Fēngyún (simplified Chinese: 风云; traditional Chinese: 風雲; lit. 'wind cloud'), abbreviated FY, are China's weather satellites. China has launched polar orbit and geosynchronous orbit meteorological satellites since 1988. On 11 January 2007 China destroyed one of these satellites (FY-1C, COSPAR 1999-025A) in a test of an anti-satellite missile.
The satellites in the FY-1 and FY-3 series are polar-orbiting sun-synchronous orbits. The satellites in the FY-2 and FY-4 series are in geosynchronous orbit. Chinese participation in the monitoring of auroras for scientific and space weather investigation was initiated with the launch of the Fengyum-3D satellite, which carries a wide-field auroral imager.
Meteorological satellites are important in oceanography, agriculture, forestry, hydrology, aviation, navigation, environmental protection and national defense. They contribute to the national economy and to preventing and mitigating disasters. The latest satellites monitor bad weather around the clock, particularly convective rainstorms, thunderstorms and hailstorms. They also monitor developing sandstorms as well as air quality and provide early warnings.
According to NASA, the intentional destruction of FY-1C created 2,841 high-velocity debris items, a larger amount of dangerous space junk than any other space mission in history.
|Launch date||Satellites||Vehicle||Orbit||In use||resolution||height||diameter|
|1988-09-06 20:30:19||FY-1A||CZ-4||SSO||No||1.08 km||1.2 meter||1.4 meter|
|1990-09-03 00:53||FY-1B||CZ-4||SSO||No||1.08 km||1.8 meter||1.4 meter|
|1997-06-10 12:01:00||FY-2A||CZ-3||GEO 105°E||No||1.25 km||4.5 meter||2.1 meter|
|1999-05-10 01:33:00||FY-1C||CZ-4||SSO||Destroyed in 2007 |
|2000-06-25 11:50:00||FY-2B||CZ-3||GEO 105°E||No||1.25 km||4.5 meter||2.1 meter|
|2002-05-15 01:50:00||FY-1D||CZ-4B||SSO||No||1.08 km||1.8 meter||1.4 meter|
|2004-10-19 01:20:04||FY-2C||CZ-3A||GEO 105°E||No||1.25 km||4.5 meter||2.1 meter|
|2006-12-08 00:53:22||FY-2D||CZ-3A||GEO 86.5°E||Yes||1.25 km||4.5 meter||2.1 meter|
|2008-05-27 03:02:33||FY-3A||CZ-4C||SSO||Yes||250 meter||4.4 meter||2 meter|
|2008-12-23 00:54:04||FY-2E||CZ-3A||GEO 86.5°E||Yes||1.25 km||4.5 meter||2.1 meter|
|2010-11-04 18:37:12||FY-3B||CZ-4C||SSO||Yes||250 meter||4.4 meter||2 meter|
|2012-01-13 00:56:04||FY-2F||CZ-3A||GEO 112.5°E||Yes|
|2013-09-23 03:07:17||FY-3C||CZ-4C||SSO||Yes||250 meter||4.4 meter||2 meter|
|2014-12-31 01:02:04||FY-2G||CZ-3A||GEO 105°E||Yes|
|2016-12-10 16:11:00||FY-4A||CZ-3B||GEO 86.5°E||Yes|
|2017-11-14 18:35||FY-3D||CZ-4C||SSO||Yes||250 meter||4.4 meter||2 meter|
|2021-06-02 16:17||FY-4B||CZ-3B/E||GEO 28.5°||Under preparation|
|2021-07-04 23:28||FY-3E||CZ-4C||SSO 98.7°||Under preparation||250 meter||4.4 meter||2 meter|
The newer FY-3 series is an improved generation of polar orbiting heliosynchronous weather satellites. The FY-4 series is an improved generation of geosynchronous meteorological satellites.
Launch took place at 03:07UTC from the LC9 Launch Complex of the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center, Shanxi Province.