RD-214 (РД-214)
Museum of Space and Missile Technology (Saint Petersburg). RD-214 rocket engine for Cosmos LV first stage.
Country of originUSSR
DesignerEnergomash, V.Glushko
ManufacturerPlant No. 19 named after I. V. Stalin
Associated LVR-12 and Kosmos-2
Liquid-fuel engine
PropellantAK-27I / TM-185
Mixture ratio3.97
CycleGas Generator
Nozzle ratio9.42
Thrust, vacuum730.2 kilonewtons (164,200 lbf)
Thrust, sea-level635.2 kilonewtons (142,800 lbf)
Chamber pressure4.36 megapascals (632 psi)
Specific impulse, vacuum264 s (2.59 km/s)
Specific impulse, sea-level230 s (2.3 km/s)
Burn time140 s
Length2,380 millimetres (94 in)
Diameter1,480 millimetres (58 in)
Dry weight655 kilograms (1,444 lb)
Used in
R-12 and Kosmos-2

The RD-214 (GRAU Index 8D59) was a liquid rocket engine, burning AK-27I (a mixture of 73% nitric acid and 27% N2O4 + iodine passivant and TM-185 (a kerosene and gasoline mix) in the gas generator cycle.[2][3] As was the case with many V-2 influenced engines, the single turbine was driven by steam generated by catalytic decomposition of H2O2. It also had four combustion chambers and vector control was achieved by refractory vanes protruding into the nozzle's exhaust.[4]


For the requirements to have storable propellants and higher thrust, Glushko's OKB-456 developed the RD-211, which had four combustion chambers, each having twice the thrust of the RD-100, a Russian adaptation of the V-2 A-4 engine.[5] The four chambers were fed from a single turbopump powered by steam generated from catalytic decomposition of H2O2.[6] When then came the requirement for the Buran cruise missile project, a version for that application was developed in the RD-212.[7] Both RD-211 and RD-212 proved too weak for the application and the project were abandoned for the RD-213 for Buran.[8] When Yangel's OKB-586 was tasked with developing the first storable propellant ballistic missile in the Soviet arsenal, the RD-211 proved too weak. Thus, the project was definitely abandoned and the more powerful RD-214 was developed.[2] While Korolev's refusal to use toxic propellants basically left him out of the ballistic missile development race, the basic design of the RD-211 also served as basis for the RD-107/RD-108 engine, which went to be the most flown rocket engines in history.[5]

The initial R-12 was a pad launched missile. It had significant operative issues on readiness and vulnerability. Thus, the silo launched R-12U was developed. For this development the RD-214U was developed. When Yangel used the R-12U as the basis for the Kosmos-2 63S1, the RD-214F was developed and fire tested, but in the end the stock R-12U was used as first stage. So it was for all subsequent 63S1M and 11K63.[1][5][9]


This engine many versions:

RD-214 Family of Engines[1]
Engine RD-211 RD-212 RD-213 RD-214 RD-214U RD-214F
AKA 8D57 8D41 8D13 8D59 8D59U 11D45
Development 1953-1955 1954-1956 1956-1957 1955-1959 1959-1960 1960-1962
Engine type Gas generator[2]
Propellant AK-27I (73% nitric acid, 27% N2O4, and iodine passivant) / TM-185 (a kerosene and gasoline mix)[2]
Combustion chamber pressure 3.923 megapascals (569.0 psi) 3.923 megapascals (569.0 psi) 4.66 megapascals (676 psi) 4.36 megapascals (632 psi) 4.36 megapascals (632 psi) 4.38 megapascals (635 psi)
Thrust, vacuum 642.3 kilonewtons (144,400 lbf) 622.7 kilonewtons (140,000 lbf) 749.2 kilonewtons (168,400 lbf) 730.2 kilonewtons (164,200 lbf) 730.6 kilonewtons (164,200 lbf) 729.6 kilonewtons (164,000 lbf)
Thrust, sea level 549.2 kilonewtons (123,500 lbf) 559 kilonewtons (126,000 lbf) 686.5 kilonewtons (154,300 lbf) 635.2 kilonewtons (142,800 lbf) 635.5 kilonewtons (142,900 lbf) 635.5 kilonewtons (142,900 lbf)
Isp, vacuum 253 s (2.48 km/s) 254 s (2.49 km/s) 264 s (2.59 km/s) 264 s (2.59 km/s) 264 s (2.59 km/s) 264 s (2.59 km/s)
Isp, sea level 224 s (2.20 km/s) 227 s (2.23 km/s) 231 s (2.27 km/s) 230 s (2.3 km/s) 230 s (2.3 km/s) 230 s (2.3 km/s)
Burn time 122s 100s 110s 140s
Length 2,700 millimetres (110 in) 2,500 millimetres (98 in) 2,500 millimetres (98 in) 2,380 millimetres (94 in) 2,380 millimetres (94 in) 2,380 millimetres (94 in)
Diameter 1,650 millimetres (65 in) 1,480 millimetres (58 in) 1,480 millimetres (58 in) 1,500 millimetres (59 in) 1,480 millimetres (58 in) 1,480 millimetres (58 in)
Dry weight 635 kilograms (1,400 lb) 642 kilograms (1,415 lb) 625 kilograms (1,378 lb) 655 kilograms (1,444 lb) 655 kilograms (1,444 lb) 655 kilograms (1,444 lb)
Use R-12 (8K63) Project Buran Project Buran Project R-12 (8K63) R-12U (8K63S)
Kosmos-2 (11K63)
Project for Kosmos-2 (63S1)

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i "NPO Energomash list of engines". NPO Energomash. Retrieved 2015-06-26.
  2. ^ a b c d e "RD-214". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 2015-08-24. Retrieved 2015-06-26.
  3. ^ "Nitric acid/Kerosene". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 2016-03-13. Retrieved 2015-06-26.
  4. ^ "Soviet rocket's engines (NPO Energomash)". Buran-Energia.com. Retrieved 2015-06-27.
  5. ^ a b c "R-12". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on March 5, 2002. Retrieved 2015-06-26.
  6. ^ a b "RD-211". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on January 8, 2002. Retrieved 2015-06-26.
  7. ^ a b "RD-212". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on January 8, 2002. Retrieved 2015-06-26.
  8. ^ a b "RD-213". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on May 5, 2002. Retrieved 2015-06-26.
  9. ^ Zak, Anatoly. "Kosmos-2". RussianSpaceWeb.com. Retrieved 2015-06-26.