Rassvet
Iss023e047527.jpg
Rassvet as seen from the Cupola module during STS-132 with a Progress in the lower right
Module statistics
COSPAR ID2010-079A
Launch date14 May 2010, 18:20:09 UTC
Launch vehicleSpace Shuttle Atlantis
Docked18 May 2010
MassEmpty: 5,075 kg
Launch: 8,015 kg
Length6 m
Diameter2.35 m
Pressurised volumeTotal: 17.4 m3
Pressurised: 5.85m3[1]

Rassvet (Russian: Рассвет; lit. "first light"), also known as the Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1; Russian: Малый исследовательский модуль, МИМ 1) and formerly known as the Docking Cargo Module (DCM), is a component of the International Space Station (ISS). The module's design is similar to the Mir Docking Module launched on STS-74 in 1995. Rassvet is primarily used for cargo storage and as a docking port for visiting spacecraft. It was flown to the ISS aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis on the STS-132 mission on 14 May 2010,[2] and was connected to the ISS on 18 May 2010.[3] The hatch connecting Rassvet with the ISS was first opened on 20 May 2010.[4] On 28 June 2010, the Soyuz TMA-19 spacecraft performed the first docking with the module.[5]

Details

Rassvet in the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) at Kennedy Space Center
An interior view of Rassvet
An interior view of Rassvet

Rassvet was docked to the nadir port of Zarya with help from the Canadarm2.[6] Rassvet carried externally attached outfitting equipment from NASA for the Nauka Multipurpose Laboratory Module Upgrade (MLM-U), a spare elbow joint for the European Robotic Arm (ERA), an ERA portable workpost used during EVAs, heat radiator, internal hardware and Nauka's experiment airlock for launching cubesats. Delivering Rassvet thus enabled NASA to fulfill its promise to ship 1.4 metric tons to equip the MLM.[7]

Rassvet has two docking units: one to attach to the nadir port of the Zarya module, and one to provide a docking port for a Soyuz or Progress spacecraft. It implements the role of the Docking and Storage Module from the original ISS design. Russia announced the cancellation of the last of the two planned Russian Research Modules when it announced the plans for Rassvet.

Initial planning

The initial ISS plan included a Docking and Storage Module (DSM). This planned Russian element was intended to provide facilities for stowage and an additional docking port, and would have been launched to the station on a Proton launch vehicle. The DSM would have been mounted to Zarya's nadir (Earth-facing) docking port. It would have been similar in size and shape to the Zarya module.

The DSM was cancelled due to Russian budgetary constraints for some time, but its design was eventually modified into the Docking and Cargo Module (Rassvet) that was to be connected to the same Zarya location to provide storage space and a docking port. During the cancellation period, it was proposed that a Multi Purpose Module (MPM) called Enterprise should be docked to Zarya, and later the Nauka Multipurpose Laboratory Module (MLM) was proposed to be located there as well, but the Enterprise module has since been cancelled and the Nauka MLM was docked to Zvezda's nadir port instead.

Purpose

Rassvet was designed as a solution to two problems facing the ISS partners:

Rassvet solved both of these issues. NASA did not need to add another payload flight to accommodate the MLM outfitting equipment, as it could attach the hardware to the exterior of MRM-1. The ISS now had four docking ports available on the Russian segment: the aft port of Zvezda, the port of Pirs, later MLM (on the nadir port of Zvezda), the port of MRM-2 (on the zenith port of Zvezda), and the port on MRM-1 (on the nadir port of Zarya). Russia's cancellation of the Research Module thus came to be of less consequence for the ISS program as a whole.

Design and construction

The Experiment Airlock on the Rassvet module.
The Experiment Airlock on the Rassvet module.
The Soyuz TMA-19 spacecraft docks to the Rassvet Mini-Research Module 1.
The Soyuz TMA-19 spacecraft docks to the Rassvet Mini-Research Module 1.
The Russian Orbital Segment as seen from the departing STS-135 in July 2011 with (clockwise from left) a Russian Progress unmanned vehicle, two Soyuz manned spacecraft, and an additional Progress vehicle currently docked. Viewing from starboard, facing to port, with zenith upwards, Rassvet can be seen attached to the nadir of Zarya.
The Russian Orbital Segment as seen from the departing STS-135 in July 2011 with (clockwise from left) a Russian Progress unmanned vehicle, two Soyuz manned spacecraft, and an additional Progress vehicle currently docked. Viewing from starboard, facing to port, with zenith upwards, Rassvet can be seen attached to the nadir of Zarya.

The module was designed and built by S.P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia, from the already-made pressurized hull of the mock-up for dynamic tests of the cancelled Science Power Platform.[8][9]

On 17 December 2009, an Antonov An-124 carrying the Rassvet Module and ground process equipment arrived at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida.[10] Upon unloading, the equipment was delivered to a prelaunch processing facility run by the Astrotech. Energia specialists and technicians continued their work on the processing of the Rassvet module at the facility, completing stand-alone electrical tests and leak tests of the module and the airlock. They also prepared the airlock and the radiative heat exchanger for installation onto Rassvet. The module was moved to NASA's Space Station Processing Facility on 2 April 2010. After completing the final touches, it was placed into the shuttle payload transporter on 5 April 2010. The payload canister containing the Rassvet Module arrived at LC-39A on 15 April 2010.[11]

Engineers at Launch Pad 39A preparing Space Shuttle Atlantis had noticed paint peeling from the MRM-1 module. Although the problem was declared to have no impact on the operation of Rassvet, it posed a potential threat of releasing debris on orbit.[12]

Visited spacecraft

Rassvet was connected to nadir port of Zarya on 18 May 2010.[3]

Spacecraft Docking Undocking
Soyuz-TMA-19-Mission-Patch.png
Soyuz TMA-19
28 June 2010
03:38 UTC
26 November 2010
01:23 UTC
Soyuz-TMA-20-Mission-Patch.png
Soyuz TMA-20
17 December 2010
20:12 UTC
23 May 2011
21:35 UTC
Soyuz-TMA-02M-Mission-Patch.png
Soyuz TMA-02M
9 June 2011
21:18 UTC
21 November 2011
23:00 UTC
Soyuz-TMA-03M-Mission-Patch.png
Soyuz TMA-03M
23 December 2011
15:19 UTC
1 July 2012
04:48 UTC
Soyuz-TMA-05M-Mission-Patch.png
Soyuz TMA-05M
17 July 2012
04:51 UTC
18 November 2012
22:26 UTC
Soyuz-TMA-07M-Mission-Patch.png
Soyuz TMA-07M
21 December 2012
14:09 UTC
13 May 2013
23:08 UTC
Soyuz-TMA-09M-Mission-Patch.png
Soyuz TMA-09M
29 May 2013
02:10 UTC
10 November 2013
23:26 UTC
Soyuz-TMA-11M-Mission-Patch.png
Soyuz TMA-11M
7 November 2013
10:27 UTC
13 May 2014
22:36 UTC
Soyuz-TMA-13M-Mission-Patch.png
Soyuz TMA-13M
29 May 2014
19:57 UTC
10 November 2014
00:31 UTC
Soyuz-TMA-15M-Mission-Patch.png
Soyuz TMA-15M
23 November 2014
01:01 UTC
11 June 2015
10:20 UTC
Soyuz-TMA-17M-Mission-Patch.png
Soyuz TMA-17M
23 July 2015
02:45 UTC
11 December 2015
09:49 UTC
Soyuz-TMA-19M-Mission-Patch.png
Soyuz TMA-19M
15 December 2015
17:33 UTC
18 June 2016
05:52 UTC
Soyuz MS-01 9 July 2016
04:12 UTC[13]
30 October 2016
03:58 UTC[14]
Soyuz MS-03 19 November 2016
21:58 UTC
2 June 2017
10:47 UTC
Soyuz MS-05 28 July 2017
21:54 UTC[15]
14 December 2017
05:14 UTC[15]
Soyuz MS-07 19 December 2017
08:39 UTC
3 June 2018
09:16 UTC
Soyuz MS-09 8 June 2018
13:01 UTC
20 December 2018
01:42 UTC
Soyuz MS-12 15 March 2019
01:01 UTC
03 October 2019
07:37 UTC
Soyuz MS-17 14 October 2020
08:48 UTC
19 March 2021
16:38 UTC
Soyuz MS-18 9 April 2021
11:55 UTC
28 September 2021
12:21 UTC
Soyuz MS-19 5 October 2021
12:22 UTC
30 March 2022
07:21:11 UTC

Gallery


See also

References

  1. ^ "Space Shuttle Mission STS 132 PRESS KIT" (PDF). NASA. May 2010. Retrieved 10 May 2010. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  2. ^ Gebhardt, Chris (9 April 2009). "STS-132: PRCB baselines Atlantis' mission to deliver Russia's MRM-1". NASASpaceFlight.com. Retrieved 12 November 2009.
  3. ^ a b "STS-132 MCC Status Report #09". NASA. 18 May 2010. Retrieved 7 July 2010. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  4. ^ "STS-132 MCC Status Report #13". NASA. 20 May 2010. Retrieved 7 July 2010. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  5. ^ Ray, Justin (28 June 2010). "Station Crew Takes Soyuz for 'Spin around the Block'". SpaceFlight Now. Retrieved 7 July 2010.
  6. ^ "MRM-1 for ISS". NASASpaceFlight.com. 11 April 2007. Retrieved 5 December 2012.
  7. ^ "NASA Extends Contract With Russia's Federal Space Agency". NASA. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  8. ^ NASA оплатило полёты своих астронавтов до 2011 года Novosti Kosmonavtiki №2007/6
  9. ^ Justin Ray (25 March 2010). "Russian space module set for American launch aboard the shuttle Atlantis". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 31 March 2010.
  10. ^ "Mini-Research Module MRM1 At Cape For Shuttle Processing". 30 December 2009. Retrieved 6 March 2010.
  11. ^ Ray, Justin (15 April 2010). "Russian space station module shipped to NASA's space shuttle launch pad". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
  12. ^ Bergin, Chris (28 April 2010). "STS-132: Managers Work through SSP FRR – Will Slip Launch Date If Required". NASASpaceFlight.com. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
  13. ^ "Next Station Crew Arrives at Launch Site – Space Station". blogs.nasa.gov. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  14. ^ "Soyuz MS crew return". Roscosmos. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
  15. ^ a b Richardson, Derek (28 July 2017). "ISS crew size increases to 6 with Soyuz MS-05 docking". Spaceflight Insider. Retrieved 29 July 2017.