National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958
Great Seal of the United States
Other short titlesThe Space Act of 1958
Long titleAn Act to provide for research into problems of flight within and outside the earth's atmosphere, and for other purposes.
Acronyms (colloquial)NASA
Enacted bythe 85th United States Congress
EffectiveJuly 29, 1958
Citations
Public law85-568
Statutes at Large72 Stat. 426-2
Codification
Titles amended42 U.S.C.: Public Health and Social Welfare
U.S.C. sections created42 U.S.C. ch. 26 § 2451 et seq.
Legislative history

The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (Pub.L. 85–568) is the United States federal statute that created the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The Act, which followed close on the heels of the Soviet Union's launch of Sputnik, was drafted by the United States House Select Committee on Astronautics and Space Exploration and on July 29, 1958 was signed by President Eisenhower.[1][2] Prior to enactment, the responsibility for space exploration was deemed primarily a military venture, in line with the Soviet model that had launched the first orbital satellite. In large measure, the Act was prompted by the lack of response by a US military infrastructure that seemed incapable of keeping up the space race.

The original 1958 act charged the new Agency with conducting the aeronautical and space activities of the United States "so as to contribute materially to one or more of the following objectives:"

In 2012, a ninth objective was added:

The final meeting of the NACA, before being absorbed into NASA
The final meeting of the NACA, before being absorbed into NASA

The Act abolished the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), transferring its activities and resources to NASA effective October 1, 1958. The Act also created a Civilian-Military Liaison Committee, for the purpose of coordinating civilian and military space applications, and keeping NASA and the Department of Defense "fully and currently informed" of each other's space activities. To this day, the United States has coordinated but separate military and civilian space programs, with much of the former involved in launching military and surveillance craft and, prior to the Partial Test Ban Treaty, planning counter-measures to the anticipated Soviet launch of nuclear warheads into space.

In addition, the new law made extensive modifications to the patent law and provided that both employee inventions as well as private contractor innovations brought about through space travel would be subject to government ownership. By making the government the exclusive provider of space transport, the act effectively discouraged the private development of space travel. This situation endured until the law was modified by the Commercial Space Launch Act of 1984, enacted to allow civilian use of NASA systems in launching space vehicles.[5]

The phrase "We came in peace for all mankind", inscribed on a plaque left on the Moon by the crew of Apollo 11, is derived from the Act's declaration of NASA's policy and purpose:

The Congress hereby declares that it is the policy of the United States that activities in space should be devoted to peaceful purposes for the benefit of all mankind.[3]

The Act was subsequently amended to remove gender bias[citation needed], so that this policy statement now reads:

Devotion of Space Activities to Peaceful Purposes for Benefit of All Humankind.--Congress declares that it is the policy of the United States that activities in space should be devoted to peaceful purposes for the benefit of all humankind.[6]

See also

References

  1. ^ Peters,Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "Dwight D. Eisenhower: "Statement by the President Upon Signing the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958.," July 29, 1958". The American Presidency Project. University of California - Santa Barbara. Retrieved September 14, 2013.
  2. ^ "The Early History and Development of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)". Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library, Museum, and Boyhood Home. Retrieved September 14, 2013.
  3. ^ a b National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (Unamended)
  4. ^ National Aeronautics and Space Act, Sec. 20102. Congressional declaration of policy and purpose
  5. ^ "Legal Issues for Commercial Reusable Launch Vehicle Flight Operations". Archived from the original on 2005-12-04. Retrieved 2005-12-30.
  6. ^ The National Aeronautics and Space Act