The following table is a partial list of artificial objects on the surface of Mars, consisting of spacecraft which were launched from Earth. Although most are defunct after having served their purpose, the Curiosity rover, InSight lander, Perseverance rover, Ingenuity helicopter, and Zhurong rover are all active. China's Tianwen-1 spacecraft is the most recent artificial object to land safely on Mars, with Mars 3 and Tianwen-1 remote camera the heaviest and lightest Martian spacecraft respectively.
The table does not include smaller objects, such as springs, fragments, parachutes and heat shields. As of February 2021[update], there are 14 missions with objects on the surface of Mars. Some of these missions contain multiple spacecraft.
In this listing, it is implied that each mission left debris according to its design. For example, the Schiaparelli EDM lander likely exploded on impact, creating an unknown number of fragments at one location. At another location, there may be a lower heat shield, and at another location, a parachute and upper heat shield. Another example is the counterweights ejected by MSL during its descent. In some cases, the nature and location of this additional debris has been determined and, in other cases, even the location of the main spacecraft has remained unknown. The identification of Beagle 2 after 11 years is one of the greatest breakthroughs yet, since prior to that, it could not be confirmed what had happened. Spacecraft that have not been precisely located include Mars 2, Mars 3, Mars 6, Mars Polar Lander, and the two Deep Space 2 probes.
|No data collection|
|1971||USSR||Mars 2||Mars 2 lander and PrOP-M rover||1210||Failure during descent; crashed on surface||Estimated at |
|1971||USSR||Mars 3||Mars 3 lander and PrOP-M rover||1210||Transmission failure 110 seconds after soft landing||Estimated at Sirenum Terra|
|1973||USSR||Mars 6||Mars 6 lander||635||Returned corrupted data for 224 seconds during its descent but contact lost before reaching surface||Estimated at Margaritifer Terra|
|1976||NASA||Viking 1||Viking 1 lander||657||Operated 2245 sols. Last contact Nov 11, 1982||Chryse Planitia|
|1976||NASA||Viking 2||Viking 2 lander||657||Operated 1281 sols. Last contact Apr 11, 1980||Utopia Planitia|
|1997||NASA||Mars Pathfinder||Pathfinder (lander)||360||Operated 83 sols. Last contact Sep 27, 1997||Ares Vallis|
|1999||NASA||Mars Surveyor '98||Mars Polar Lander and
Deep Space 2 (probes)
|500||Unknown failure during descent; crashed on surface||Estimated at Ultimi Scopuli
|Mars Express||Beagle 2 (lander)||33.2||Landed safely; solar panels failed to deploy||Isidis Planitia
|2004||NASA||Mars Exploration Rover||Spirit (rover)||185||Operated 2210 sols. Last contact Mar 22, 2010||Gusev crater
|Opportunity (rover)||185||Operated 5111 sols. Last contact June 10, 2018||Meridiani Planum
|2008||NASA||Phoenix Mars Lander||Phoenix (lander)||350||Operated 155 sols. Last contact Nov 2, 2008||Green Valley in Vastitas Borealis
|2012||NASA||Mars Science Laboratory||Curiosity (rover)||900||In operation, 3552 sols||Aeolis Palus in Gale Crater
|2016||ESA||ExoMars 2016||Schiaparelli EDM (lander)||577||Crashed on impact; transmitted descent telemetry||Meridiani Planum
|2018||NASA||InSight||InSight (lander)||358||In operation, 1311 sols||Elysium Planitia
|2021||NASA||Mars 2020||Perseverance (rover)||1024||In operation, 518 sols||Jezero crater
|Ingenuity (helicopter)||1.8||In operation, 518 sols||Wright Brothers Field
|2021||CNSA||Tianwen-1||Tianwen-1 (lander)||1285||Reached end of designed lifespan after landing on 14 May, 2021.||Utopia Planitia
|Zhurong (rover)||240||In operation, 435 sols|
|Tianwen-1 Remote camera||<1||Reached end of designed lifespan after mission completion on 1 June, 2021.|
Combined, the total weight would be 9470 kg.
Several landing sites have been named, either the spacecraft itself or the landing site: