6 kW Hall thruster in operation at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Spacecraft electric propulsion (or just electric propulsion) is a type of spacecraft propulsion technique that uses electrostatic or electromagnetic fields to accelerate mass to high speed and thus generate thrust to modify the velocity of a spacecraft in orbit.[1] The propulsion system is controlled by power electronics.

Electric thrusters typically use much less propellant than chemical rockets because they have a higher exhaust speed (operate at a higher specific impulse) than chemical rockets.[1] Due to limited electric power the thrust is much weaker compared to chemical rockets, but electric propulsion can provide thrust for a longer time.[2]

Electric propulsion was first successfully demonstrated by NASA and is now a mature and widely used technology on spacecraft. American and Russian satellites have used electric propulsion for decades.[3] As of 2019, over 500 spacecraft operated throughout the Solar System use electric propulsion for station keeping, orbit raising, or primary propulsion.[4] In the future, the most advanced electric thrusters may be able to impart a delta-v of 100 km/s (62 mi/s), which is enough to take a spacecraft to the outer planets of the Solar System (with nuclear power), but is insufficient for interstellar travel.[1][5] An electric rocket with an external power source (transmissible through laser on the photovoltaic panels) has a theoretical possibility for interstellar flight.[6][7] However, electric propulsion is not suitable for launches from the Earth's surface, as it offers too little thrust.

On a journey to Mars, an electrically powered ship might be able to carry 70% of its initial mass to the destination, while a chemical rocket could carry only a few percent.[8]


The idea of electric propulsion for spacecraft was introduced in 1911 by Konstantin Tsiolkovsky.[9][10] Earlier, Robert Goddard had noted such a possibility in his personal notebook.[11]

On 15 May 1929, the Soviet research laboratory Gas Dynamics Laboratory (GDL) commenced development of electric rocket engines. Headed by Valentin Glushko,[12] in the early 1930s he created the world's first example of an electrothermal rocket engine.[13][14] This early work by GDL has been steadily carried on and electric rocket engines were used in the 1960s on board the Voskhod 1 spacecraft and Zond-2 Mars probe.[15]

Electrically powered propulsion with a nuclear reactor was considered by Tony Martin for interstellar Project Daedalus in 1973, but the approach was rejected because of its thrust profile, the weight of equipment needed to convert nuclear energy into electricity, and as a result a small acceleration, which would take a century to achieve the desired speed.[16]

The first demonstration of electric propulsion was an ion engine carried on board the NASA SERT-1 (Space Electric Rocket Test) spacecraft.[17][18] It launched on 20 July 1964 and operated for 31 minutes.[17] A follow-up mission launched on 3 February 1970, SERT-2. It carried two ion thrusters, one operated for more than five months and the other for almost three months.[17][19][20]

By the early 2010s, many satellite manufacturers were offering electric propulsion options on their satellites—mostly for on-orbit attitude control—while some commercial communication satellite operators were beginning to use them for geosynchronous orbit insertion in place of traditional chemical rocket engines.[21]


Ion and plasma drives

These types of rocket-like reaction engines use electric energy to obtain thrust from propellant.[22]

Electric propulsion thrusters for spacecraft may be grouped into three families based on the type of force used to accelerate the ions of the plasma:


Main article: Ion thruster

If the acceleration is caused mainly by the Coulomb force (i.e. application of a static electric field in the direction of the acceleration) the device is considered electrostatic. Types:


The electrothermal category groups devices that use electromagnetic fields to generate a plasma to increase the temperature of the bulk propellant. The thermal energy imparted to the propellant gas is then converted into kinetic energy by a nozzle of either solid material or magnetic fields. Low molecular weight gases (e.g. hydrogen, helium, ammonia) are preferred propellants for this kind of system.

An electrothermal engine uses a nozzle to convert heat into linear motion, so it is a true rocket even though the energy producing the heat comes from an external source.

Performance of electrothermal systems in terms of specific impulse (Isp) is 500 to ~1000 seconds, but exceeds that of cold gas thrusters, monopropellant rockets, and even most bipropellant rockets. In the USSR, electrothermal engines entered use in 1971; the Soviet "Meteor-3", "Meteor-Priroda", "Resurs-O" satellite series and the Russian "Elektro" satellite are equipped with them.[23] Electrothermal systems by Aerojet (MR-510) are currently used on Lockheed Martin A2100 satellites using hydrazine as a propellant.


Main article: Plasma propulsion engine

Electromagnetic thrusters accelerate ions either by the Lorentz force or by the effect of electromagnetic fields where the electric field is not in the direction of the acceleration. Types:

Non-ion drives


See also: Laser propulsion and Photon rocket

A photonic drive interacts only with photons.

Electrodynamic tether

Main article: Electrodynamic tether

Electrodynamic tethers are long conducting wires, such as one deployed from a tether satellite, which can operate on electromagnetic principles as generators, by converting their kinetic energy to electric energy, or as motors, converting electric energy to kinetic energy.[24] Electric potential is generated across a conductive tether by its motion through the Earth's magnetic field. The choice of the metal conductor to be used in an electrodynamic tether is determined by factors such as electrical conductivity, and density. Secondary factors, depending on the application, include cost, strength, and melting point.


Some proposed propulsion methods apparently violate currently-understood laws of physics, including:[25]

Steady vs. unsteady

Electric propulsion systems can be characterized as either steady (continuous firing for a prescribed duration) or unsteady (pulsed firings accumulating to a desired impulse). These classifications can be applied to all types of propulsion engines.

Dynamic properties

Further information: Reaction engine § Energy use

Electrically powered rocket engines provide lower thrust compared to chemical rockets by several orders of magnitude because of the limited electrical power available in a spacecraft.[2] A chemical rocket imparts energy to the combustion products directly, whereas an electrical system requires several steps. However, the high velocity and lower reaction mass expended for the same thrust allows electric rockets to run on less fuel. This differs from the typical chemical-powered spacecraft, where the engines require more fuel, requiring the spacecraft to mostly follow an inertial trajectory. When near a planet, low-thrust propulsion may not offset the gravitational force. An electric rocket engine cannot provide enough thrust to lift the vehicle from a planet's surface, but a low thrust applied for a long interval can allow a spacecraft to manoeuvre near a planet.

See also


  1. ^ a b c Choueiri, Edgar Y. (2009) New dawn of electric rocket Scientific American 300, 58–65 doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0209-58
  2. ^ a b "Electric versus Chemical Propulsion". Electric Spacecraft Propulsion. ESA. Retrieved 17 February 2007.
  3. ^ "Electric Propulsion Research at Institute of Fundamental Technological Research". 16 August 2011. Archived from the original on 16 August 2011.
  4. ^ Lev, Dan; Myers, Roger M.; Lemmer, Kristina M.; Kolbeck, Jonathan; Koizumi, Hiroyuki; Polzin, Kurt (June 2019). "The technological and commercial expansion of electric propulsion". Acta Astronautica. 159: 213–227. Bibcode:2019AcAau.159..213L. doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2019.03.058. S2CID 115682651.
  5. ^ "Choueiri, Edgar Y. (2009). New dawn of electric rocket".
  6. ^ "Google Scholar". scholar.google.com.
  7. ^ Geoffrey A. Landis. Laser-powered Interstellar Probe Archived 22 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine on the Geoffrey A. Landis: Science. papers available on the web
  8. ^ Boyle, Alan (29 June 2017). "MSNW's plasma thruster just might fire up Congress at hearing on space propulsion". GeekWire. Retrieved 15 August 2021.
  9. ^ Palaszewski, Bryan. "Electric Propulsion for Future Space Missions (PowerPoint)". Electric Propulsion for Future Space Missions. NASA Glenn Research Center. Archived from the original (PPT) on 23 November 2021. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
  10. ^ Choueiri, Edgar (26 June 2004). "A Critical History of Electric Propulsion: The First Fifty Years (1906-1956)". 40th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit. Reston, Virigina: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. doi:10.2514/6.2004-3334.
  11. ^ Choueiri, Edgar Y. (2004). "A Critical History of Electric Propulsion: The First 50 Years (1906–1956)". Journal of Propulsion and Power. 20 (2): 193–203. CiteSeerX doi:10.2514/1.9245.
  12. ^ Siddiqi, Asif (2000). Challenge to Apollo : the Soviet Union and the space race, 1945-1974 (PDF). Washington, D.C: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA History Div. p. 6. Retrieved 11 June 2022.
  13. ^ "Gas Dynamic Laboratory (in Russian)". History of Russian Soviet Cosmonautics. Retrieved 10 June 2022.
  14. ^ Chertok, Boris (31 January 2005). Rockets and People (Volume 1 ed.). National Aeronautics and Space Administration. pp. 164–165. Retrieved 29 May 2022.
  15. ^ Glushko, Valentin (1 January 1973). Developments of Rocketry and Space Technology in the USSR. Novosti Press Pub. House. pp. 12–13.
  16. ^ "PROJECT DAEDALUS: THE PROPULSION SYSTEM Part 1; Theoretical considerations and calculations. 2. REVIEW OF ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS". Archived from the original on 28 June 2013.
  17. ^ a b c Administrator, NASA Content (14 April 2015). "Glenn Contributions to Deep Space 1". NASA.
  18. ^ Cybulski, Ronald J.; Shellhammer, Daniel M.; Lovell, Robert R.; Domino, Edward J.; Kotnik, Joseph T. (1965). "Results from SERT I Ion Rocket Flight Test" (PDF). NASA. NASA-TN-D-2718.
  19. ^ NASA Glenn, "SPACE ELECTRIC ROCKET TEST II (SERT II)" Archived 27 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine (Accessed 1 July 2010)
  20. ^ SERT Archived 25 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine page at Astronautix (Accessed 1 July 2010)
  21. ^ de Selding, Peter B. (20 June 2013). "Electric-propulsion Satellites Are All the Rage". SpaceNews. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
  22. ^ DeFelice, David (18 August 2015). "Ion Propulsion". NASA. Retrieved 31 January 2023.
  23. ^ "Native Electric Propulsion Engines Today" (in Russian). Novosti Kosmonavtiki. 1999. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011.
  24. ^ NASA, Tethers In Space Handbook, edited by M.L. Cosmo and E.C. Lorenzini, Third Edition December 1997 (accessed 20 October 2010); see also version at NASA MSFC; available on scribd
  25. ^ "Why Shawyer's 'electromagnetic relativity drive' is a fraud" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 August 2014.