Kalpana-1 deployed
Mission typeWeather
COSPAR ID2002-043A Edit this at Wikidata
SATCAT no.27525Edit this on Wikidata
WebsiteKalpana-1 on ISRO Web-site
Mission durationPlanned: 7 years
Achieved: 15 years[1]
Spacecraft properties
BusI-1000 Bus[2]
ManufacturerISRO Satellite Center
Space Applications Centre
Launch mass1,060 kilograms (2,340 lb)
Dry mass498 kilograms (1,098 lb)
Power550 watts
Start of mission
Launch date12 September 2002, 10:24:00 (2002-09-12UTC10:24Z) UTC[3]
Launch siteSHAR, Satish Dhawan FLP
End of mission
DeactivatedSeptember 2017
Orbital parameters
Reference systemGeocentric
Longitude74° East
Perigee altitude35,771 kilometres (22,227 mi)
Apogee altitude35,801 kilometres (22,246 mi)
Inclination0.48 degrees
Period1436.06 minutes
Epoch25 September 2002[4]

Kalpana-1 was the first dedicated meteorological satellite launched by the Indian Space Research Organisation using Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle on 12 September 2002. The satellite is three-axis stabilized and is powered by solar panels, getting up to 550 watts (0.74 hp) of power. The METSAT bus was used as the basis for the Chandrayaan lunar orbiter mission of 2008.


Originally known as MetSat-1, the satellite was the first launched by the PSLV-C4 into the Geostationary orbit. On February 5, 2003, it was renamed to Kalpana-1 by the Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee in memory of Kalpana Chawla—an Indian born NASA astronaut who perished in the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster.

The satellite features a Very High Resolution scanning Radiometer (VHRR), for three-band images (visible, infrared, and thermal infrared) with a resolution of 2 km × 2 km (1.2 mi × 1.2 mi), and a Data Relay Transponder (DRT) payload to provide data to weather terrestrial platforms.[3] Its mission were to collect data in layer of clouds, water vapor, and temperature of the atmosphere and to establish a small satellite I-1000 bus system which can meet the exclusive service requirements of a meteorological payload for earth imageries

Kalpana-1 went out of service in mid-2018.[5]

VHRR scanning radiometer

The three band images are:

See also


  1. ^ "Kalpana - 1". www.isro.gov.in. ISRO. Archived from the original on 31 July 2017. Retrieved 31 October 2018.
  2. ^ "ISAC_website". Indian Space Research Organization. Retrieved 18 January 2018.
  3. ^ a b "Geostationary Satellites - Kalpana-1(METSAT)". Indian Space Research Organization. 2009. Archived from the original (aspx) on 14 October 2009. Retrieved 20 October 2009.
  4. ^ McDowell, Jonathan. "Satellite Catalog". Jonathan's Space Page. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
  5. ^ "Kalpana-1". 12 July 2018.
  6. ^ "Kalpana 1". Nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. NASA.