A rover is a planetary surface exploration vehicle designed to move across the surface of a planet or other celestial body. Rovers are used to explore, collect information, and take samples of the surface. This is a list of all rovers on extraterrestrial bodies in the Solar System. Since 1970, there have been four lunar rovers (excludes the three Lunar Roving Vehicles on Apollo 15, 16, and 17, as they carried no payloads and were designed to be driven by astronauts on the lunar surface), six Mars rovers, and three asteroid rovers that have successfully landed and explored these extraterrestrial surfaces.


Colour key:

  – Mission completed successfully (or partially successfully)      Failed or cancelled mission
  – Mission en route or in progress (including mission extensions)  Planned mission


Main article: Lunar rover

Mission Rover Country/Agency Date of landing Coordinates Operational time Distance travelled Notes
Luna 17 Lunokhod 1 Soviet Union USSR 17 November 1970 38°14′16″N 35°00′06″W / 38.2378°N 35.0017°W / 38.2378; -35.0017 (Lunokhod 1) 322 days 10.5 km (6.5 mi) First rover on extraterrestrial body
Luna 21 Lunokhod 2 Soviet Union USSR 15 January 1971 25°51′N 30°27′E / 25.85°N 30.45°E / 25.85; 30.45 (Lunokhod 2) 236 days 39 km (24 mi) Farthest distance traveled on the Moon.
Chang'e 3 Yutu China CNSA 14 December 2013 44°07′N 19°31′W / 44.12°N 19.51°W / 44.12; -19.51 (Yutu) 42 days (mobile)
973 days (total)
114.8 m (377 ft) First Chinese extraterrestrial rover and first soft landing on the Moon in over 35 years.
Chang'e 4 Yutu-2 China CNSA 3 January 2019 44°48′S 175°54′E / 44.8°S 175.9°E / -44.8; 175.9 (Yutu 2) 1540 days 1.181 km (0.734 mi)[1]
as of 1 May 2022
First soft landing on the far side of the Moon. Longest fully functioning rover on the Moon.
Chandrayaan-2 Pragyan India ISRO 6 September 2019 70°54′S 22°47′E / 70.90°S 22.78°E / -70.90; 22.78 (Vikram lander) 0 days 0 km Lost when Vikram lander crash landed on the Moon
Hakuto-R Rashid United Arab Emirates MBRSC April 2023 Atlas crater 42 days (planned) Launched 11 December 2022, in transit
Sora-Q Japan Tomy/JAXA/Doshisha University April 2023 Atlas Crater Small rover in preparation for Lunar Cruiser in 2030
Peregrine Mission 1 Iris United States Astrobotic/Carnegie Mellon University May 2023 Gruithuisen Gamma
Colmena x5 Mexico UNAM
Chandrayaan 3 Chandrayaan 3 rover India ISRO June 2023 Repeated mission announced after failure of Chandrayaan-2
IM-2 MAPP United States Lunar Outpost October 2023
AstroAnt United States MIT Micro rover, will travel on The MAPP rover
Micro-Nova United States Intuitive Machines
Yaoki Japan Dymon
SLIM LEV-1 Japan JAXA Q2 2023 [1] A hopper and a rover included in the SLIM mission which

will demonstrate precision landing technology

IM-3 Lunar Vertex United StatesNASA/Lunar Outpost Q2 2024 Reiner Gamma Small rover carrying instruments to explore Reiner Gamma
CADRE x4 United StatesNASA
VIPER United States NASA November 2024 100 days (planned)
Hakuto-R mission 2 Ispace Rover Japan Ispace Europe 2024 Hakuto-R mission 2 will feature a rover for surface exploration and data collection
Chang’e 7 Chang’e 7 rover China CNSA 2026
Chang’e 7 hopper
Chang’e 8 Chang’e 8 rover China CNSA 2028 Chinese ISRU mission in preparation for ILRS
Chang’e 8 hopper
HERACLES Canada CSA 2030 Schrödinger basin Rover being developed for ESA and JAXA sample return missions


Main article: Mars rover

Mission Rover Country/Agency Date of landing Coordinates Operational time Distance travelled Notes
Mars 2 Prop-M Rover Soviet Union USSR 27 November 1971 45°S 47°E / 45°S 47°E / -45; 47 (Mars 2 lander) 1 days 0 km Lost when Mars 2 lander crash landed on Mars
Mars 3 Prop-M Rover Soviet Union USSR 2 December 1971 45°S 202°E / 45°S 202°E / -45; 202 (Mars 3 lander) 0 days 0 km Lost when Mars 3 lander stopped communicating about 20 seconds after landing
Mars Pathfinder Sojourner United States NASA 4 July 1997 38°14′16″N 35°00′06″W / 38.2378°N 35.0017°W / 38.2378; -35.0017 (Sojourner) 85 days 100 m (330 ft) First successful rover on Mars
Beagle 2 PLUTO EuropeUnited KingdomESA/National Space Centre 25 December


11.52879°N 90.43139°E 0 days 0 km small rover with a spring mechanism used to move, never deployed
Mars Exploration Rover Spirit United States NASA 4 January 2004 14°34′06″S 175°28′21″E / 14.5684°S 175.472636°E / -14.5684; 175.472636 (Spirit) 6 years 79 days 7.73 km (4.80 mi)
Opportunity United States NASA 25 January 2004 1°56′46″S 354°28′24″E / 1.9462°S 354.4734°E / -1.9462; 354.4734 (Opportunity) 14 years 140 days 45.16 km (28.06 mi) Longest distance travelled by any rover and most days operated
Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity United States NASA 6 August 2012 4°35′22″S 137°26′30″E / 4.5895°S 137.4417°E / -4.5895; 137.4417 (Curiosity) 10 years 229 days 27.55 km (17.12 mi)
as of 24 March 2022[2]
Currently active
Mars 2020 Perseverance United States NASA 18 February 2021 18°26′41″N 77°27′03″E / 18.4447°N 77.4508°E / 18.4447; 77.4508 (Mars 2020) 2 years 33 days 13.88 km (8.62 mi)
as of 20 December 2022[3]
Currently active
Ingenuity 3 April 2021 (deployment) 8.008 km as of 23 January 2023
Tianwen-1 Zhurong China CNSA 14 May 2021 25°06′N 109°54′E / 25.1°N 109.9°E / 25.1; 109.9Coordinates: 25°06′N 109°54′E / 25.1°N 109.9°E / 25.1; 109.9 677 days 1.921 km (1.194 mi)
as of 1 May 2022[4]
Currently active
ExoMars Rosalind Franklin Europe ESA 2025 at earliest 18°16′30″N 335°22′05″E / 18.275°N 335.368°E / 18.275; 335.368 (Rosalind Franklin) 420 days (planned) Planned to launch 2024 at earliest[5]
MMX MMX rover GermanyFranceDLR/CNES 2025 Scheduled to land on Phobos in 2025/2026
Mars Sample Return Mars Sample Recovery Helicopter United States NASA 2030 Ingenuity class helicopter designed to retrieve Martian regolith samples


Body Mission Rover Country/Agency Date of landing Location Operational time Distance travelled Notes
162173 Ryugu Hayabusa2 MINERVA-II Rover-1A Japan JAXA 21 September 2019 Tritonis 36 days[6] Successfully landed, returned images, and hopped along surface. First rovers on an asteroid.
MINERVA-II Rover-1B 3 days[6]
MASCOT FranceGermany DLR/CNES 3 October 2018 Alice's Wonderland 17 h 14 min[7] ~17.9 m (59 ft)[7] Successfully landed, returned images from the surface, and performed multiple hops along surface
MINERVA-II Rover-2 Japan JAXA October 2019 Unknown 0 days 0 m Failed before deployment, so it was released in orbit around the asteroid to perform gravitational measurements before it impacted a few days later


Mission Rover Country/Agency Date of landing Location Operational time Distance travelled Notes
Dragonfly United States NASA 2034 Shangri-La 10 years (planned) 8 km per flight Rotorcraft to be sent to Titan in 2027

Proposed rovers

Rover Country/Agency Date of launch Location Notes
LUPEX Rover IndiaJapan JAXA/ISRO 2025 Lunar South Pole Joint mission between ISRO and JAXA
MPR-1 Canada STELLS 2025 Rover under study for power supply for future mining rovers
Canadensys Rover Canada Canadensys 2026 Lunar South Pole Rover funded by CSA to scout for water ice on the Moon
Lunar Zebro Netherlands Delft University of Technology 2026 Small rover studying swarm technologies
Lunar Trailblazer Australia Australian Space Agency 2026 Rover being researched by Australian Businesses
Luna-Grunt Russia Roscosmos 2028 Rover for proposed Luna 29 sample return mission, details of

rover are unknown

TBD South Korea KARI 2031 KARI has requested a budget of $459 million for a lander and rover mission. [2]
Rashid 2 [3] United Arab Emirates MBRSC TBD Was intended to launch with Chang'e 7 but due to US restrictions, launch is unknown
Moonranger United States Astrobotic/Carnegie Mellon University Lunar South Pole Was intended to launch in November

2023 but Lunar Lander provider hit bankruptcy and rover is on hold for now

Asagumo United Kingdom Spacebit Spider-like rover was planned to launch

with Peregrine Mission One but status is currently unknown

Crewed rovers

Mission Rover Country/Agency Date of landing Coordinates Operational time Distance travelled Notes
Apollo 15 Lunar Roving Vehicle United States NASA 7 August 1971 3 h 02 min 27.76 km

(7.75 mi)

First crewed lunar rover
Apollo 16 Lunar Roving Vehicle United States NASA 21 April 1972 3 h 26 min 26.55 km

(16.50 mi)

Apollo 17 Lunar Roving Vehicle United States NASA 11 December 1972 4 h 26 min 35.89 km

(22.30 mi)

Furthest distance

travelled by crewed lunar rover

Artemis 5 Lunar Terrain Vehicle United States NASA 2028 unpressurised crewed rover for

the Artemis program

Artemis 7 Lunar Cruiser Japan JAXA 2030 Developed jointly between JAXA

and Toyota

Chinese Crewed Lunar Mission Chinese Crewed Rover China CNSA 2030> Rover unrevealed at the National

Museum of China on Feb 24

See also


  1. ^ Andrew Jones (2021-10-05). "1,000 days on the moon! China's Chang'e 4 lunar far side mission hits big milestone". Space.com. Retrieved 2021-10-07.
  2. ^ "Where Is Curiosity?". mars.nasa.gov. NASA. Retrieved 23 March 2022. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  3. ^ "Where is Perseverance?". Mars 2020 Mission Perseverance Rover. NASA. Retrieved 12 April 2022.
  4. ^ "中欧火星探测器成功开展在轨中继通信试验". 新华网. 2021-12-01. Retrieved 2021-12-01.
  5. ^ "Joint Europe-Russia Mars rover project is parked". BBC News. 2022-03-17. Retrieved 2022-03-22.
  6. ^ a b Yoshimitsu, Tetsuo; Kubota, Takashi; Tomiki, Atsushi; Yoshikaw, Kent (2019-10-24). Operation results of MINERVA-II twin rovers onboard Hayabusa2 asteroid explorer (PDF). 70th International Astronautical Congress. International Astronautical Federation. Retrieved 2020-01-25.
  7. ^ a b Davis, Jason (28 August 2019). "Hayabusa2 Lander Mania: Results from MASCOT, Plans for MINERVA-II2". The Planetary Society. Retrieved 2020-01-25.