Soyuz TM-24 and Progress M-32 docked to the fore and aft ports Mir, as seen from the departing Space Shuttle Atlantis in September 1997 during STS-79.

Mir (Russian: Мир, IPA: [ˈmʲir]; lit.'peace' or 'world') was a space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001, operated by the Soviet Union and later by Russia. Mir was the first modular space station and was assembled in orbit from 1986 to 1996. It had a greater mass than any previous spacecraft. At the time it was the largest artificial satellite in orbit, succeeded by the International Space Station (ISS) after Mir's orbit decayed. The station served as a microgravity research laboratory in which crews conducted experiments in biology, human biology, physics, astronomy, meteorology, and spacecraft systems with a goal of developing technologies required for permanent occupation of space.

Following the success of the Salyut programme, Mir represented the next stage in the Soviet Union's space station programme. The first module of the station, known as the core module or base block, was launched in 1986 and followed by six further modules. Proton rockets were used to launch all of its components except for the docking module, which was installed by US Space Shuttle mission STS-74 in 1995. When complete, the station consisted of seven pressurised modules and several unpressurised components. Power was provided by several photovoltaic arrays attached directly to the modules. The station was maintained at an orbit between 296 km (184 mi) and 421 km (262 mi) altitude and travelled at an average speed of 27,700 km/h (17,200 mph), completing 15.7 orbits per day.[1][page needed][2][page needed][3]

Human spaceflights were vital to the operation of Mir, allowing crews and equipment to be carried to and from the space station. Mir was visited by a total of 39 crewed missions, comprising 30 Soyuz flights (1 Soyuz-T, 29 Soyuz-TM) and 9 Space Shuttle flights. These missions carried both long-duration crew members flying principal expeditions (ranging from 70 days up to Valeri Polyakov's 14-month stay beginning in January 1994, which still holds the record for the longest continuous spaceflight by a single person) and short-term visitors (who spent about a week aboard the station). Many of the crew who visited Mir used different spacecraft to launch than they did to land; the first such examples were Aleksandr Viktorenko and Muhammed Faris who flew up in Soyuz TM-3 (launched 22 July 1987) and landed a week later in Soyuz TM-2 on 30 July 1987. The largest crew aboard Mir simultaneously (not including Shuttle-Mir missions) was 6, which first occurred with the launch of Soyuz TM-7 on 26 November 1988 and lasted for just over three weeks.

In this list, uncrewed visiting spacecraft are excluded (see List of uncrewed spaceflights to Mir for details), and long-duration crew members are listed in bold. Times are given in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). "Time docked" refers to the spacecraft and does not necessarily correspond to the crew.

# Mission Launch date (UTC) Time docked Landing date (UTC) Launch crew Crew photo Crew patch Notes
1. Soyuz T-15 13 March 1986
~52 days
~20 days
16 July 1986
Soviet Union Leonid Kizim

Soviet Union Vladimir Solovyov

Delivered the first crew, flying expedition EO-1, to Mir, then undocked, flew to and docked with Salyut 7 before returning to Mir. Remains the only spacecraft to have visited two space stations during one mission.[4][5]
2. Soyuz TM-2 5 February 1987
~172 days 30 July 1987
Soviet Union Yuri Romanenko

Soviet Union Aleksandr Laveykin

Delivered the second crew, flying expedition EO-2, to Mir.[4][5]
3. Soyuz TM-3 22 July 1987
~158 days 29 December 1987
Soviet Union Aleksandr Aleksandrov

Soviet Union Aleksandr Viktorenko
Syria Muhammed Faris

Delivered a third crew member, Aleksandrov, for EO-2, as well as the first Mir Intercosmos mission, EP-1, to the station. The EP-1 crew members, Viktorenko and Faris, returned to Earth aboard Soyuz TM-2 after 8 days.[4][5]
4. Soyuz TM-4 21 December 1987
~177 days 17 June 1988
Soviet Union Vladimir Titov

Soviet Union Musa Manarov
Soviet Union Anatoli Levchenko

Delivered the third expedition crew, EO-3, to Mir, in addition to Anatoli Levchenko, who returned to Earth aboard Soyuz TM-3 with the returning EO-2 crewmembers after 8 days.[4][5]
5. Soyuz TM-5 7 June 1988
~90 days 7 September 1988
Soviet Union Anatoly Solovyev

Soviet Union Viktor Savinykh
Bulgaria Aleksandr Aleksandrov

Delivered the second Mir Intercosmos mission, EP-2, to the station. All three crew returned to Earth aboard Soyuz TM-4 after 10 days.[4][5]
6. Soyuz TM-6 29 August 1988
~112 days 21 December 1988
Soviet Union Valeri Polyakov

Soviet Union Vladimir Lyakhov
Afghanistan Abdul Ahad Mohmand

Delivered a third crew member, Polyakov, for EO-3, in addition to the third Mir Intercosmos crew, EP-3, who returned to Earth aboard Soyuz TM-5 after 9 days.[4][5]
7. Soyuz TM-7 26 November 1988
~149 days 27 April 1989
Soviet Union Aleksandr Volkov

Soviet Union Sergei Krikalev
France Jean-Loup Chrétien

Delivered the EO-4 and Aragatz crews to Mir, with Chrétien returning to Earth aboard Soyuz TM-6 after 25 days.[4][5]
8. Soyuz TM-8 5 September 1989
~165 days 19 February 1990
Soviet Union Aleksandr Viktorenko

Soviet Union Aleksandr Serebrov

Delivered the EO-5 crew to Mir.[4][5]
9. Soyuz TM-9 11 February 1990
~177 days 9 August 1990
Soviet Union Anatoly Solovyev

Soviet Union Aleksandr Balandin

Delivered the EO-6 crew to Mir.[4][5]
10. Soyuz TM-10 1 August 1990
~129 days 10 December 1990
Soviet Union Gennadi Manakov

Soviet Union Gennady Strekalov

Delivered the EO-7 crew to Mir.[4][5]
11. Soyuz TM-11 1 December 1990
~173 days 26 May 1991
Soviet Union Viktor Afanasyev

Soviet Union Musa Manarov
Japan Toyohiro Akiyama

Delivered the EO-8 crew to Mir, in addition to the Japanese Kosmoreporter mission. Akiyama, who became the first Japanese citizen to fly in space, returned to Earth aboard Soyuz TM-10 after 8 days.[4][5]
12. Soyuz TM-12 18 May 1991
~142 days 10 October 1991
Soviet Union Anatoly Artsebarsky

Soviet Union / Russia Sergei Krikalev
United Kingdom Helen Sharman

Delivered the EO-9 crew to Mir, in addition to the British Project Juno mission. Sharman, the first Briton to travel into space whilst not holding American citizenship, returned to Earth aboard Soyuz TM-11 after 8 days.[4][5]
13. Soyuz TM-13 2 October 1991
~173 days 25 March 1992
Soviet Union / Russia Aleksandr Volkov

Soviet Union Toktar Aubakirov
Austria Franz Viehböck

The last crewed spaceflight ever launched by the Soviet Union, Soyuz TM-13 delivered a third crew member to Mir for EO-10, in addition to carrying the first Austrian to go into space as part of the Austromir '91 mission. Aubakirov and Viehböck returned to Earth aboard Soyuz TMA-12 after 8 days.[4][5]
14. Soyuz TM-14 17 March 1992
~143 days 10 August 1992
Russia Aleksandr Viktorenko

Russia Aleksandr Kaleri
Germany Klaus-Dietrich Flade

The first crewed spaceflight to be launched by the Russian Federation, Soyuz TM-14 delivered the EO-11 crew to Mir, in addition to Flade, flying the German Mir '92 mission, who returned to Earth aboard Soyuz TM-13 after 8 days.[4][5]
15. Soyuz TM-15 27 July 1992
~187 days 1 February 1993
Russia Anatoly Solovyev

Russia Sergei Avdeyev
France Michel Tognini

Delivered the EO-12 crew to Mir, in addition to the French Antarès mission. Tognini returned to Earth aboard Soyuz TM-14 after 14 days.[4][5]
16. Soyuz TM-16 24 January 1993
~177 days 22 July 1993
Russia Gennadi Manakov

Russia Aleksandr Poleshchuk

Delivered the EO-13 crew to Mir. Became the only Soyuz spacecraft to dock at Kristall's distal APAS-89 port in order to check the port in preparation for the Shuttle-Mir flights which followed.[4][5]
17. Soyuz TM-17 1 July 1993
~195 days 14 January 1994
Russia Vasili Tsibliyev

Russia Aleksandr Serebrov
France Jean-Pierre Haigneré

Delivered the EO-14 crew to Mir, in addition to the French Altair mission. Haigneré returned to Earth aboard Soyuz TM-16 after 21 days.[4][5]
18. Soyuz TM-18 8 January 1994
~180 days 9 July 1994
Russia Viktor Afanasyev

Russia Yury Usachev
Russia Valeri Polyakov

Delivered the EO-15 crew to Mir, with Polyakov remaining in space for over 437 days, the current world record for longest single spaceflight.[4][5]
19. Soyuz TM-19 1 July 1994
~124 days 4 November 1994
Russia Yuri Malenchenko

Russia Talgat Musabayev

Delivered the EO-16 crew to Mir.[4][5]
20. Soyuz TM-20 3 October 1994
~166 days 22 March 1995
Russia Aleksandr Viktorenko

Russia Yelena Kondakova
Germany Ulf Merbold

Delivered the EO-17 crew to Mir, in addition to the German Euromir '94 mission. Merbold returned to Earth aboard Soyuz TM-19 after 32 days.[4][5]
21. Soyuz TM-21 14 March 1995
~179 days 11 September 1995
Russia Vladimir Dezhurov

Russia Gennady Strekalov
United States Norman E. Thagard

Delivered the EO-18 crew to Mir, including Thagard, flying the first US long-duration mission of the Shuttle-Mir programme. The entire crew returned to Earth aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis at the conclusion of STS-71.[4][5]
22. STS-71
27 June 1995 4 days, 22 hours United States Robert L. Gibson

United States Charles J. Precourt
United States Ellen S. Baker
United States Bonnie J. Dunbar
United States Gregory J. Harbaugh
Russia Anatoly Solovyev
Russia Nikolai Budarin

Delivered Mir EO-19 crew

Returned Mir EO-18 crew

23. Soyuz TM-22 3 September 1995
~177 days 29 February 1996
Russia Yuri Gidzenko

Russia Sergei Avdeyev
Germany Thomas Reiter

Delivered the EO-20 crew to Mir, including the German Euromir '95 mission.[4][5]
24. STS-74
12 November 1995 3 days, 2 hours United States Kenneth D. Cameron

United States James D. Halsell
United States Jerry L. Ross
United States William S. McArthur
Canada Chris A. Hadfield

Delivered Mir Docking Module & Solar Array Package
25. Soyuz TM-23 21 February 1996
~192 days 2 September 1996
Russia Yuri Onufrienko

Russia Yury Usachev

Delivered the EO-21 crew to Mir.[4][5]
26. STS-76
22 March 1996 4 days, 23 hours United States Kevin P. Chilton

United States Richard A. Searfoss
United States Linda M. Godwin
United States Michael R. Clifford
United States Ronald M. Sega
United States Shannon W. Lucid

Delivered Lucid for Mir EO-21 crew

Deployed MEEP
1 spacewalk

27. Soyuz TM-24 17 August 1996
~195 days 2 March 1997
Russia Valery Korzun

Russia Aleksandr Kaleri
France Claudie Haigneré

Delivered the EO-21 crew to Mir. Haigneré returned to Earth aboard Soyuz TM-23 after 16 days.[4][5]
28. STS-79
16 September 1996 4 days, 22 hours United States William F. Readdy

United States Terrence W. Wilcutt
United States Thomas D. Akers
United States Jerome Apt
United States Carl E. Walz
United States John E. Blaha

Delivered Blaha for Mir EO-22 crew
29. STS-81
12 January 1997 4 days, 22 hours United States Michael A. Baker

United States Brent W. Jett
United States John M. Grunsfeld
United States Marsha S. Ivins
United States Peter J.K. Wisoff
United States Jerry M. Linenger

Delivered Linenger for Mir EO-22 crew
30. Soyuz TM-25 10 February 1997
~183 days 14 August 1997
Russia Vasili Tsibliyev

Russia Aleksandr Lazutkin
Germany Reinhold Ewald

Delivered the EO-23 crew to Mir. Ewald returned to Earth aboard Soyuz TM-24 after 20 days.[4][5]
31. STS-84
15 May 1997 4 days, 23 hours United States Charles J. Precourt

United States Eileen M. Collins
United States Carlos I. Noriega
United States Edward T. Lu
France Jean-François Clervoy
Russia Yelena Kondakova
United States Michael Foale

Delivered Foale for Mir EO-23 crew
32. Soyuz TM-26 5 August 1997
~196 days 19 February 1998
Russia Anatoly Solovyev

Russia Pavel Vinogradov

Delivered the EO-24 crew to Mir.[4][5]
33. STS-86
27 September 1997 5 days, 22 hours United States James D. Wetherbee

United States Michael J. Bloomfield
United States Scott E. Parazynski
United States Wendy B. Lawrence
France Jean-Loup Chrétien
Russia Vladimir Titov
United States David A. Wolf

Delivered Wolf for Mir EO-24 crew

Retrieved MEEP
1 spacewalk

34. STS-89
22 January 1998 4 days, 21 hours United States Terrence W. Wilcutt

United States Joe F. Edwards
United States Bonnie J. Dunbar
United States Michael P. Anderson
United States James F. Reilly
Russia Salizhan Sharipov
United States Andrew S.W. Thomas

Delivered Thomas for Mir EO-24 crew
35. Soyuz TM-27 29 January 1998
~206 days 25 August 1998
Russia Talgat Musabayev

Russia Nikolai Budarin

Delivered the EO-25 crew to Mir.
France Léopold Eyharts Eyharts returned to Earth aboard Soyuz TM-26 after 22 days.[4][5]
36. STS-91
2 June 1998 3 days, 23 hours United States Charles J. Precourt

United States Dominic L. Pudwill Gorie
United States Wendy B. Lawrence
United States Franklin R. Chang-Diaz
United States Janet L. Kavandi
Russia Valery Ryumin

Returned Thomas from Mir EO-25 crew
37. Soyuz TM-28 13 August 1998
~196 days 28 February 1999
Russia Gennady Padalka

Russia Sergei Avdeyev
Russia Yuri Baturin

Delivered the EO-26 crew to Mir. Baturin returned to Earth aboard Soyuz TM-27 after 12 days.[4][5]
38. Soyuz TM-29 20 February 1999
~186 days 28 August 1999
Russia Viktor Afanasyev

France Jean-Pierre Haigneré
Slovakia Ivan Bella

Delivered the EO-27 crew to Mir. Bella returned to Earth aboard Soyuz TM-28 after 8 days.[4][5]
39. Soyuz TM-30 4 April 2000
~70 days 16 June 2000
Russia Sergei Zalyotin

Russia Aleksandr Kaleri

Final human spaceflight to Mir. Delivered the last crew, flying EO-28.[4][5]

See also


  1. ^ Hall, R., ed. (2000). The History of Mir 1986–2000. British Interplanetary Society. ISBN 978-0-9506597-4-9.[page needed]
  2. ^ Hall, R., ed. (2001). Mir: The Final Year. British Interplanetary Society. ISBN 978-0-9506597-5-6.[page needed]
  3. ^ "Orbital period of a planet". CalcTool. Archived from the original on 12 November 2019. Retrieved 12 September 2010.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad David Harland (30 November 2004). The Story of Space Station Mir. New York: Springer-Verlag New York Inc. ISBN 978-0-387-23011-5.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad Rex Hall & David Shayler (2003). Soyuz: A Universal Spacecraft. Springer-Praxis. ISBN 978-1-85233-657-8.