Locations of major spacecraft on the Moon superimposed on data from the Clementine mission in equirectangular projection

This is a partial list of artificial materials left on the Moon, many during the missions of the Apollo program. The table below does not include lesser Apollo mission artificial objects, such as a hammer and other tools, retroreflectors, Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Packages, or the commemorative, artistic, and personal objects left by the twelve Apollo astronauts, such as the United States flags, the commemorative plaques attached to the ladders of the six Apollo Lunar Modules, the silver astronaut pin left by Alan Bean in honor of Clifton C. Williams whom he replaced, the Bible left by David Scott, the Fallen Astronaut statuette and memorial plaque placed by the crew of Apollo 15, the Apollo 11 goodwill messages disc, or the golf balls[1] Alan Shepard hit during an Apollo 14 moonwalk.

Five S-IVB third stages of Saturn V rockets from the Apollo program crashed into the Moon, and are the heaviest human-made objects on the lunar surface. Humans have left over 187,400 kilograms (413,100 lb) of material on the Moon. Besides the 2019 Chang'e 4 and SLIM missions, the only artificial objects on the Moon that are still in use are the retroreflectors for the Lunar Laser Ranging experiments left there by the Apollo 11, 14, and 15 astronauts, Chandrayaan-3 lunar lander, and by the Soviet Union's Lunokhod 1 and Lunokhod 2 missions.[2]

Objects at greater than 90 degrees east or west are on the far side of the Moon, including Ranger 4, Lunar Orbiter 1, Lunar Orbiter 2, Lunar Orbiter 3, Chang'e 4 lander and Yutu-2 rover.

Because of increasing numbers of missions to and objects at the Moon a global registry of lunar activities has been proposed in 2023 by the Open Lunar Foundation.[3]

List

Legend

Colors
Crashed (unintentionally)
Impactor or post-mission crashed
Landed
Operational

Table of objects

Artificial object Image Country Year Mass (lb) Mass (kg) Status Location Notes
Luna 2
 Soviet Union 1959 860 390 Impactor 29°06′N 0°00′E / 29.1°N 0°E / 29.1; 0 [4]
Luna 2
Third stage of Vostok rocket
 Soviet Union 1959 20,100 9,100 Crashed (post-mission) 29°06′N 0°00′E / 29.1°N 0°E / 29.1; 0 [5]
Ranger 4
 United States 1962 730 331 Impactor 15°30′S 130°42′W / 15.5°S 130.7°W / -15.5; -130.7 [6]
Ranger 6
 United States 1964 840 381 Impactor 9°21′29″N 21°28′48″E / 9.358°N 21.480°E / 9.358; 21.480 [7]
Ranger 7
 United States 1964 805 365 Impactor 10°38′S 20°36′W / 10.63°S 20.60°W / -10.63; -20.60 [8]
Luna 5  Soviet Union 1965 3,250 1,474 Crashed 8°N 23°W / 8°N 23°W / 8; -23 [9]
Luna 7  Soviet Union 1965 3,316 1,504 Crashed 9°48′N 47°48′W / 9.8°N 47.8°W / 9.8; -47.8 [10]
Luna 8  Soviet Union 1965 3,422 (launch mass) 1552 (launch mass) Crashed 9°06′N 63°18′W / 9.1°N 63.3°W / 9.1; -63.3 [11]
Ranger 8
 United States 1965 809 367 Impactor 2°38′17″N 24°47′13″E / 2.638°N 24.787°E / 2.638; 24.787 [12]
Ranger 9
 United States 1965 809 367 Impactor 12°49′41″S 2°23′13″W / 12.828°S 2.387°W / -12.828; -2.387 [13]
Luna 9 spacecraft/descent stage
 Soviet Union 1966 3,391 (before lander capsule ejection) 1538 (before lander capsule ejection) Crashed (post-mission) 7°05′N 64°22′W / 7.08°N 64.37°W / 7.08; -64.37 [14]
Luna 9 Automated Lunar Station (ALS) airbag and lander capsule
 Soviet Union 1966 218 99 Landed 7°05′N 64°22′W / 7.08°N 64.37°W / 7.08; -64.37 [14]
Luna 10  Soviet Union 1966 3,500 1,600 Crashed
(post-mission)
Unknown[a] [15]
Luna 11  Soviet Union 1966 3,620 1,640 Crashed (post-mission) Unknown[a] [16]
Luna 12  Soviet Union 1966 3,680 1,670 Crashed (post-mission) Unknown[a] [17]
Surveyor 1 (separate from descent stage)
 United States 1966 600 270 Landed 2°28′26″S 43°20′20″W / 2.474°S 43.339°W / -2.474; -43.339 [18]
Luna 13 (separate from descent stage)
 Soviet Union 1966 249 113 Landed 18°52′N 62°03′W / 18.87°N 62.05°W / 18.87; -62.05 [19]
Lunar Orbiter 1
 United States 1966 851 386 Crashed
(post-mission)
6°42′N 162°00′E / 6.70°N 162°E / 6.70; 162 [20]
Surveyor 2
 United States 1966 644 292 Crashed 5°30′N 12°00′W / 5.5°N 12°W / 5.5; -12 [21]
Lunar Orbiter 2
 United States 1966 849 385 Crashed
(post-mission)
3°00′N 119°00′E / 3.0°N 119°E / 3.0; 119 [22]
Lunar Orbiter 3
 United States 1966 851 386 Crashed
(post-mission)
14°18′N 97°42′W / 14.3°N 97.7°W / 14.3; -97.7 [23]
Surveyor 3 (separate from descent stage)
 United States 1967 619 281 Landed[b] 3°00′54″S 23°25′05″W / 3.015°S 23.418°W / -3.015; -23.418 [24]
Lunar Orbiter 4
 United States 1967 851 386 Crashed
(post-mission)
Unknown[a] [25]
Surveyor 4
 United States 1967 624 283 Crashed 0°24′N 1°20′W / 0.4°N 1.33°W / 0.4; -1.33 [26]
Explorer 35
 United States 1967 229 104 Crashed
(post mission)
Unknown[a] [27]
Lunar Orbiter 5
 United States 1967 851 386 Crashed
(post-mission)
3°S 83°W / 3°S 83°W / -3; -83 [28]
Surveyor 5 (separate from descent stage)
 United States 1967 619 281 Landed 1°27′40″N 23°11′42″E / 1.461°N 23.195°E / 1.461; 23.195 [29]
Surveyor 6 (separate from descent stage)
 United States 1967 622 282 Landed 0°29′N 1°24′W / 0.49°N 1.40°W / 0.49; -1.40 [30]
Surveyor 7 (separate from descent stage)
 United States 1968 640 290 Landed 40°52′S 11°28′W / 40.86°S 11.47°W / -40.86; -11.47 [31]
Luna 14  Soviet Union 1968 3,680 1,670 Crashed (post-mission) Unknown[a] [32]
Apollo 10
LM-4 Snoopy descent stage
 United States 1969 4,874 2,211 Likely crashed
(post-mission)
Unknown[a] [33]
Apollo 11
LM-5 Eagle descent stage
 United States 1969 4,484 2,034 Landed 0°40′27″N 23°28′23″E / 0.6741°N 23.4730°E / 0.6741; 23.4730 [34]
Luna 15  Soviet Union 1969 5,992 2,718 Crashed Unknown [35]
Apollo 11
LM-5 Eagle ascent stage[c]
 United States 1969 4,815 2,184 Crashed (post-mission) or in orbit Unknown [36][37]
Apollo 12
LM-6 Intrepid descent stage
 United States 1969 4,874 2,211 Landed 3°00′45″S 23°25′18″W / 3.0124°S 23.4216°W / -3.0124; -23.4216 [38]
Apollo 12
LM-6 Intrepid ascent stage[c]
 United States 1969 4,771 2,164 Crashed
(post-mission)
3°56′S 21°12′W / 3.94°S 21.20°W / -3.94; -21.20 [39]
Luna 16 descent stage[d]
 Soviet Union 1970 3,040 1,380 Landed 0°41′S 56°18′E / 0.68°S 56.3°E / -0.68; 56.3 [40]
Luna 17 and Lunokhod 1
 Soviet Union 1970 12,300 5,600 Landed 38°17′N 35°00′W / 38.28°N 35.0°W / 38.28; -35.0 [41]
Apollo 13
S-IVB (S-IVB-508)[42]
 United States 1970 29,661 13,454 Crashed (post-mission) 2°45′S 27°52′W / 2.75°S 27.86°W / -2.75; -27.86 [43]
Luna 18  Soviet Union 1971 4,140 1,880 Crashed 3°34′N 56°30′E / 3.57°N 56.5°E / 3.57; 56.5 [44]
Luna 19  Soviet Union 1971 4,140 1,880 Crashed (post-mission) Unknown[a] [45]
Apollo 14
S-IVB (S-IVB-509)
 United States 1971 30,900 14,016 Crashed (post-mission) 8°05′S 26°01′W / 8.09°S 26.02°W / -8.09; -26.02 [46]
Apollo 14
LM-8 Antares descent stage
 United States 1971 4,727 2,144 Landed 3°38′43″S 17°28′17″W / 3.6453°S 17.4714°W / -3.6453; -17.4714 [47]
Apollo 14
LM-8 Antares ascent stage[c]
 United States 1971 4,705 2,132 Crashed
(post-mission)
3°25′S 19°40′W / 3.42°S 19.67°W / -3.42; -19.67 [48]
Apollo 15
S-IVB (S-IVB-510)
 United States 1971 30,944 14,036 Crashed (post-mission) 1°31′S 11°49′W / 1.51°S 11.81°W / -1.51; -11.81 [49]
Apollo 15
LM-10 Falcon descent stage
 United States 1971 6,193 2,809 Landed 26°07′56″N 3°38′02″E / 26.1322°N 3.6339°E / 26.1322; 3.6339 [50]
Apollo 15
Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV-1)
 United States 1971 460 210 Landed 26°05′N 3°40′E / 26.08°N 3.66°E / 26.08; 3.66
Apollo 15
LM-10 Falcon ascent stage[c]
 United States 1971 4,700 2,132 Crashed
(post-mission)
26°22′N 0°15′E / 26.36°N 0.25°E / 26.36; 0.25 [51]
Apollo 15 subsatellite
 United States 1971 79 36 Crashed
(post-mission)
Unknown[a] [52]
Luna 20 descent stage[d]  Soviet Union 1972 <12,626 <5,727 Landed 3°34′N 56°30′E / 3.57°N 56.5°E / 3.57; 56.5 [53]
Apollo 16
S-IVB (S-IVB-511)
 United States 1972 30,869 14,002 Crashed (post-mission) 1°55′16″N 24°37′23″W / 1.921°N 24.623°W / 1.921; -24.623 [54]
Apollo 16
LM-11 Orion descent stage
 United States 1972 6,096 2,765 Landed 8°58′23″S 15°30′01″E / 8.9730°S 15.5002°E / -8.9730; 15.5002 [55]
Apollo 16
Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV-2)
 United States 1972 460 210 Landed 8°58′S 15°31′E / 8.97°S 15.51°E / -8.97; 15.51
Apollo 16
LM-11 Orion ascent stage[c]
 United States 1972 4,713 2,138 Crashed
(post-mission)
Unknown [56]
Apollo 16 subsatellite
 United States 1972 79 36 Crashed
(post-mission)
Unknown[a] [57]
Apollo 17
S-IVB (S-IVB-512)
 United States 1972 30,780 13,960 Crashed (post-mission) 4°13′S 12°19′W / 4.21°S 12.31°W / -4.21; -12.31 [58]
Apollo 17
LM-12 Challenger descent stage
 United States 1972 6,169 2,798 Landed 20°11′27″N 30°46′18″E / 20.1908°N 30.7717°E / 20.1908; 30.7717 [59]
Apollo 17
Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV-3)
 United States 1972 460 210 Landed 20°10′N 30°46′E / 20.17°N 30.77°E / 20.17; 30.77
Apollo 17
LM-12 Challenger ascent stage[c]
 United States 1972 4,740 2,150 Crashed
(post-mission)
19°58′N 30°30′E / 19.96°N 30.50°E / 19.96; 30.50 [60]
Luna 21 and Lunokhod 2[e]  Soviet Union 1973 10,690 4,850 Landed 25°51′N 30°27′E / 25.85°N 30.45°E / 25.85; 30.45 [61]
Explorer 49 (RAE-B)
 United States 1973 723 328 Crashed (post-mission) Unknown[a] [62]
Luna 22  Soviet Union 1974 8,800 4,000 Crashed (post-mission) Unknown[a] [63]
Luna 23  Soviet Union 1974 12,300 5,600 Landed 12°45′N 62°12′E / 12.75°N 62.20°E / 12.75; 62.20 [64]
Luna 24 descent stage[d]  Soviet Union 1976 <12,787 <5,800 Landed 12°45′N 62°12′E / 12.75°N 62.20°E / 12.75; 62.20 [65]
Hagoromo
Hiten
[f]
 Japan 1990 26 12 Crashed
(not confirmed/post-mission)
Unknown [66]
Hiten
 Japan 1993 315 143 Crashed (post-mission)/Impactor 34°18′S 55°36′E / 34.3°S 55.6°E / -34.3; 55.6 [67]
Lunar Prospector
 United States 1998 278 126 Crashed (post-mission) 87°42′S 42°21′E / 87.7°S 42.35°E / -87.7; 42.35 [68][69]
SMART-1
European Space Agency 2006 677 307 Crashed (post-mission) 34°15′43″S 46°11′35″W / 34.262°S 46.193°W / -34.262; -46.193 [70]
Moon Impact Probe (MIP)
Chandrayaan-1
 India 2008 77 35 Impactor 89°46′S 39°24′W / 89.76°S 39.40°W / -89.76; -39.40 [71][72][73]
SELENE Rstar (Okina)  Japan 2009 117 53 Crashed (post-mission) 28°12′47″N 159°01′59″W / 28.213°N 159.033°W / 28.213; -159.033 [74][75][76]
SELENE Vstar (Ouna)  Japan Unknown 117 53 Crashed (post-mission) Unknown [77]
Chang'e 1
 China 2009 4,400 2,000 Crashed (post-mission) 1°30′S 52°22′E / 1.50°S 52.36°E / -1.50; 52.36 [78][79][80]
SELENE (Kaguya) main orbiter  Japan 2009 4,374 1,984[78] Crashed (post-mission) 65°30′S 80°30′E / 65.5°S 80.5°E / -65.5; 80.5 [81][82][83]
LCROSS Shepherding Spacecraft
 United States 2009 1,500 700 Crashed (post-mission) 84°43′44″S 49°21′36″W / 84.729°S 49.36°W / -84.729; -49.36 [g][84][85]
LCROSS Centaur
 United States 2009 5,000 2,270 Crashed (post-mission) 84°40′30″S 48°43′30″W / 84.675°S 48.725°W / -84.675; -48.725 [h][86][87]
GRAIL
 United States 2012 293 133 Crashed
(post-mission)
75°37′N 26°38′W / 75.62°N 26.63°W / 75.62; -26.63 [88]
Chang'e 3 lander  China 2013 2,600 1,200 Landed/operational[89] 44°07′N 19°31′W / 44.12°N 19.51°W / 44.12; -19.51 [90][91][92]
Chang'e 3
Yutu rover
 China 2013 2,600 1,200 Landed[93] 44°07′N 19°31′W / 44.12°N 19.51°W / 44.12; -19.51 [90][94][92]
LADEE
 United States 2014 547 248 Crashed (post-mission) 10°48′N 91°36′W / 10.8°N 91.6°W / 10.8; -91.6
Chang'e 4 lander
 China 2019 2,600 1,200 Landed/operational 45°27′22″S 177°35′19″E / 45.4561°S 177.5885°E / -45.4561; 177.5885 [95]
Chang'e 4
Yutu-2 rover
 China 2019 2,600 1,200 Landed/operational 45°27′22″S 177°35′19″E / 45.4561°S 177.5885°E / -45.4561; 177.5885 [96]
Beresheet
 Israel 2019 330 150 Crashed[97][98] 32°35′44″N 19°20′59″E / 32.5956°N 19.3496°E / 32.5956; 19.3496
Longjiang-2  China 2019 104 47 Crashed (post-mission)[99] 16°41′44″N 159°31′01″E / 16.6956°N 159.5170°E / 16.6956; 159.5170 (Longjiang-2 impact site) [100]
Chandrayaan-2
Vikram lander

Pragyan rover
 India 2019 3,243 1,471 Crashed[101] 70°52′52″S 22°47′02″E / 70.8810°S 22.7840°E / -70.8810; 22.7840 [102]
Chang'e 5 descent stage
 China 2020 <18,077 <8,200 Landed 43°05′56″N 51°50′13″W / 43.099°N 51.837°W / 43.099; -51.837
Chang'e 5 ascent stage
 China 2020 >400 >882 Crashed (post-mission) 30°00′00″S 0°00′00″E / 30.000°S 0.000°E / -30.000; 0.000
Chang'e 5-T1 third stage rocket  China 2022 6100 2,800 Crashed (post-mission) 5°13′34″N 125°30′50″W / 5.226°N 125.514°W / 5.226; -125.514 [103][104]
Manfred Memorial Moon Mission  Luxembourg 2022 31 14 Crashed (post-mission together with Chang'e 5-T1 third stage rocket)
Hakuto-R Mission 1  Japan 2023 750 340 Crashed 47°34′52″N 44°05′38″E / 47.581°N 44.094°E / 47.581; 44.094 [105]
Emirates Lunar Mission  United Arab Emirates
Luna 25
 Russia 2023 3,860 1,750 Crashed 57°51′54″S 61°21′36″E / 57.865°S 61.360°E / -57.865; 61.360 [106][107]
Chandrayaan-3
Vikram lander
Pragyan rover
 India 2023 3,863 1,752 Landed 69°22′23″S 32°19′08″E / 69.373°S 32.319°E / -69.373; 32.319 [108][109]
SLIM
 Japan 2024 259.4 118.7 Landed 13°18′58″S 25°15′04″E / 13.316°S 25.251°E / -13.316; 25.251 [110]
LEV-1  Japan 2024 2.1 4.6 Landed 13°18′58″S 25°15′04″E / 13.316°S 25.251°E / -13.316; 25.251 [110]
LEV-2  Japan 2024 0.25 0.55 Landed 13°18′58″S 25°15′04″E / 13.316°S 25.251°E / -13.316; 25.251 [110]
Total estimated dry mass 454,056 205,988

Image gallery

Map of the Moon showing some landing sites. (Click to enlarge)
Surveyor 3 on the Moon, photographed by Alan Bean during Apollo 12 (1969)
Locations of retro reflector experiments
Lunar Laser Ranging experiment (LRRR)
Map of all soft landings

See also

Notes

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Spacecraft was in lunar orbit but is assumed to have decayed from orbit and crashed into the Moon, location unknown.
  2. ^ Portions recovered by Apollo 12 in 1969: it returned about 10 kilograms (22 lb) of the Surveyor 3's original landing mass of 302 kilograms (666 lb) to Earth to study the effects of long term exposure.
  3. ^ a b c d e f The ascent stage of Apollo 10 was commanded to fire its engine, left lunar orbit and entered solar orbit. The ascent stage of Apollo 11 was left in orbit and thereafter its orbit possibly decayed and it crashed onto the Moon at an unknown location. The Apollo 16 ascent stage failed to crash onto moon when commanded and it decayed from orbit at a later date and also crashed at an unknown location. The ascent stages of the remaining successful missions (Apollo 12, 14, 15, and 17) were each deliberately crashed onto the Moon. Apollo 13's complete Apollo Lunar Module re-entered Earth's atmosphere after having served as a lifeboat during the aborted mission.
  4. ^ a b c Luna program sample return mission; mass listed is for both ascent and descent stages, though only the descent stage was left on the Moon.
  5. ^ Lander and rover weighed 4,000 pounds (1,814 kg); the rest assumed to have decayed in orbit and impacted the Moon.
  6. ^ Was injected into lunar orbit in 1990, assumed to have decayed from orbit.
  7. ^ –2.36 miles (–3.80 km) in elevation (Cabeus crater).
  8. ^ –2.38 miles (–3.83 km) in elevation (Cabeus crater).

References

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