by opening the hatch leading into Poisk at 12:17 UTC on 13 November 2009.

The jettisoning of the Progress ship from the Poisk module happened around 8 December 2009. The Progress was destroyed during re-entry into the atmosphere.

Specifications

Poisk after arriving at the Space Station on November 12, 2009.
Poisk after arriving at the Space Station on November 12, 2009.
Designation[20] 240GK No. 2L
Launch mass 3670 kg ± 50 kg
Maximum hull diameter 2.55 m
Hull length between docking assembly planes 4.049 m
Pressurized volume 14.8 m3
Habitable volume 10.7 m3
Number of egress hatches (open inward) 2
Egress hatch diameter 1 m
Mass of delivered cargoes up to 1000 kg

False depressurization alarm

False alarms woke the crews aboard space shuttle Atlantis and the Space Station at 01:36 UTC on 20 November 2009 and once again at 02:53 UTC on 21 November.[21][22] An erroneous indication of a rapid depressurization led to the automatic shutdown of ventilation fans throughout the station, which stirred up dust and led to a false smoke detection alarm in the European Space Agency's Columbus laboratory. Mission control Capcom Frank Lien in Houston told the Expedition 21 Commander Frank De Winne that it might have originated from the Poisk module.

Visiting spacecraft

Spacecraft Docking Undocking
Soyuz TMA-16 January 21, 2010
05:24 UTC
March 18, 2010
08:03 UTC
Soyuz TMA-18 April 4, 2010
05:25 UTC
September 25, 2010
02:02 UTC
Soyuz TMA-01M October 10, 2010
00:01 UTC
March 16, 2011
04:27 UTC
Soyuz TMA-21 April 6, 2011
23:09 UTC
September 16, 2011
00:38 UTC
Soyuz TMA-22 November 16, 2011
05:24 UTC
April 27, 2012
08:15 UTC
Soyuz TMA-04M May 17, 2012
04:36 UTC
September 16, 2012
23:09 UTC
Soyuz TMA-06M October 25, 2012
12:29 UTC
March 15, 2013
23:43 UTC
Soyuz TMA-08M March 29, 2013
02:28 UTC
September 10, 2013
23:27 UTC
Soyuz TMA-10M September 26, 2013
02:45 UTC
March 11, 2014
00:02 UTC
Soyuz TMA-12M March 27, 2014
23:53 UTC
September 10, 2014
23:01 UTC
Soyuz TMA-14M September 26, 2014
02:11 UTC
March 11, 2015
22:44 UTC
Soyuz TMA-16M March 28, 2015
01:33 UTC
September 11, 2015
21:29 UTC
Soyuz TMA-18M September 4, 2015
07:42 UTC
March 2, 2016
01:05 UTC
Soyuz TMA-20M March 19, 2016
03:09 UTC
September 16, 2016
21:51 UTC
Soyuz MS-02 October 21, 2016
09:52 UTC
April 10, 2017
07:57 UTC
Soyuz MS-04 April 20, 2017
13:18 UTC
September 2, 2017
21:58 UTC
Soyuz MS-06 September 13, 2017
02:55 UTC
February 27, 2018
23:08 UTC
Soyuz MS-08 March 23, 2018
20:40 UTC
October 4, 2018
07:57 UTC
Soyuz MS-11 December 3, 2018
17:33 UTC
June 24, 2019
23:25 UTC
Soyuz MS-13 August 26, 2019
03:59 UTC
February 6, 2020
05:50 UTC
Soyuz MS-16 April 9, 2020
14:13 UTC
October 21, 2020
11:32 UTC
Soyuz MS-17 March 19, 2021
17:12 UTC
April 17, 2021
01:34 UTC
Soyuz MS-20 December 8, 2021
13:41 UTC
December 20, 2021
23:50 UTC

Gallery (exterior)

Gallery (interior)

Diagram

Labeled diagram of the Poisk ISS module
Labeled diagram of the Poisk ISS module

See also

References

  1. ^ "Docking Compartment-1 and 2". Retrieved 2009-03-26.
  2. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-02-01. Retrieved 2017-01-01.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  3. ^ "New Russian Module Poised to Launch Toward Space Station". Space.com. 9 November 2009.
  4. ^ "Spaceflight Now | Breaking News | Poisk module adds room to International Space Station".
  5. ^ "Spaceflight Now | Breaking News | Poisk module adds room to International Space Station".
  6. ^ "Spaceflight Now | Breaking News | Poisk module adds room to International Space Station".
  7. ^ NASA (5 June 2009). "ISS On-Orbit Status 06/05/09". Retrieved 11 November 2009.
  8. ^ NASA (10 June 2009). "ISS On-Orbit Status 06/10/09". Retrieved 11 November 2009.
  9. ^ NASA (14 January 2010). "Station Crew Completes First Expedition 22 Spacewalk". Retrieved 16 January 2010.
  10. ^ NASA (January 14, 2010). "ISS On-Orbit Status 01/14/10". Retrieved January 16, 2010.
  11. ^ Stephen Clark (January 21, 2010). "Crew shifts Soyuz capsule to new station docking port". Spaceflightnow.com. Retrieved January 21, 2010.
  12. ^ Harding, Pete (2021-07-29). "MLM Nauka docks to ISS, malfunctions shortly thereafter". NASASpaceFlight.com. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
  13. ^ "International Space Station". RSC Energia. June 16–17, 2009.
  14. ^ NASA. "New Russian Module "Poisk" On Its Way to Station". Retrieved 11 November 2009.
  15. ^ "FAWG Planning Manifest" (Press release). NASA/NASASpaceflight.com. 2008-11-17.
  16. ^ "August 28, 2009. S.P.Korolev RSC Energia, Korolev, Moscow region". RSC Energia. 2009-08-28. Retrieved 2009-09-03.
  17. ^ Stephen Clark (10 November 2009). "Poisk launches to add new room for space station". spaceflightnow.com. Retrieved 11 November 2009.
  18. ^ "Success of the 1750th launch of Soyuz". STARSEM The Soyuz Company. November 10, 2009. Retrieved May 10, 2010.
  19. ^ New Russian module docks to station
  20. ^ "Mini-Research Module-2 Poisk". Kosmonavtka. Archived from the original on 2012-07-28. Retrieved 2009-11-24.
  21. ^ William Harwood (19 November 2009). "Crews awakened by false fire, depressurization alarms". Retrieved 20 November 2009.
  22. ^ William Harwood (20 November 2009). "Astronauts awakened a second night by false alarms". spaceflightnow.com. Retrieved 21 November 2009.