Jilin-1
吉林一号
Jílín Yī Hào
Jilin-1 Smart Video (Shipin) Satellite.png
Program overview
CountryChina People's Republic of China
OrganizationChang Guang Satellite Technology Company
PurposeCommercial earth observation
StatusActive
Program history
Duration2015–present
First flight7 October 2015
Successes89
Failures4
Launch site(s)
Vehicle information
Launch vehicle(s)

Jilin-1 (simplified Chinese: 吉林一号; traditional Chinese: 吉林一號; pinyin: Jí Lín Yī Hào) is China's first self-developed commercial remote sensing satellite system. The satellites are operated by Chang Guang Satellite Technology Corporation and named after Jilin Province where the company is headquartered.[1] The first set of satellites were launched by Long March 2D in Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center on 7 October 2015, at 04:13 UTC.[2] All launched Jilin-1 satellites are in sun-synchronous orbit (SSO).

As of 15 January 2023, there were a total of 24 launches of Jilin-1, and 89 satellites in orbit. Chang Guang originally planned to launch 138 total satellites by the year 2025, but expanded its goal in 2022 to 300 satellites[3] Jilin-1 is the largest Chinese commercial satellite constellation in orbit and has enjoyed generous funding since the Chinese government opened satellite imagery to private ventures.[3] Chang Guang received $375 million (USD) of funding for the Jilin-1 program in November 2020.[3][4]

Satellites

Video satellites

The Jilin-1 series of satellites includes eight 'Jilin-1 Smart Video Satellites' also written as 'Shipin' (Chinese: 视频; pinyin: shìpín; lit. 'video').[5][6] First launched in the Jilin-1 series' inaugural 2015 launch, eight Jilin-1 smart video satellites provide 4K high definition (HD) earth observation color video imagery from sun-synchronous orbit (SSO) with a revisit time (orbital period) of 3.3 days, and a five-year system life expectancy.[7][8] The reported applications of these smart video satellites range from disaster response and economic monitoring to military and national intelligence collection.[5][7][8] These satellites use a gaze imaging pattern, use three-axis stabilization, record full-color video between 437–720 nanometers (using a Bayer filter), weigh between 225–235 kilograms, and are 1230x642x2104 millimeters in size.[8]

Three separate generations of Jilin-1 smart video satellites have been designed and launched with the first generation (01 and 02) launched on 7 October 2015, the second generation (one satellite, 03) launched on 9 January 2017, and the third generation (04–08) launched on both 21 November 2017 and 19 January 2018.[5][6][9] Satellites of the second generation of Jilin-1 smart video constellation feature updates to orbital propulsion, computer, power supply, and data transmission systems, based on feedback from first-generation users.[9] It is unclear which upgrades took place between the second and third generations.[6]

Jilin-1 video satellites have been used for supervising the 2013–2017 construction of Saparmurat Turkmenbashy Olympic Stadium in Turkmenistan,[10] recording taxiing aircraft at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport,[11] monitoring forest fire spread along the Sino-Russian border,[12] and recording the launch of a OneSpace suborbital rocket.[4][13] Jilin-1 drew domestic and international attention after Chang Guang released video from a Jilin-1 smart video satellite purporting to show a traveling Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor of the United States Air Force.[14][15][16]

Spectrum satellites

The Jilin-1 satellite program also operates two hyperspectral imaging (HSI) satellites named Spectrum-01 (光谱01; Guāngpǔ-01) and Spectrum-02 (光谱02; Guāngpǔ-02). Onboard payloads of Spectrum satellites image light from a wavelength of 450 nanometers (visible blue) to 135 micrometers (long-wave infrared) across 26 separate bands.[17][18] The two Spectrum satellites orbit 528 kilometers above the earth in a sun-synchronous orbit which enables the satellites to image with a consistent geometric relationship with the sun and have a 2-3 day revisit time recording images in 5 meter resolution for visible and near-infrared (NIR), 100 meter resolution for short and medium-wave infrared (SWIR, MWIR), and 150 meter resolution for long-wave infrared (LWIR).[17]

Spectrum 01, also known as 'Jilin Lincao 1' (Chinese: 吉林林草一号; pinyin: Lín cǎo yī hào; lit. 'forest grass 1'), was built with the cooperation of China's forestry system which uses the satellite to analyze the distribution of tree species in forests, detection of forest fires, the identification of diseases and pests, and tracking of the nation's severe desertification.[19] Spectrum 02, also known as 'Wenchang Supercomputer 1' (Chinese: 文昌超算一号; pinyin: Wénchāng chāo suàn yī hào) was jointly invested and developed with the Wenchang Aerospace Supercomputing Center, part of the Wenchang International Aerospace City in Hainan Province and is primarily focused on marine ecological monitoring with additional functions in ocean search and rescue and undersea resource exploration.[19][20]

High-resolution satellites

The most prevalent satellite series in the Jilin-1 program is the 'high resolution' (高分; Gāo fēn) series with sixty-three launched since June 2019. Despite sharing the name, these satellites have no relation with and are not to be confused with the better known Gaofen dual-use (military and civilian) satellite program. Jilin-1 Gaofen satellites carry both a panchromatic and multispectral imager.[21]

Other satellites

Other satellites of the Jilin-1 program include a single LQSat verification satellite, the Optical-A (光学; Guāngxué; 'optical') satellite, sixty-one high-resolution panchromatic (PAN) and multispectral imaging (MSI) satellites (, not to be confused with the separate Gaofen program), three wide-band imaging satellites (宽幅; Kuān fú; 'wide'), and one successfully launched imaging satellite (魔方; Mófāng; 'magic cube' or 'Rubik's Cube').[22]

List of satellites

Satellite Launch (UTC) Function COSPAR ID Launcher Launch Site Status
Jilin-1 LQSat 7 October 2015, 04:13 [23] Electro-optical 2015-057A Long March 2D JSLC Operational
Jilin-1 Video-01 1.3m color video 2015-057B Operational
Jilin-1 Video-02 1.3m color video 2015-057C Operational
Jilin-1 Optical-A 0.72m PAN, 4m MSI 2015-057D Operational
Jilin-1 Video-03 9 January 2017, 04:11 [24] 0.92m color video 2017-002B Kuaizhou-1A JSLC Operational
Jilin-1 Video-04 21 November 2017, 04:50 [25] 1m color video 2017-074A Long March 6 TSLC Operational
Jilin-1 Video-05 1m color video 2017-074B Operational
Jilin-1 Video-06 1m color video 2017-074C Operational
Jilin-1 Video-07 19 January 2018, 04:12 [26] 1m color video 2018-008E Long March 11 JSLC Operational
Jilin-1 Video-08 1m color video 2018-008F Operational
Jilin-1 Spectrum-01 21 January 2019, 05:42 [27] 5m 26-band HSI 2019-005B Long March 11 JSLC Operational
Jilin-1 Spectrum-02 5m 26-band HSI 2019-005E Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03A 5 June 2019, 04:06 [28] 1.06m PAN, 4.24m 4-band MSI 2019-032E Long March 11 Tai Rui Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-02A 13 November 2019, 03:40 [29] 0.75m PAN, 3m 4-band MSI 2019-075A Kuaizhou-1A JSLC Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-02B 7 December 2019, 02:55 [30] 0.75m PAN, 3m 4-band MSI 2019-086A TSLC Operational
Jilin-1 Kuanfu-01 15 January 2020, 02:53 [31] 0.5m PAN, 2m 4-band MSI 2020-003A Long March 2D Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-02E 10 July 2020, 04:17 [32] 0.75m PAN, 3m MSI Failure Kuaizhou 11 JSLC Launch failed
Jilin-1 Gaofen-02C 12 September 2020, 05:02 [33] 0.75m PAN, 3m MSI Failure Kuaizhou 1A Launch failed
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03B-01 15 September 2020, 01:23 [34] 1m PAN, 4m MSI, 1.2m color video 2020-065A Long March 11 De Bo-3 Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03B-02 1m PAN, 4m MSI, 1.2m color video 2020-065B Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03B-03 1m PAN, 4m MSI, 1.2m color video 2020-065C Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03B-04 1m PAN, 4m MSI, 1.2m color video 2020-065D Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03B-05 1m PAN, 4m MSI, 1.2m color video 2020-065E Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03B-06 1m PAN, 4m MSI, 1.2m color video 2020-065F Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03C-01 1m PAN, 4m MSI, 1.2m color video 2020-065G Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03C-02 1m PAN, 4m MSI, 1.2m color video 2020-065H Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03C-03 1m PAN, 4m MSI, 1.2m color video 2020-065J Operational
Jilin-1 Kuanfu-01B 3 July 2021, 02:51[35][36] 0.75m PAN, 4-band MSI 2021-061_ Long March 2D TSLC Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D01 0.75m PAN, 4-band MSI 2021-061_ Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D02 0.75m PAN, 4-band MSI 2021-061_ Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D03 0.75m PAN, 4-band MSI 2021-061_ Operational
Jilin-1 Mofang-01A 3 August 2021, 07:39[37][38] Electro-optical Failure Hyperbola-1 JSLC Launch failed
Jilin-1 Gaofen-02D 27 September 2021, 06:19 0.75m PAN, 3m MSI 2021-086A Kuaizhou 1A JSLC Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-02F 27 October 2021, 06:19 0.75m PAN, 3m MSI 2021-097A Kuaizhou 1A JSLC Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D-10 27 February 2022, 03:06[39] 0.75m PAN, 4-band MSI 2022-019_ Long March 8 WSLS Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D-11 0.75m PAN, 4-band MSI 2022-019_ Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D-12 0.75m PAN, 4-band MSI 2022-019_ Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D-13 0.75m PAN, 4-band MSI 2022-019_ Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D-14 0.75m PAN, 4-band MSI 2022-019_ Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D-15 0.75m PAN, 4-band MSI 2022-019_ Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D-16 0.75m PAN, 4-band MSI 2022-019_ Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D-17 0.75m PAN, 4-band MSI 2022-019_ Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D-18 0.75m PAN, 4-band MSI 2022-019_ Operational
Jilin-1 Mofang-02A-01 Electro-optical 2022-019_ Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D-04 30 April 2022, 03:30[40] 0.75m PAN, 4-band MSI 2022-046_ Long March 11 Tai Rui Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D-05 0.75m PAN, 4-band MSI 2022-046_ Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D-06 0.75m PAN, 4-band MSI 2022-046_ Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D-07 0.75m PAN, 4-band MSI 2022-046_ Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-04A Electro-optical 2022-046_ Operational
Jilin-1 Kuanfu-01C 5 May 2022, 02:38[41] Electro-optical 2022-048_ Long March 2D TSLC Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D-27 0.75m PAN, 4-band MSI 2022-048_ Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D-28 0.75m PAN, 4-band MSI 2022-048_ Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D-29 0.75m PAN, 4-band MSI 2022-048_ Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D-30 0.75m PAN, 4-band MSI 2022-048_ Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D-31 0.75m PAN, 4-band MSI 2022-048_ Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D-32 0.75m PAN, 4-band MSI 2022-048_ Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D-33 0.75m PAN, 4-band MSI 2022-048_ Operational
Jilin-1 Mofang-01A 13 May 2022, 07:09[42] Electro-optical Failure Hyperbola-1 JSLC Launch failed
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D-09 10 August 2022 0.75m PAN, 4-band MSI 2022-098_ Long March 6 TSLC Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D-35 0.75m PAN, 4-band MSI 2022-098_ Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D-36 0.75m PAN, 4-band MSI 2022-098_ Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D-37 0.75m PAN, 4-band MSI 2022-098_ Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D-38 0.75m PAN, 4-band MSI 2022-098_ Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D-39 0.75m PAN, 4-band MSI 2022-098_ Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D-40 0.75m PAN, 4-band MSI 2022-098_ Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D-41 0.75m PAN, 4-band MSI 2022-098_ Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D-42 0.75m PAN, 4-band MSI 2022-098_ Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D-43 0.75m PAN, 4-band MSI 2022-098_ Operational
Jilin-1 Hongwai-A01 Infrared 2022-098_ Operational
Jilin-1 Hongwai-A02 Infrared 2022-098_ Operational
Jilin-1 Hongwai-A03 Infrared 2022-098_ Operational
Jilin-1 Hongwai-A04 Infrared 2022-098_ Operational
Jilin-1 Hongwai-A05 Infrared 2022-098_ Operational
Jilin-1 Hongwai-A06 Infrared 2022-098_ Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D-08 16 November 2022, 06:20 0.75m PAN, 4-band MSI 2022-155_ Ceres-1 JSLC Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D-51 0.75m PAN, 4-band MSI 2022-155_ Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D-52 0.75m PAN, 4-band MSI 2022-155_ Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D-53 0.75m PAN, 4-band MSI 2022-155_ Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D-54 0.75m PAN, 4-band MSI 2022-155_ Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D-44 9 December 2022, 06:35[43] 0.75m PAN, 4-band MSI 2022-167_ Jielong 3 Tai Rui Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D-45 0.75m PAN, 4-band MSI 2022-167_ Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D-46 0.75m PAN, 4-band MSI 2022-167_ Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D-47 0.75m PAN, 4-band MSI 2022-167_ Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D-48 0.75m PAN, 4-band MSI 2022-167_ Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D-49 0.75m PAN, 4-band MSI 2022-167_ Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D-50 0.75m PAN, 4-band MSI 2022-167_ Operational
Jilin-1 Pingtai-01A01 Unknown 2022-167_ Operational
Jilin-1 Gaofen-03D-34 15 January 2023, 03:14[44] 0.75m PAN, 4-band MSI 2023-007_ Long March 2D TSLC Operational
Jilin-1 Mofang-02A03 2023-007_ Operational
Jilin-1 Mofang-02A04 2023-007_ Operational
Jilin-1 Mofang-02A07 2023-007_ Operational
Jilin-1 Hongwai-A07 Infrared 2023-007_ Operational
Jilin-1 Hongwai-A08 Infrared 2023-007_ Operational
Sources: Gunter's Space Page, CelesTrak, United States Space Force, Chang Guang Satellite Technology Co. Ltd.

See also

References

  1. ^ "CG Satellite". Chuang Guang Satellite Company Ltd.
  2. ^ "哈工大参与研制的"吉林一号光学A星"发射成功". inews.ifeng.com. Retrieved 14 November 2020.
  3. ^ a b c Jones, Andrew (28 October 2022). "Chinese commercial remote sensing satellite firm to double size of constellation". Space News.
  4. ^ a b Jones, Andrew (11 December 2020). "Remote sensing satellite firm completes huge funding round as Chinese space sector activity accelerates". Space News.
  5. ^ a b c Krebs, Gunter D. (8 October 2022). "Jilin-1 Shipin-01, 02 (Jilin-1 Video-01, 02 / Lingqiao 1-01, 02)". Gunter's Space Page.
  6. ^ a b c Krebs, Gunter D. (8 October 2022). "Jilin-1 Shipin-04, ..., 08 (Jilin-1 Video-04, ..., 08)". Gunter's Space Page.
  7. ^ a b "Jilin-1 Smart Video Satellites (4K HD)". Satellite Imaging Corporation.
  8. ^ a b c "High Resolution Video Imaging Satellite". Chang Guang Satellite.
  9. ^ a b Krebs, Gunter D. (8 October 2022). "Jilin-1 Shipin-03 (Jilin-1 Video-03)". Gunter's Space Page.
  10. ^ "Construction Supervision of Ashkhabad Olympic Stadium". CG Satellite. 28 May 2018.
  11. ^ Henri Kenhmann [@EnriKenhmann] (8 November 2020). "Les satellites de la constellation chinoise Jilin-1 ont démontré récemment la capacité d'identifier, puis suivre en vidéo et en temps réel, les avions de l'aéroport international Hartsfield-Jackson d'Atlanta, aux Etats Unis" [The satellites of the Chinese constellation Jilin-1 have recently demonstrated the ability to identify, then follow in video and in real time, the planes of the Hartsfield-Jackson international airport of Atlanta, in the United States.] (Tweet) (in French) – via Twitter.
  12. ^ "Forest Fire Burnt Area Data Extraction". Chang Guang Satellite. 1 June 2018.
  13. ^ OneSpace 零壹空间 OS-X1 suborbital rocket launch, JSLC Sept.2018, video from Jilin-1 sat. 7 September 2018.
  14. ^ Dangwal, Ashish (8 April 2022). "Shadowing F-22 Raptor – China Plans To Turn Its Low-Cost Satellites Into Spy Platforms That Can Even Track Fighter Jets". The Eurasian Times.
  15. ^ Hollings, Alex (18 February 2019). "China claims they're able to track America's F-22 Raptor on radar: Could it be true?". SOFREP.
  16. ^ Camacho, Mario Samuel (29 April 2022). "How China Plans to Track Even the Most Advanced US Stealth Aircraft". The Infographics Show.
  17. ^ a b "光谱01~02星" [Spectrum 01~02 star]. Chang Guang Satellite Technology Company Ltd. (in Chinese).
  18. ^ Krebs, Gunter D. (14 January 2023). "Jilin-1 Guanpu-01, 02 (Jilin-1 Spectrum-01, 02)".
  19. ^ a b Wei, Xu (4 January 2019). "看太空!"吉林一号"光谱01、02星"出征"" [Look into space! Jilin-1 Spectrum 01 and 02 satellites are launched]. Sina (in Chinese).
  20. ^ Yu, Zhang (29 August 2018). "文昌航天超算中心进入实质性操作阶段" [Wenchang Aerospace Supercomputing Center enters substantive operational stage]. Hainan Daily (in Chinese). Xinhua.
  21. ^ Krebs, Gunter D. (14 January 2023). "Jilin-1 Gaofen-02A, ..., 02F (Jilin-1 High Resolution-02A, ..., 02F)". Gunter's Space Page.
  22. ^ Krebs, Gunter D. (9 September 2022). "Jilin-1 Mofang-02A (Jilin-1 MagicCube-02A)". Gunter's Space Page.
  23. ^ ""吉林一号"商业卫星组星成功发射-新华网". xinhuanet.com. Retrieved 14 November 2020.
  24. ^ 韩建平. "快舟一号甲小型运载火箭实现"一箭三星"发射 中国商业航天新业态开启-新华网". xinhuanet.com. Retrieved 14 November 2020.
  25. ^ "我国"一箭三星"成功发射吉林一号视频04、05、06星-新华网". xinhuanet.com. Archived from the original on 2 March 2021. Retrieved 14 November 2020.
  26. ^ "我国成功发射吉林一号视频07、08星-新华网". xinhuanet.com. Archived from the original on 19 January 2018. Retrieved 14 November 2020.
  27. ^ "我国成功发射"吉林一号"光谱01/02星 搭载发射灵鹊-1A星和潇湘一号03星-新华网". xinhuanet.com. Retrieved 14 November 2020.
  28. ^ ""吉林一号"高分03A星升空 我国首次海上航天发射成功". jl.sina.com.cn. Retrieved 14 November 2020.
  29. ^ "公司成功发射"吉林一号"高分02A星—长光卫星技术有限公司". charmingglobe.com. Retrieved 14 November 2020.
  30. ^ "公司成功发射"吉林一号"高分02B星—长光卫星技术有限公司". charmingglobe.com. Retrieved 14 November 2020.
  31. ^ "全球首颗亚米级超大幅宽光学遥感卫星 "红旗一号-H9"成功发射—长光卫星技术有限公司". charmingglobe.com. Retrieved 14 November 2020.
  32. ^ "快舟十一号运载火箭首飞失利-新华网". xinhuanet.com. Retrieved 14 November 2020.
  33. ^ ""吉林一号"高分02C卫星发射失利-新华网". xinhuanet.com. Retrieved 14 November 2020.
  34. ^ ""一箭九星"创我国航天发射新纪录 "吉林一号"高分03系列卫星成功发射—长光卫星技术有限公司". charmingglobe.com. Retrieved 14 November 2020.
  35. ^ "成功发射-国际在线". sx.cri.cn. Retrieved 16 July 2021.
  36. ^ "我国成功发射内蒙古一号卫星、"学而思号"卫星、"吉林一号"高分03系列卫星—长光卫星技术有限公司". www.charmingglobe.com. Retrieved 16 July 2021.
  37. ^ "双曲线一号 • 暨"天书"发射失利后复飞 • 吉林一号魔方01A及配重 • 发射失败" [Hyperbola-1 Y5 • Second launch following failed "Tianshu" launch • JL-1-Cube-01A with counterweight • Launch failed]. spaceflightfans.cn (in Chinese). 3 August 2021. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  38. ^ "Flight test of China's commercial carrier rocket fails". Xinhua. 3 August 2021. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  39. ^ "我国成功发射十颗"吉林一号"卫星". Retrieved 27 February 2022.
  40. ^ "我国成功发射 "道达星座"、"安溪铁观音二号"卫星". Retrieved 30 April 2022.
  41. ^ "我国成功发射"吉林一号"宽幅01C星、高分03D27~33星". Retrieved 5 May 2022.
  42. ^ Mooney, Justin (13 May 2022). "Hyperbola-1, China's first privately-owned rocket, fails in 2nd consecutive return to flight mission". NASASpaceFlight. Retrieved 13 May 2022.
  43. ^ "我国成功发射眉山"天府星座"、"道达星座"、"吉林一号"等8颗卫星". Retrieved 9 December 2022.
  44. ^ "我国成功发射"华水一号"、"沃福曼号"、"海河一号"、"吉林一号"等6颗卫星". Retrieved 15 January 2023.