2025 in spaceflight
Artemis III.jpg
The Artemis III mission is scheduled to carry astronauts to the lunar south pole in 2025.

This article documents expected notable spaceflight events during the year 2025.

In 2025, NASA's Artemis Program is expected to launch the Artemis III mission, which will land astronauts near the south pole of the Moon. It is expected to be the first mission to land humans on the Moon since 1972.

Russia plans to launch the Spektr-UV (World Space Observatory-Ultraviolet), a space telescope that will be developed by multiple nations.

China also plans to launch the ZhengHe asteroid and comet probe.[1]

As of 2021, the mission of the Juno spacecraft orbiting Jupiter is targeted to end no later than September 2025. NASA has stated that the mission could end sooner depending on potential damage from the system's radiation belts during fly-bys of Europa in 2022, and Io in 2023 and 2024.[2][3]

Orbital launches

Date and time (UTC) Rocket Flight number Launch site LSP
Payload
(⚀ = CubeSat)
Operator Orbit Function Decay (UTC) Outcome
Remarks

January[edit]

January (TBD)[7][8] United States TBA United States Vandenberg United States TBA
United States OSAM-1 NASA Low Earth (SSO) Satellite servicing  
Formerly known as Restore-L, the first On-Orbit Servicing, Assembly and Manufacturing (OSAM-1) mission will rendezvous with Landsat 7 and refuel it. OSAM-1 will also host the Space Infrastructure Dexterous Robot (SPIDER) and demonstrate satellite servicing technologies.[4][5][6]
January (TBD)[9] United States TBA United States TBA United States TBA
United States Transport Layer Tranche 1 × 21 SDA Low Earth (SSO) Military communications  
Fifth of six launches for the Space Development Agency's Transport Layer Tranche 1.

February[edit]

1 February[7][11] United States Falcon 9 Block 5 United States Cape Canaveral SLC-40 United States SpaceX
United States IMAP NASA Sun–Earth L1 Heliophysics  
United States GLIDE NASA Sun–Earth L1 Exosphere research  
United States Solar Cruiser NASA Sun–Earth L1 Technology demonstration  
United States SWFO-L1 NOAA Sun–Earth L1 Space weather  
Part of the Solar Terrestrial Probes program. Under NASA's SMD Rideshare Initiative, multiple secondary spacecraft will be launched along with IMAP to the Sun–Earth L1 point.[10]
February (TBD)[9] United States TBA United States TBA United States TBA
United States Transport Layer Tranche 1 × 21 SDA Low Earth (SSO) Military communications  
Last of six launches for the Space Development Agency's Transport Layer Tranche 1.

March[edit]

Q1 (TBD)[13] Europe Ariane 62 France Kourou ELA-4 France Arianespace
Europe Metop-SG B1[14] EUMETSAT Low Earth (SSO) Meteorology  
Second of six MetOp-SG launches.[12]
Q1 (TBD)[15][16] Russia Soyuz-2.1a / Fregat Russia Vostochny Site 1S Russia Roscosmos
Russia Kanopus-VO №2 Roscosmos Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation  
Q1 (TBD)[17] Europe Vega-C France Kourou ELV France Arianespace
TBA TBA Low Earth (SSO) TBA  
Small Satellites Mission Service (SSMS) #13 rideshare mission.
Q1 (TBD)[18] TBA TBA TBA
Israel ULTRASAT ISA / Weizmann Institute of Science Geosynchronous Ultraviolet astronomy  


May[edit]

May (TBD)[19][20] United States TBA United States TBA United States TBA
United States Tracking Layer Tranche 1 × 7 SDA Low Earth Missile tracking  
First of four launches for the Space Development Agency's Tracking Layer Tranche 1.

June[edit]

June (TBD)[19][20] United States TBA United States TBA United States TBA
United States Tracking Layer Tranche 1 × 7 SDA Low Earth Missile tracking  
Second of four launches for the Space Development Agency's Tracking Layer Tranche 1.
Q2 (TBD)[17] Europe Ariane 64 France Kourou ELA-4 France Arianespace
TBA TBA Geosynchronous TBA  
Multi-Launch Service (MLS) #1 rideshare mission.
Q2 (TBD)[17] Europe Vega-C France Kourou ELV France Arianespace
TBA TBA Low Earth (SSO) TBA  
SSMS #14 rideshare mission.
Mid 2025 (TBD)[21] Europe Vega-C France Kourou ELV France Arianespace
Europe ALTIUS ESA Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation  
Europe FLEX ESA Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation  
FLEX is the eighth Earth Explorer of the Living Planet Programme.
H1 2025 (TBD)[22] United States TBA United States TBA United States TBA
United States TBA NASA TLI to lunar surface Lunar lander  
Commercial Lunar Payload Services (CLPS) mission delivering payloads to the Gruithuisen Domes.

July[edit]

July (TBD)[19][20] United States TBA United States TBA United States TBA
United States Tracking Layer Tranche 1 × 7 SDA Low Earth Missile tracking  
Third of four launches for the Space Development Agency's Tracking Layer Tranche 1.

August[edit]

August (TBD)[23][24] Russia Angara A5 Russia Vostochny Site 1A Russia Roscosmos
Russia Luna 27 Roscosmos TLI to lunar surface Lunar lander  
August (TBD)[19][20] United States TBA United States TBA United States TBA
United States Tracking Layer Tranche 1 × 7 SDA Low Earth Missile tracking  
Last of four launches for the Space Development Agency's Tracking Layer Tranche 1.

September[edit]

September (TBD)[25][26] Russia Angara A5P Russia Vostochny Site 1A Russia Roscosmos
Russia Orel Roscosmos Low Earth (ISS) Crewed flight test  
Crewed flight test of the Orel capsule going to the International Space Station.
Q3 (TBD)[17] Europe Vega-C France Kourou ELV France Arianespace
TBA TBA Low Earth TBA  
SSMS #15 rideshare mission.

October[edit]

23 October[27][28] Russia Angara A5M Russia Vostochny Site 1A Russia Roscosmos
Russia Spektr-UV INASAN IGSO Ultraviolet astronomy  

November[edit]

November (TBD)[29][30] United States Falcon 9 Block 5 United States Cape Canaveral or Vandenberg United States SpaceX
Taiwan FORMOSAT-8B NSPO Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation  

December[edit]

December (TBD)[31][32] United States TBA United States TBA United States TBA
United States Europe Sentinel-6B NASA / NOAA / Eumetsat / ESA Low Earth Earth observation  
Q4 (TBD)[34] TBA TBA TBA
Europe CO2M 1 (Sentinel-7A) ESA Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation  
Europe CO2M 2 (Sentinel-7B) ESA Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation  
Copernicus Anthropogenic Carbon Dioxide Monitoring mission.[33] Part of the European Space Agency's Copernicus Programme.
Q4 (TBD)[22] United States TBA United States TBA United States TBA
United States TBA NASA TLI to lunar surface Lunar lander  
CLPS mission delivering payloads to the lunar south pole. ESA's Package for Resource Observation and in-Situ Prospecting for Exploration, Commercial exploitation, and Transportation (PROSPECT) payload will fly on this mission.

To be determined[edit]

2025 (TBD)[35][36] Russia Angara A5 / DM-03[37] Russia Plesetsk Russia Roscosmos
Russia Luch-5M 1[38] Gonets Satellite System Geosynchronous Communications  
2025 (TBD)[40][41] Russia Angara A5 Russia Vostochny Site 1A Russia Roscosmos
Russia NEM-1 (SPM-1) Roscosmos Low Earth (SSO) Space station assembly  
NEM-1, also known as Science Power Module 1 (SPM-1), will be the core module of the proposed Russian Orbital Service Station (ROSS). It was initially intended to be launched to the International Space Station.[39]
2025 (TBD)[42] Europe Ariane 62 France Kourou ELA-4 France Arianespace
Europe Galileo FOC FM33 ESA Medium Earth Navigation  
Europe Galileo FOC FM34 ESA Medium Earth Navigation  
Final batch of first generation Galileo-FOC satellites.
H2 2025 (TBD)[43][44] Europe Ariane 64[45] France Kourou ELA-4 France Arianespace
Europe MTG-I2[46] EUMETSAT Geosynchronous Meteorology  
2025 (TBD)[47] United States Falcon 9 Block 5 United States Cape Canaveral or Kennedy United States SpaceX
United Kingdom Skynet 6A Airbus Defence and Space / UK Ministry of Defence Geosynchronous Military communications  
2025 (TBD)[48] Japan H3 Japan Tanegashima LA-Y2 Japan MHI
Japan IGS-Optical Diversification 1 CIRO Low Earth (SSO) Reconnaissance  
First of a new generation of IGS-Optical satellites.
2025 (TBD)[48] Japan H3 Japan Tanegashima LA-Y2 Japan MHI
Japan IGS-Optical 9 CIRO Low Earth (SSO) Reconnaissance  
2025 (TBD)[49] China Long March 3B/E (?) China Xichang or Wenchang China CASC
China Fengyun 4C[50] CMA Geosynchronous Meteorology  
2025 (TBD)[1][51] China Long March 3B[52] China Xichang China CASC
China ZhengHe CNSA Heliocentric Asteroid sample-return
Comet orbiter
 
2025 (TBD)[53] China Long March 4B China Jiuquan SLS-2 China CASC
China HaiYang 2G[54][55] Ministry of Natural Resources Low Earth Earth observation  
2025 (TBD)[53] China Long March TBA China TBA China CASC
China HaiYang 3D[56] Ministry of Natural Resources Geosynchronous Earth observation  
2025 (TBD)[58][59] United States New Glenn United States Cape Canaveral LC-36 United States Blue Origin
United States Axiom Hub 2 (AxH2) Axiom Space Low Earth (ISS) ISS assembly / Commercial habitat  
Second Axiom module to be launched, nominally on New Glenn (with Falcon Heavy as backup).[57]
2025 (TBD)[60][61] United States New Glenn United States Cape Canaveral LC-36 United States Blue Origin
Canada Lightspeed × 30–35 Telesat Low Earth (SSO) Communications  
First of multiple New Glenn launches for Telesat's Lightspeed LEO constellation.
2025 (TBD)[62][63] Germany RFA One Norway Andøya Germany RFA
Spain E.T.PACK SENER Aeroespacial / UC3M Low Earth Electrodynamic tether demonstration  
2025 (TBD)[64] Germany RFA One Norway Andøya Germany RFA
Luxembourg TBA LuxSpace Low Earth TBA  
Dedicated launch contract for LuxSpace.
2025 (TBD)[65] United States SLS Block 1 United States Kennedy LC-39B United States NASA
United States Artemis 3 NASA Selenocentric Crewed lunar landing  
Second crewed Orion flight and first crewed lunar landing since Apollo 17 in 1972.
2025 (TBD)[66] Germany SL1 Sweden Esrange Germany HyImpulse
Italy ION Satellite Carrier D-Orbit Low Earth (SSO) CubeSat deployer  
2025 (TBD)[67][68] Russia Soyuz-2.1a / Fregat Kazakhstan Baikonur Russia Roscosmos
Russia Rezonans-MKA Roscosmos Tundra Magnetospheric research  
2025 (TBD)[69] Russia Soyuz-2.1b / Fregat Kazakhstan Baikonur Russia Roscosmos
Russia Arktika-M №3[70] Roscosmos Molniya Meteorology  
2025 (TBD)[71] Russia Soyuz-2.1b Russia Vostochny Site 1S Russia Roscosmos
Russia Gonets-M Gonets Satellite System Low Earth Communications  
Russia Gonets-M Gonets Satellite System Low Earth Communications  
Russia Gonets-M Gonets Satellite System Low Earth Communications  
Russia BLITS-M2 × 2 Roscosmos Medium Earth Laser ranging  
Russia GLASS × 2 Roscosmos Medium Earth Laser ranging  
2025 (TBD)[69] Russia Soyuz-2.1b / Fregat Russia Vostochny Site 1S Russia Roscosmos
Russia Meteor-M №2-6[72] Roscosmos Low Earth (SSO) Meteorology  
2025 (TBD)[73] Russia Soyuz-6 Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 1/5 Russia Roscosmos
Russia TBA Roscosmos Low Earth Flight test  
First flight of the Soyuz-6.
2025 (TBD)[60][61] United States Terran 1 United States Cape Canaveral LC-16 United States Relativity Space
Canada Lightspeed × 1 Telesat Low Earth (SSO) Communications  
2025 (TBD)[74] United States Terran R United States Cape Canaveral LC-16 United States Relativity Space
United Kingdom OneWeb × ? OneWeb Low Earth Communications  
First of multiple Terran R launches for OneWeb's Gen 2 constellation.
2025 (TBD)[75] Europe Vega-C France Kourou ELV France Arianespace
Switzerland ClearSpace-1 ClearSpace SA (EPFL) Low Earth Space debris removal  
ClearSpace-1 will capture and de-orbit the Vespa payload adapter that deployed PROBA-V in 2013.
2025 (TBD)[76] Europe Vega-C[77] France Kourou ELV France Arianespace
Europe Sentinel-3D[78] ESA Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation  
Fourth Sentinel-3 satellite.
2025 (TBD)[79][80] Europe Vega-C[81] France Kourou ELV France Arianespace
Italy Israel SHALOM ASI / ISA Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation  
2025 (TBD)[82][83] TBA TBA TBA
Taiwan Beyond 5G NSPO / ITRI Low Earth Communications  
2025 (TBD)[85] TBA TBA TBA
South Korea CAS500-5 KARI / Ministry of Science and ICT / Ministry of Environment Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation  
Fifth CAS500 satellite, dedicated to observation of water resources.[84]
2025 (TBD)[86] United States TBA United States TBA United States TBA
United States COSI NASA Low Earth Gamma-ray astronomy  
Compton Spectrometer and Imager (COSI). Part of NASA's Small Explorers program.
2025 (TBD)[87] United States TBA United States TBA United States TBA
United States DRACO Demo DARPA Low Earth Technology demonstration  
Demonstration Rocket for Agile Cislunar Operations (DRACO) is a DARPA program to demonstrate a working nuclear thermal rocket in space.
2025 (TBD)[88][89] Russia TBA Kazakhstan Baikonur or Russia Vostochny Russia Roscosmos
Russia Ekspress-AMU5 RSCC Geosynchronous Communications  
2025 (TBD)[90] TBA TBA TBA
United States Intelsat 41 Intelsat Geosynchronous Communications  
2025 (TBD)[90] TBA TBA TBA
United States Intelsat 44 Intelsat Geosynchronous Communications  
2025 (TBD)[92] TBA TBA TBA
Europe Israel LSAS lander OHB / IAI Selenocentric Lunar lander  
TBA TBA Geosynchronous Communications  
First mission under the Lunar Surface Access Service (LSAS) program, a joint initiative between OHB and IAI. Will rideshare alongside a commercial geostationary satellite.[91]

Suborbital flights

Date and time (UTC) Rocket Flight number Launch site LSP
Payload
(⚀ = CubeSat)
Operator Orbit Function Decay (UTC) Outcome
Remarks
March (TBD)[93] United States Improved Orion Sweden Esrange Germany MORABA / Sweden SNSA
Germany Sweden REXUS-35 DLR / SNSA Suborbital Education  
March (TBD)[93] United States Improved Orion Sweden Esrange Germany MORABA / Sweden SNSA
Germany Sweden REXUS-36 DLR / SNSA Suborbital Education  
May (TBD)[93] Brazil VSB-30 Sweden Esrange Sweden SSC
Sweden S1X-M17 SSC Suborbital Microgravity research  
SubOrbital Express Microgravity flight opportunity 17.
October (TBD)[93] Brazil VSB-30 Sweden Esrange Germany MORABA
Germany MAPHEUS-16 DLR Suborbital Microgravity research  
October (TBD)[93] Brazil VSB-30 Sweden Esrange Germany MORABA
Germany MAIUS-4 ZARM Suborbital Matter wave interferometry  
Fourth payload launch for the QUANTUS IV - MAIUS project.[94]
November (TBD)[93] Brazil VSB-30 Sweden Esrange Germany MORABA
Germany Europe TEXUS-63 DLR / ESA Suborbital Microgravity research  

Deep-space rendezvous

Date (UTC) Spacecraft Event Remarks
9 January BepiColombo Sixth gravity assist at Mercury
20 April Lucy Flyby of asteroid 52246 Donaldjohanson Target altitude 922 km
5 December BepiColombo Hermocentric orbit insertion at Mercury

Extravehicular activities (EVAs)

Start Date/Time Duration End Time Spacecraft Crew Remarks

Orbital launch statistics

By country[edit]

For the purposes of this section, the yearly tally of orbital launches by country assigns each flight to the country of origin of the rocket, not to the launch services provider or the spaceport. For example, Soyuz launches by Arianespace in Kourou are counted under Russia because Soyuz-2 is a Russian rocket.

Country Launches Successes Failures Partial
failures
Remarks

By rocket[edit]

By family[edit]

Family Country Launches Successes Failures Partial failures Remarks

By type[edit]

Rocket Country Family Launches Successes Failures Partial failures Remarks

By configuration[edit]

Rocket Country Type Launches Successes Failures Partial failures Remarks

By spaceport[edit]

Site Country Launches Successes Failures Partial failures Remarks

By orbit[edit]

Orbital regime Launches Achieved Not achieved Accidentally
achieved
Remarks
Transatmospheric 0 0 0 0
Low Earth 0 0 0 0
Geosynchronous / transfer 0 0 0 0
Medium Earth 0 0 0 0
High Earth 0 0 0 0
Heliocentric orbit 0 0 0 0 Including planetary transfer orbits

Notes

References

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Generic references:
 Spaceflight portal