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Ingenuity
Part of Mars 2020
A robotic helicopter on the surface of Mars.
Ingenuity on Mars at Wright Brothers Field, April 7, 2021 (sol 46), photographed by Perseverance rover
TypeExtraterrestrial autonomous UAV helicopter
Serial no.IGY (civil registration)
OwnerNASA
ManufacturerJet Propulsion Laboratory
Specifications
Dimensions121 cm × 49 cm (48 in × 19 in)
Dry mass1.8 kilograms (4.0 lb)[1]
PowerSolar-charged Li ion battery; typical engine input power: 350 watt[2]
Instruments
History
Deployed
LocationJezero crater, Mars[3]
First flight
  • 19 April 2021, 07:34 UTC
Last flight
  • 29 April 2022, 04:11 UTC
Flights28
Flight time54 minutes, 16 seconds
Travelled6.98 km (4.34 mi) on Mars as of 29 April 2022

Ingenuity, nicknamed Ginny, is a small robotic helicopter operating on Mars as part of NASA's Mars 2020 mission along with the Perseverance rover, which landed on February 18, 2021. Two months later, on April 19, Ingenuity successfully completed the first powered controlled extraterrestrial flight by an aircraft—taking off vertically, hovering, and landing, for a flight duration of 39.1 seconds.[4][5][6] As of April 29, 2022, it has made 28 successful flights.[7][8] Ingenuity's 25th successful flight, which occurred on April 8, 2022, saw the helicopter set new records for highest speed and distance traveled during a single flight.[9] Ingenuity travelled to Mars attached to the underside of Perseverance, which touched down at the Octavia E. Butler Landing site in the 28 mi (45 km) wide Jezero crater on February 18, 2021.[10][11][12] The helicopter was deployed to the surface on April 3, 2021,[13][14] and Perseverance drove approximately 100 m (330 ft) away to allow the drone a safe "buffer zone" in which to make its first flight.[15][16] Success was confirmed three hours later in a livestreaming TV feed from JPL Mission Control.[17][18][19] On its fourth flight, on April 30, 2021, Ingenuity became the first interplanetary spacecraft whose sound was recorded by another interplanetary spacecraft, Perseverance.[20]

Ingenuity carries a piece of fabric from the wing of the 1903 Wright Flyer, the Wright Brothers' airplane used in the first controlled powered heavier-than-air flight on Earth. Ingenuity's initial take-off and landing area is named Wright Brothers Field as a tribute.[21] Before Ingenuity, the first flight of any kind on a planet beyond Earth was an unpowered balloon flight on Venus by the Soviet Vega 1 spacecraft in 1985.[22]

Operational history

Comparison of total distance traveled between Ingenuity and Perseverance.[a]
Tracks and locations of Perseverance and Ingenuity as of April 12, 2022[23]

Perseverance dropped the debris shield protecting Ingenuity on March 21, 2021, and the helicopter deployed from the underside of the rover to the martian surface on April 3, 2021.[24] That day both cameras of the helicopter were tested taking their first b/w and color photos of the floor of Jezero Crater in the shadow of the rover.[25][26]

Ingenuity's rotor blades were successfully unlocked on April 8, 2021 (mission sol 48), and the helicopter performed a low-speed rotor spin test at 50 rpm.[27][28][29][30][31]

A high-speed spin test was attempted on April 9, but failed due to the expiration of a watchdog timer, a software measure to protect the helicopter from incorrect operation in unforeseen conditions.[32] On April 12, JPL said it identified a software fix to correct the problem.[16] To save time, however, JPL decided to use a workaround procedure, which managers said had an 85% chance of succeeding and would be "the least disruptive" to the helicopter.[33]

On April 16, 2021, Ingenuity successfully passed the full-speed 2400 rpm rotor spin test while remaining on the surface.[34][18] Three days later, April 19, JPL flew the helicopter for the first time. The watchdog timer problem occurred again when the fourth flight was attempted. The team rescheduled the flight, which succeeded on April 30. On June 25, JPL said it had uploaded a software update the previous week to permanently fix the watchdog problem, and that a rotor spin test and the eighth flight confirmed that the update worked.[35]

The Ingenuity team plans to fly the helicopter every two to three weeks during its indefinitely extended mission.[36] The helicopter's longer-than-expected flying career lasted into a seasonal change on Mars, when the atmospheric density at its location became even lower. The flight team prepared by commanding Ingenuity to ground-test a faster rotor blade rotation, needed for sufficient lift. JPL said the higher planned flight speed of 2700 rpm would pose new risks, including vibration, power consumption and aerodynamic drag if the blade tips approach the speed of sound.[37] The test speed was 2800 rpm, giving a margin for increase if the intended flight speed of 2700 is not enough. Ingenuity faced another challenge to remain functional during the Martian winter and solar conjunction, when Mars moves behind the Sun, blocking communications with Earth and forcing the rover and helicopter to halt operations. The shutdown happened in mid-October 2021, for which preparations started in mid-September.[38][39] The helicopter remained stationary at its location 575 feet (175 meters) away from Perseverance and communicated its status weekly to the rover for health checks.[40] JPL intended to continue flying Ingenuity since it survived solar conjunction.[41][42] NASA leadership has acknowledged that extending the mission adds to the original Ingenuity budget of $80 million but has stated that any increase would be minimal compared to what NASA is learning.[43]

The start time of the flight is chosen depending on the temperature management of the battery, that need to warm up after the night and the engines. During Martian summer with lower air density the motors had a higher load, so the flights were shifted from noon (LMST 12:30) to morning (LMST 9:30) and limited to 130 s to not overheat the engines.[44]

List of Ingenuity flights

Record values highlighted
# Date (UTC) Duration (sec) Altitude Distance Max Ground Speed Route Summary
Technology Demonstration Phase
1 April 19, 2021 at 07:34
(Sol 58)
39.1 3 m (9.8 ft) 0.05 m (0.16 ft)[45] 0 m/s (0 mph) Vertical takeoff, hover, land at Wright Brothers Field (JZRO) 18°26′41″N 77°27′04″E / 18.44486°N 77.45102°E / 18.44486; 77.45102[23] The first powered flight by any aircraft on another planet. While hovering, it rotated in place 96 degrees in a planned maneuver. Flight data was received at 11:30 UTC.[5][46]
2 April 22, 2021 at 09:33
(Sol 61)
51.9 5 m (16 ft) 4 m (13 ft) Roundtrip 0.5 m/s (1.1 mph) Hover, shift westward 2 m (6.6 ft), hover, return, hover, land[47][48] 18°26′41″N 77°27′04″E / 18.44486°N 77.45102°E / 18.44486; 77.45102[23] From initial hover, it tilted 5 degrees, allowing rotors to fly it 2 meters sideways. It stopped, hovered in place, and rotated counterclockwise, yawing from +90° to 0° to -90° to -180°, in 3 steps, to point its color camera in various directions to take photos. It flew back to the takeoff location and landed.[49]
3 April 25, 2021 at 11:31
(Sol 64)
80.3 5 m (16 ft) 99.97 m (328.0 ft) Roundtrip 2 m/s (4.5 mph) Hover, shift northward 49.98 m (164.0 ft), return, hover, land[50][51] 18°26′41″N 77°27′04″E / 18.44486°N 77.45101°E / 18.44486; 77.45101[23] First flight to venture some distance from the deployment spot. It flew downrange 50 meters at two meters per second, stopped, hovered, then returned and landed at the departure spot.[52] Data from the flight was received at 14:16 UTC.[51]
Transition Phase
4 April 29, 2021[53] (Sol 68) First attempt of flight 4 failed; onboard software did not transition to flight mode.[54][35][55]
April 30, 2021 at 14:49[56]
(Sol 69)
116.9 5 m (16 ft) 270.46 m (887.3 ft) Roundtrip 3.5 m/s (7.8 mph) Hover, shift southward 135.23 m (443.7 ft), hover, return, hover, land[57] 18°26′41″N 77°27′04″E / 18.44486°N 77.45112°E / 18.44486; 77.45112[23] Took color images while hovering at its farthest point from takeoff.[56] The Perseverance rover recorded both audio and video of Ingenuity in flight,[58] making the helicopter the first interplanetary vehicle whose sound was recorded off Earth.
5 May 7, 2021 at 19:26[59]
(Sol 76)
108.2 10 m (33 ft) 130.84 m (429.3 ft) 2 m/s (4.5 mph) Hover, shift southwards 130.84 m (429.3 ft), climb to 10 m (33 ft), hover, land at Airfield B 18°26′34″N 77°27′05″E / 18.44267°N 77.45139°E / 18.44267; 77.45139[23] This was the first flight to land at a new location, 129 m (423 ft) to the south. Arriving above the destination, it gained altitude, hovered, captured color terrain images, then landed at the new site, Airfield B.[60][61] This flight was the last in the technology demonstration phase.
Operation Demonstration Phase
6 May 23, 2021 at 5:20[62]
(Sol 91)
139.9 10 m (33 ft) 202.39 m (664.0 ft) with direction changes) 4 m/s (8.9 mph) Shift southwest about 140.9 m (462 ft), southward about 14.1 m (46 ft), northeast about 46.8 m (154 ft), land at Airfield C 18°26′30″N 77°27′00″E / 18.44166°N 77.44994°E / 18.44166; 77.44994[23] Near the end of the first leg of the route, a glitch occurred in the navigation images processing system. An image was dropped, and subsequent images with incorrect timestamps resulted in the craft tilting forward and backward up to 20 degrees, with large spikes in power consumption. It flew in that mode until successfully landing about 5 m (16 ft) away from the planned spot.[62][63]

This was the first time the helicopter had to land at an airfield which was not surveyed by any means other than MRO satellite imagery.[64][65]

7 June 6, 2021[35] (Sol 105) First attempt of flight 7 failed; onboard software did not transition to flight mode.[35]
June 8, 2021 at 15:54
(Sol 107)
62.8[66] 10 m (33 ft)[67] 106.34 m (348.9 ft) 4 m/s (8.9 mph) Shift southward 106.3 m (349 ft) to land at Airfield D 18°26′24″N 77°27′01″E / 18.43988°N 77.45015°E / 18.43988; 77.45015[23] Flew to a new landing spot, Airfield D. The color camera was not used to prevent the glitch of flight 6 happening again.[68][69]
8 June 22, 2021 at 0:27[70]
(Sol 121)
77.4 10 m (33 ft) 160.48 m (526.5 ft) 4 m/s (8.9 mph) Shift south south-east 160.48 m (526.5 ft) to land at Airfield E[35] 18°26′14″N 77°27′03″E / 18.43724°N 77.45079°E / 18.43724; 77.45079[23] The landing spot was about 133.5 m (438 ft) away from the Perseverance rover. As in the previous flight, the color camera was switched off, pending a software update.[35]
9 July 5, 2021 at 9:03[67]
(Sol 133)
166.4 10 m (33 ft) 631.78 m (2,072.8 ft) 5 m/s (11 mph) Shift southwest 631.79 m (2,070 ft) to Airfield F 18°25′41″N 77°26′44″E / 18.42809°N 77.44545°E / 18.42809; 77.44545[23] Flew southwest, over Séítah, a prospective research location in Jezero crater. This flight strained the navigation system, which by design assumes flat ground; Séítah has uneven sand dunes. Controllers had Ingenuity partly compensate by flying slower over the more challenging part of the route. Landing occurred 47 m (154 ft) from the center of the 50 m (160 ft) planned ellipse.[71][72][73]
10 July 24, 2021 at 21:07[74]
(Sol 152)
165.4[75]
12 m (39 ft)
[74]
240.37 m (788.6 ft)[67] 5 m/s (11 mph) Loop south and west over prospective research location Raised Ridges to Airfield G 18°25′41″N 77°26′37″E / 18.42808°N 77.44373°E / 18.42808; 77.44373[23] The helicopter flew past 10 waypoints, including takeoff and landing.[76]
# Date (UTC) Duration (sec) Altitude Distance Max Ground Speed Route Summary
11 August 5, 2021 at 4:53[77]
(Sol 164)
130.9 12 m (39 ft) 388.29 m (1,273.9 ft) 5 m/s (11 mph) Shift northwest 388.29 m (1,273.9 ft) to land at Airfield H 18°25′58″N 77°26′21″E / 18.43278°N 77.43919°E / 18.43278; 77.43919[23] The flight positioned the craft for a route to take photographs of South Séítah.[77][78]
12 August 16, 2021 at 12:57[79]
(Sol 174)
169.5
10 m (33 ft) 448.21 m (1,470.5 ft) Roundtrip 4.3 m/s (9.6 mph) Takeoff and return to Airfield H again 18°25′58″N 77°26′21″E / 18.43268°N 77.43924°E / 18.43268; 77.43924[23] The return path was about 5 m (16 ft) to the side to allow another attempt to take paired images for stereo imagery. Landing was about 25 m (82 ft) east from the takeoff point.[80][81]
13 September 5, 2021 at 00:10[82]
(Sol 194)
160.5 8 m (26 ft) 209.4 m (687 ft) Roundtrip 3.3 m/s (7.4 mph) Takeoff and return to Airfield H again 18°25′58″N 77°26′21″E / 18.43285°N 77.43915°E / 18.43285; 77.43915[23] The flight northeast and back concentrated on one particular ridgeline and outcrops in South Séítah.
14 September 18, 2021 (Sol 206) A flight attempt at a faster rotor spin rate of 2700 rpm was automatically canceled due to a servo motor anomaly.[37] Three days earlier, September 15, Ingenuity successfully ground tested a rotor spin rate of 2800 rpm.[83] Servo motor "wiggle" tests were done on September 21 and 23 to diagnose the problem that prevented flight.[37][84] More ground tests and another flight attempt were postponed until after solar conjunction. Then, on October 21, NASA/JPL reported a successful 50 rpm ground test.[85] Ingenuity made its 14th flight three days later.
October 24, 2021 at 8:18
(Sol 241)
23.0 5 m (16 ft) 2.18 m (7.2 ft)[86] 0.5 m/s (1.1 mph) Hover, shift eastward 2.18 m (7.2 ft), hover, land again near Airfield H[37] 18°25′58″N 77°26′21″E / 18.43284°N 77.43920°E / 18.43284; 77.43920[23] The brief flight verified use of the faster rotor spin of 2700 rpm, needed during seasonal lower atmospheric density on Mars.[87][88]
15 November 6, 2021 at 16:22

(Sol 254)

128.8 12 m (39 ft) 410.27 m (1,346.0 ft) 5 m/s (11 mph) Shift southeast 411.3 m (1,349 ft) to land at Airfield F 18°25′43″N 77°26′42″E / 18.42871°N 77.44501°E / 18.42871; 77.44501[23] First in a series of four to seven flights on a return journey to Wright Brothers Field. This leg ended in the Raised Ridges region.[89][90]
16 November 21, 2021 at 2:09[91]

(Sol 268)

107.9 10 m (33 ft) 116.99 m (383.8 ft) 1.5 m/s (3.4 mph) Shift northeast 116.99 m (383.8 ft) to land at Airfield J 18°25′48″N 77°26′47″E / 18.43013°N 77.44645°E / 18.43013; 77.44645[23] Landed near the edge of South Séítah, prior to crossing that area on multiple impending flights.
17 December 5, 2021 at 12:25
(Sol 282)
116.8 10 m (33 ft) 187.36 m (614.7 ft) 2.5 m/s (5.6 mph) Shift northeast 187.7 m (616 ft) to land at Airfield K 18°25′59″N 77°26′52″E / 18.43306°N 77.44771°E / 18.43306; 77.44771 Flew halfway across South Séítah along the heading of flight 9 but in the reverse direction.[92] The helicopter lost communication with the rover during final descent, roughly 3 m (10 ft) above the ground, but JPL believed the flight was a success, based on available telemetry. On Sol 285, Ingenuity relayed more information which suggested the helicopter was upright, based on the solar arrays charging the batteries, which could not be done if the helicopter fell sideways. JPL said local terrain and Perseverance positioning probably interrupted communication.[93]
18 December 15, 2021 at 17:27[94][95]
(Sol 292)
124.3 10 m (33 ft) 231.56 m (759.7 ft) 2.5 m/s (5.6 mph) Shift northeast 231.8 m (760 ft) to land near the northern edge of South Séítah at Airfield L18°26′10″N 77°27′00″E / 18.43623°N 77.45011°E / 18.43623; 77.45011 Flew across South Séítah in the reverse of the flight 9 heading and landed near flight 9 takeoff spot. This was another in a series of flights returning Ingenuity to Wright Brothers Field. Airfield L has featureless sandy terrain, chosen for the lack of rocks for safe landing. The area is actually so devoid of rock that the helicopter sent warnings due to insufficient features for the vision navigation to track. JPL planned to update software fault protection parameters to reduce the risk of a premature landing on Flight 19.
19 Between December 20, 2021 (Sol 297) and
February 3 2022 (Sol 341)
The first attempt of flight 19 was postponed due to a dust storm approaching Jezero Crater, the first time weather delayed a flight of an airborne vehicle on a celestial object other than Earth.[96] The storm reduced sunlight by 18 percent on Ingenuity's solar array, which charges its batteries, and warm dust lowered the surrounding air density by seven percent, which could have exceeded Ingenuity's ability to generate adequate lift. JPL waited over a month for the air to clear and the helicopter to regain its pre-storm power generating ability.[96][97] The storm deposited dust on the navigation camera window. To prevent navigation errors, JPL uploaded a new image mask file in late January that ignores certain regions of the image. Dust and sand also accumulated in all the swashplate assemblies. Repeated actuator self-tests and servo-wiggles cleared the debris.
February 8, 2022 at 04:21[98][97]
(Sol 345)
99.8 10 m (33 ft) 61.19 m (200.8 ft) 1 m/s (2.2 mph) Shift northeast 61.6 m (202 ft) to land just above the eastern ridge of South Séítah at Airfield E 18°26′13″N 77°27′03″E / 18.43700°N 77.45080°E / 18.43700; 77.45080 The helicopter flew out of South Séítah basin, across a dividing ridge and up to the main plateau, near the landing site of Flight 8. Images taken during Flight 9 were used to select a safe zone. The flight was another in a series to return to Wright Brothers Field. This gradual approach is due to lack of large landing sites in the area and lower atmospheric density in the summer, which requires higher rotor speeds and more power. The flight plan called for the helicopter to turn nearly 180 degrees before landing to aim its color camera toward the river delta for future flights.
20 February 25, 2022 at 13:35[99][100]
(Sol 362)
130.3 10 m (33 ft) 392.27 m (1,287.0 ft) 4.4 m/s (9.8 mph) Shift northwest 392.27 m (1,287.0 ft) flying across Séítah to land at Airfield M 18°26′36″N 77°26′55″E / 18.44337°N 77.44859°E / 18.44337; 77.44859 Ingenuity continued its journey back toward its original flight zone, landing just southwest of Wright Brothers Field. From there, it will take a shortcut to the Jezero Crater river delta, flying northwest across Séítah, while Perseverance drives around the region to the delta.
# Date (UTC) Duration (sec) Altitude Distance Max Ground Speed Route Summary
21 March 10, 2022 at 22:10[101][102]
(Sol 375)
129.2 10 m (33 ft) 374.4 m (1,228 ft) 3.85 m/s (8.6 mph) Shift northwest flying across Seìtah to land at Airfield N 18°26′43″N 77°26′32″E / 18.44514°N 77.44219°E / 18.44514; 77.44219 First in a series of flights to a position near the base of the ancient river delta in Jezero Crater to scout ahead for Perseverance.
22 March 20, 2022 at 4:06[103]

(Sol 384)

101.4 10 m (33 ft) 70.4 m (231 ft) 1 m/s (2.2 mph) Shift northeast flying across northwest Seìtah to land again within Airfield N 18°26′46″N 77°26′35″E / 18.44610°N 77.44292°E / 18.44610; 77.44292 Second flight toward position near base of the delta. Ingenuity flew only 70.4 m (231 ft), not the planned ~350 m (1,150 ft).
23 March 24, 2022 at 6:44 [104]
(Sol 388)
129.1 10 m (33 ft) 374.886 m (1,229.94 ft) 4 m/s (8.9 mph) Shift northeast and then northwest flying across Seìtah to land at Airfield P 18°26′42″N 77°26′36″E / 18.44508°N 77.44345°E / 18.44508; 77.44345 Another flight on the way to a position near the base of the delta. The flight was complex, including a sharp turn to avoid a large hill. In deciding the remaining route to the delta, the mission team considered multiple factors: thermal (temperature of helicopter parts), atmospheric, flight time, navigation drift, landing site terrain, and keeping up with the rover.[44]
24 April 3, 2022 at 12:49[45][105]
(Sol 398)
69.8 10 m (33 ft) 47.54 m (156.0 ft) 1.45 m/s (3.2 mph) Shift northwest flying across Seìtah to land again at Airfield P 18°26′42″N 77°26′33″E / 18.44508°N 77.44246°E / 18.44508; 77.44246 Fourth of five sorties crossing the Séítah region. Rotors spun at 2,537 rpm, a reduction from 2,700 rpm used since flight 14; this was a return to the slower rate of the earliest flights. Increasing air density allowed the reduction, as the thin air of the ending Martian summer was being replaced by fall's denser air. The short flight positioned Ingenuity for a long flight to approach its destination near the delta.[44] The date of flight 24 marked one year since Ingenuity's deployment to the surface from Perseverance.
25 April 8, 2022 at 16:40[106]
(Sol 403)
161.3 10 m (33 ft)
708.91 m (2,325.8 ft)
5.50 m/s (12.3 mph)
Shift northwest flying over Seìtah, land at staging area Airfield Q 18°27′17″N 77°25′50″E / 18.45477°N 77.43058°E / 18.45477; 77.43058 Longest distance and highest speed of any flight so far. The mission team chose a route that avoided flying over hardware that was discarded and fell to the surface during the rover's entry-descent-landing (EDL) and might have caused unexpected performance from Ingenuity's laser altimeter and visual navigation system. This flight brought the helicopter out of the Séítah region.[44]
26 April 19, 2022[107][108] at 1:32[109]
(Sol 414)
159.3 8 m (26 ft) 391.18 m (1,283.4 ft) 3.80 m/s (8.5 mph) Shift southeast, southwest, and then northwest to land at Airfield R 18°27′06″N 77°25′50″E / 18.45163°N 77.43046°E / 18.45163; 77.43046 Ingenuity flew closer to the delta and took color photos of the EDL debris, including the spacecraft backshell and parachute.[108][110]
27 April 23, 2022 at 4:11[111][23]
(Sol 418)
153.25 10 m (33 ft) 304.96 m (1,000.5 ft) 3 m/s (6.7 mph) Shift slightly southeast, then southwest, and then northwest to land at Airfield S 18°27′09″N 77°25′35″E / 18.45252°N 77.42636°E / 18.45252; 77.42636 Ingenuity flew closer to the delta.
28 April 29, 2022 at 7:44[112][23]
(Sol 423)
152.86 10 m (33 ft) 420.94 m (1,381.0 ft) 3.6 m/s (8.1 mph) Shift northwest to land at Airfield T 18°27′26″N 77°25′14″E / 18.45714°N 77.42068°E / 18.45714; 77.42068
General view of Perseverance/Ingenuity exploration area in Jezero Crater. The white line depicts the approximate first route the rover and helicopter took after Perseverance touched down at the "Octavia E. Butler Landing" site on Feb. 18, 2021. The rover returned to the landing site along the same route and then continued toward the delta along the blue line, which shows its planned path. Ingenuity is making a series of flights to the delta on more direct route northwest from the original landing site.

Ingenuity's imagery during its flights

Count of stored images from both cameras per each flight[113]
Flight No. Date (UTC) and Mars 2020 mission sol Photographs Comments
b/w
NAV
color
RTE
Before April 19, 2021 (sol 58) 6[114] 6[26] Preflight camera tests
1 April 19, 2021 (sol 58) 15
2 April 22, 2021 (sol 61) 17 3 The first color photo session
3 April 25, 2021 (sol 64) 24 4
4 April 30, 2021 (sol 69) 62 5
5 May 7, 2021 (sol 76) 128 6
6 May 23, 2021 (sol 91) 106 8
7 June 8, 2021 (sol 107) 72 0 RTE was turned off[35]
8 June 22, 2021 (sol 121) 186 0
9 July 5, 2021 (sol 133) 193 10
10 July 24, 2021 (sol 152) 190 10 Five pairs of color images of Raised Ridges taken to make anaglyphs.[74]
11 August 5, 2021 (sol 164) 194 10
12 August 16, 2021 (Sol 174) 197[115] 10 Five pairs of color images of Séítah taken to make anaglyphs.[79]
13 September 5, 2021 (Sol 193) 191[116] 10
September 16, 2021 (Sol 204) to October 23, 2021 (Sol 240) 9 1 preflight 14 tests
14 October 24, 2021 (Sol 241) 182
15 November 6, 2021 (Sol 254) 191 10
November 15, 2021 (Sol 263) 1 ground color photo[117]
16 November 21, 2021 (Sol 268) 185 9
November 27, 2021 (Sol 274) 1 ground color photo[117]
17 December 5, 2021 (Sol 282) 192
18 December 15, 2021 (Sol 292) 184
December 20, 2021 (Sol 297) to February 3, 2022 (Sol 341) 10 1 preflight 19 tests and post-dust storm debris removal operations
19 February 8, 2022 (Sol 346) 92
20 February 25, 2022 (Sol 362) 110 10
February 27, 2022 (Sol 364) 1 preflight 21 tests
21 March 10, 2022 (Sol 375) 191

Ingenuity has two commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) cameras on board. The Sony IMX 214 with 4208 x 3120 pixel resolution is a color camera with a global shutter to make terrain images for return to Earth (RTE). The Omnivision OV7251 (640 × 480) VGA is the downward-looking black and white rolling shutter navigation camera (NAV), which supplies the onboard computer of the helicopter with the raw data essential for flight control.[118]

While the RTE color camera is not necessary for flight and may be switched off (as in flights 7 and 8[35]), the NAV camera works throughout each flight, catching the first frame before takeoff and the last frame after landing. Its frame rate is synchronized with blade rotation to ease online image processing.

During flight, all NAV frames must be carefully stored in the onboard helicopter computer, with each frame assigned the unique timestamp of its creation. Loss of a single NAV image timestamp was an anomaly that caused the helicopter to move erratically during flight 6.[62]

The monopole antenna of the base station is mounted on a bracket in the right rear part of the rover
Flights 3 through 8
Flight 3 (April 25, 2021)
Flight 4 (April 30, 2021)
Flight 5 (May 7, 2021)
Flight 6 (May 23, 2021)
last 39 seconds
Flight 7 (June 8, 2021)
(48 seconds)
Flight 8 (June 22, 2021)
(75 seconds)
Flights 9 through 14
Flight 9 (July 5, 2021)
full real-time animation
Flight 10 (July 24, 2021)
full real-time animation
Flight 11 (August 5, 2021)
full real-time animation
Flight 12 (August 16, 2021)
full real-time animation
Flight 13 (September 5, 2021)
full real-time animation
Flight 14 (October 24, 2021)
full real-time animation
Flights 15 through 20
Return flights to Wright Brothers Field ( JZRO)
Flight 15 (November 6, 2021)
191 frames
Flight 16 (November 21, 2021)
full real-time animation
Flight 17 (December 5, 2021)
full real-time animation
Flight 18 (December 15, 2021)
full real-time animation
Flight 19 (February 8, 2022)
full real-time animation
Flight 20 (February 25, 2022)
full real-time animation
Flights 21
Heading Towards The Delta
Flight 21 (March 10, 2022)
full real-time animation

Gallery

Audio

Mars helicopter Ingenuity, heard flying on Mars on its fourth flight

Videos

Maps of flights

The flight zone of the technical demonstration and transitional stage
The "Twitcher's Point"[b]
Wright Brothers Field and the overlook location
Wright Brothers Field
View of the field from the rover
Rover track and Wright Brothers Field, April 2021
Second helipad[c]
Flights' paths of the operational demonstration stage and HiRise images of Ingenuity
Flights 1–9
Profile of Flight 10
Profile of Flight 11
Flights 1–11
Flight profile for Ingenuity's Flight 15
Topography between Mars helicopter and rover for Flight 17
Positioning before the 2021 solar conjunction
R210 is the rover position on sol 210;
H163
1
, H174
2
and H193
3
means 1st, 2nd and 3rd landing sites of Ingenuity on the Field H on sols 163, 174 and 193 respectively
Ingenuity captured by Hirise camera on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter at Airfield M on Feb. 26, 2022
Ingenuity Flights to the Delta
Mars helicopter route options out of 'Séítah'. The labeled "current position" is the landing site of flight #23. Flight 24 was made and its position is the green dot. The mission team chose Option C (green) for flight #25.

Images by Ingenuity

Flights 1-5[d]
The first color image (April 4, 2021)[e]
Sol 45 (6 April 2021): grounded before flights
In-flight image (19 April 2021, altitude 1.2 m (3 ft 11 in))
Landing after the first flight (19 April 2021)
First color aerial photo (22 April 2021, altitude 5.2 m (17 ft), flight 2)
Flight 3, rover is seen left-up from the 5.0 m (16.4 ft) height
Flight 3, the rover (enlarged)
Heading towards Airfield B (flight 4, 30 April 2021)
Flight 5, altitude 10 m (33 ft) (7 May 2021)
Perseverance rover (left) viewed about 85 m (279 ft) away from 5.0 m (16.4 ft) height (April 25, 2021)
Flights 6–9
Flight 6, view from 10 m (33 ft) towards Séítah
Flight 7, above the terrain (8 June 2021)
Flight 8, landed (22 June 2021)
Flight 9, flying over the Séítah (July 5, 2021)
Flights 10–13
Flight 10 over ridges
Flight 11 NW along Séítah
Flight 12 over Séítah
Flight 13 rover view
After conjunction: preflight tests and flights 14-16
The first ground photo after conjunction (sol 236)
Slow speed blade rotation test (sol 240)
Flight 14: a short hop
Flight 15 (6 November 2021)
Flight 16 (21 November 2021)
Post-flight 16 rover view
Miscellaneous animations
First flight (19 April 2021)
30 seconds hovering in the first flight
Landing after fifth flight at Airfield B (7 May 2021)
Flight 9, animation from the flight images
Flight 11 rover
Flight 11 ten slides
Pre-flight blade speed rotation test on sol 204
Ingenuity flight 19 preflight tests and post-dust storm debris removal operations
Mars Helicopter tests on Sol 302
Entry-descent-landing debris
Ingenuity took photos April 19, 2022 of the spacecraft backshell and parachute.[108]

Miscellaneous Ingenuity-related images

Aircraft certification of Ingenuity to fly on Mars
Chief Pilot Håvard Fjær Grip, entering Ingenuity flight details in logbook
"Nominal Pilot's Logbook for Planets and Moons"
Ingenuity logbook entries for flights 9 and 10
Ingenuity's first flight altimeter data showing the flight period
(19 April 2021)
Ingenuity's second flight test data[f]
(22 April 2021)
Mars Helicopter JPL insignia
Seasonal variation in atmospheric density on Mars between summer (low density) and winter (higher density) predict that air density will be high enough in late March for NASA's Mars Ingenuity Helicopter to return to its original RPM

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Flights 1, 2 and 14 are not seen because they include little, if any, horizontal movement.
  2. ^ Now named Van Zyl overlook
  3. ^ HiRISE's view of Ingenuity's fourth flight path paving the way for it to move to second airfield on its fifth flight
  4. ^ All images taken by Ingenuity are from either its black-and-white downward-facing navigation camera[113] or from horizon-facing color camera;[119] landing legs are seen at the side edges of images
  5. ^ Perseverance Rover wheels are clearly seen in top corners
  6. ^ This is an animated gif containing sequence of images on second test flight. First image shows Ingenuity's rotor power during flight two. Second image shows Ingenuity's horizontal position relative to start during flight one hover. Third image shows Ingenuity's collective control during flight one. Fourth image shows Ingenuity's lower cyclic control on flight one. Similar cyclic controls applied on the upper rotor. Fifth image shows Ingenuity's estimate of vertical velocity during flight two.

References

Citations

  1. ^ Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: "Ingenuity Mars Helicopter Landing Press Kit" (PDF). NASA. January 2021. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 February 2021. Retrieved 14 February 2021.
  2. ^ Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: "Mars Helicopter". Mars.nasa.gov. NASA. Archived from the original on 16 April 2020. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  3. ^ "Mars Lander Missions". NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies. Retrieved 26 October 2021.
  4. ^ AFP Staff Writers (19 April 2021). "Ingenuity helicopter successfully flew on Mars: NASA". Mars Daily. ScienceDaily. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  5. ^ a b Palca, Joe (19 April 2021). "Success! NASA's Ingenuity Makes First Powered Flight On Mars". National Public Radio. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  6. ^ Hotz, Robert Lee (19 April 2021). "NASA's Mars Helicopter Ingenuity Successfully Makes Historic First Flight". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  7. ^ "Mars Helicopter Sol 403: Navigation Camera". mars.nasa.gov.
  8. ^ Liz Kruesi (19 April 2022). "Here's how NASA's Ingenuity helicopter has spent 1 year on Mars". Science News.
  9. ^ Wall, Mike (14 April 2022). "Mars helicopter Ingenuity aces record-breaking 25th flight". Space.com. Retrieved 15 April 2022.
  10. ^ Mars Rover Perseverance Set To Launch Drone. Today (American TV program). 24 March 2021. Retrieved 27 March 2021 – via YouTube.
  11. ^ hang, Kenneth (23 March 2021). "Get Ready for the First Flight of NASA's Mars Helicopter - The experimental vehicle named Ingenuity traveled to the red planet with the Perseverance rover, which is also preparing for its main science mission". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
  12. ^ Johnson, Alana; Hautaluoma, Grey; Agle, DC (23 March 2021). "NASA Ingenuity Mars Helicopter Prepares for First Flight". NASA. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
  13. ^ "NASA's Mars Helicopter: Small, Autonomous Rotorcraft To Fly On Red Planet" Archived 10 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine, Shubham Sharma, International Business Times, 14 May 2018
  14. ^ Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: "Mars Helicopter a new challenge for flight" (PDF). NASA. July 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 January 2020. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
  15. ^ Chang, Kenneth (19 April 2021). "NASA's Mars Helicopter Achieves First Flight on Another World - The experimental Ingenuity vehicle completed the short but historic up-and-down flight on Monday morning". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 28 December 2021. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
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  22. ^ Gallentine, Jay (20 April 2021). "The First Flight On Another World Wasn't on Mars. It Was on Venus, 36 Years Ago - Cool as it is, Ingenuity does not mark the dawn of extraterrestrial aviation". Air & Space/Smithsonian. Retrieved 21 April 2021.
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  25. ^ Public Domain One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: Agle, D.C.; Hautaluoma, Gray; Johnson, Alana (23 June 2020). "How NASA's Mars Helicopter Will Reach the Red Planet's Surface". NASA. Archived from the original on 19 February 2021. Retrieved 23 February 2021.
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  31. ^ Latifiyan, Pouya (April 2021). "Space Telecommunications, how?". Take Off. 1. Tehran: Civil Aviation Technology College: 15 – via Persian.
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  33. ^ Status 293. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFStatus_293 (help)
  34. ^ Status 292. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFStatus_292 (help)
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h Status 308. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFStatus_308 (help)
  36. ^ Cite error: The named reference sciencealert.com was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  37. ^ a b c d Status 334. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFStatus_334 (help)
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  39. ^ "Solar Conjunction | Mars in our Night Sky". NASA's Mars Exploration Program. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
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  42. ^ "After Six Months On Mars, NASA's Tiny Helicopter Is Still Flying High". NDTV. 5 September 2021. Retrieved 5 September 2021.
  43. ^ "NASA's eventual farewell to tiny Mars helicopter could be emotional".
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  47. ^ "Mars helicopter's first flight could happen on Monday". CNN. Ingenuity could fly four days after the first flight, then three days after the second flight and so on.
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  49. ^ "NASA's Ingenuity Mars Helicopter Logs Second Successful Flight". NASA's Mars Exploration Program. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
  50. ^ Status 295. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFStatus_295 (help)
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  52. ^ Chang, Kenneth (25 April 2021). "'Nothing Short of Amazing': NASA Mars Helicopter Makes Longest Flight Yet - Ingenuity made a 328-foot round-trip journey, helping to demonstrate the capability of the vehicle's navigation system". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 April 2021.
  53. ^ @NASAJPL (29 April 2021). "Aim high, and fly, fly again. The #MarsHelicopter's ambitious fourth flight didn't get off the ground, but the team…" (Tweet). Retrieved 29 April 2021 – via Twitter.
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  55. ^ Wall, Mike (29 April 2021). "Mars helicopter Ingenuity misses takeoff for 4th flight on Red Planet - NASA's team is assessing what happened". Space.com. Retrieved 29 April 2021.
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  57. ^ "With Goals Met, NASA to Push Envelope With Ingenuity Mars Helicopter". Jet Propulsion Laboratory. 29 April 2021.
  58. ^ "NASA's Perseverance Captures Video, Audio of Fourth Ingenuity Flight". NASA. 7 May 2021. Retrieved 7 May 2021.
  59. ^ May 20218 (8 May 2021). "NASA's Mars helicopter Ingenuity lands at new airfield after 5th flight". Space.com. Retrieved 9 May 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
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  61. ^ Chang, Kenneth (7 May 2021). "NASA Mars Helicopter Makes One-Way Flight to New Mission – Ingenuity has flown almost flawlessly through the red planet's thin air and will now assist the science mission of the Perseverance rover". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
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  63. ^ Kooser, Amanda (27 May 2021). "NASA Mars Ingenuity helicopter survives 'in-flight anomaly' on sixth flight". Cnet. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  64. ^ May 2021 (27 May 2021). "Mars helicopter Ingenuity experiences anomaly on 6th flight, but lands safely". Space.com. Retrieved 10 June 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
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  66. ^ @NASAJPL (8 June 2021). "Another successful flight 👏#MarsHelicopter completed its 7th flight and second within its operations demo phase. I…" (Tweet). Retrieved 9 June 2021 – via Twitter.
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  69. ^ Wall, Mike (9 June 2021). "Mars helicopter Ingenuity aces 7th flight on the Red Planet". Space.com. Retrieved 9 June 2021.
  70. ^ @NASAJPL (22 June 2021). "Another successful flight for Ingenuity! The#MarsHelicopter completed its 8th flight on Monday. It flew for 77.4 s…" (Tweet). Retrieved 22 June 2021 – via Twitter.
  71. ^ Status 313. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFStatus_313 (help)
  72. ^ @nasajpl (5 July 2021). "MarsHelicopter pushes its Red Planet limits" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  73. ^ Status 314. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFStatus_314 (help)
  74. ^ a b c Status 316. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFStatus_316 (help)
  75. ^ Malik, Tariq (26 July 2021). "NASA's Mars helicopter soars past 1-mile mark in 10th flight over Red Planet". Space.com.
  76. ^ Bendix, Aria (24 July 2021). "NASA's Mars helicopter nailed its 10th flight — double what engineers had hoped Ingenuity would do". Business Insider. Retrieved 25 July 2021.
  77. ^ a b Status 318. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFStatus_318 (help)
  78. ^ @NASAJPL (5 August 2021). "#MarsHelicopter has safely flown to a new location! Ingenuity flew for 130.9 seconds and traveled about 380 meters…" (Tweet). Retrieved 5 August 2021 – via Twitter.
  79. ^ a b Status 321. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFStatus_321 (help)
  80. ^ @65dbNoise (21 August 2021). "With help from @thomas_appere's rectified color images, I now have the rough locations of #MarsHelicopter's shadow…" (Tweet). Retrieved 2 September 2021 – via Twitter.. See also a map from Twitter and another map published at unmannedspaceflight.com.
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  83. ^ "rotor spin test at 2,800 rpm. Next up – flight 14". Twitter.
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  89. ^ Status 343. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFStatus_343 (help)
  90. ^ @NASAJPL (8 November 2021). "The #MarsHelicopter successfully completed its 15th flight" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  91. ^ Status 346. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFStatus_346 (help)
  92. ^ Status 349. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFStatus_349 (help)
  93. ^ Status 350. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFStatus_350 (help)
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  119. ^ "Raw Images From Ingenuity Helicopter". NASA. 30 April 2021. Retrieved 10 May 2021. (RTE images)

Status reports

Status reports

Category:2020 in the United States Category:2020 robots Category:Aircraft with counter-rotating propellers Category:Coaxial rotor helicopters Category:Electric helicopters Category:Extraterrestrial aircraft Category:Individual space vehicles * Category:Missions to Mars Category:NASA aircraft Category:NASA space probes Category:Space probes launched in 2020 Category:Unmanned helicopters Category:2021 on Mars