Soyuz TM-5
COSPAR ID1988-048A Edit this at Wikidata
SATCAT no.19204
Mission duration91 days, 10 hours, 46 minutes, 25 seconds[1]
Orbits completed~1,475
Spacecraft properties
SpacecraftSoyuz 7K-STM No. 55
Spacecraft typeSoyuz-TM
ManufacturerNPO Energia
Launch mass7,000 kilograms (15,000 lb)
Crew size3 up
2 down
LaunchingAnatoly Solovyev
Viktor Savinykh
Aleksandr Aleksandrov
LandingVladimir Lyakhov
Abdul Ahad Mohmand
CallsignРодни́к (Rodnik- Spring)
Start of mission
Launch date7 June 1988, 14:03:13 (1988-06-07UTC14:03:13Z) UTC[1]
Launch siteBaikonur 1/5
End of mission
Landing date7 September 1988, 00:49:38 (1988-09-07UTC00:49:39Z) UTC
Landing site202 kilometres (126 mi) SE of Dzhezkazgan
Orbital parameters
Reference systemGeocentric
RegimeLow Earth
Perigee altitude173 kilometres (107 mi)
Apogee altitude241 kilometres (150 mi)
Inclination~51.6 degrees
Period88.6 minutes
Docking with Mir[2]
Docking date9 June 1988, 15:57:10 UTC
Undocking date5 September 1988, 23:54:57 UTC
Soyuz programme
(Crewed missions)

Soyuz TM-5 was a crewed Soyuz spaceflight to Mir. It was launched on June 7, 1988, carrying the Mir EP-2 mission's three-person crew. This week-long stay on Mir occurred during the third long-duration Mir expedition, Mir EO-3. The crew of EP-2 returned to Earth aboard Soyuz TM-4, while the TM-5 spacecraft remained docked to Mir, acting as the lifeboat for the long-duration crew. On September 7, 1988, the TM-5 spacecraft undocked from Mir, and landed Mir EP-3 mission's two-person visiting crew. The de-orbit procedures for Soyuz were revised after this flight, as multiple issues almost prevented the descent module's safe de-orbit and landing.


Position Launching crew Landing crew
Commander Soviet Union Anatoly Solovyev
Mir EP-2
First spaceflight
Soviet Union Vladimir Lyakhov
Mir EP-3
Third and last spaceflight
Flight Engineer Soviet Union Viktor Savinykh
Mir EP-2
Third and last spaceflight
Research Cosmonaut Bulgaria Aleksandr Aleksandrov
Mir EP-2
Only spaceflight
Afghanistan Abdul Ahad Mohmand
Mir EP-3
Only spaceflight
Aleksandrov was the first Bulgarian cosmonaut to visit a space station. Mohmand was the first Afghan cosmonaut.


Main article: Mir EP-2

Soyuz TM-5 launched on 1988 June 7 and arrived at Mir on June 9 carrying the second Bulgarian in space, Alexandrov (not to be confused with the Soviet cosmonaut of the same name). He became the first Bulgarian to reach a Soviet space station (Georgi Ivanov failed to reach Salyut 6 on Soyuz 33 in 1979—Alexandrov was his backup). Their launch had been advanced by 2 weeks late in the planning stages to improve lighting conditions for the Rozhen astronomical experiment.


Main article: Mir EP-3

On September 5 cosmonauts Lyakhov and Mohmand undocked from Mir. They jettisoned the orbital module and made ready for deorbit burn to return to Earth. During descent, the spacecraft experienced a computer software problem combined with a sensor problem.[3] This caused their landing to be delayed by a full day. The Descent Module, where they spent this 24-hour period, had no sanitary facilities. Consequently, they soiled themselves. [4] They would not have been able to redock with Mir because they had discarded the docking system along with the orbital module.[4] Reentry occurred as normal on September 7. Following this incident, the Soviets decided that on future missions, they would retain the orbital module until after deorbit burn, as they had done on the Soyuz Ferry flights.[4]


  1. ^ a b "Spacecraft "Soyuz TM-5"". space.kursknet. Archived from the original on 20 March 2011. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
  2. ^ "Soyuz TM-5". Retrieved 21 March 2021.
  3. ^ David Michael Harland (February 2005). The story of Space Station Mir. Springer-Verlag. pp. 173. ISBN 0-387-23011-4.
  4. ^ a b c D.S.F. Portree. "Mir Hardware Heritage" (PDF). NASA. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 September 2009. Retrieved 26 November 2010.