Soyuz TM-9
COSPAR ID1990-014A Edit this at Wikidata
SATCAT no.20494Edit this on Wikidata
Mission duration179 days, 1 hour, 17 minutes, 57 seconds
Orbits completed~2,895
Spacecraft properties
SpacecraftSoyuz 7K-STM No. 60
Spacecraft typeSoyuz-TM
ManufacturerNPO Energia
Launch mass7,150 kilograms (15,760 lb)
Crew size2
MembersAnatoly Solovyev
Aleksandr Balandin
CallsignРодни́к (Rodnik- Spring)
Start of mission
Launch date11 February 1990, 06:16:00 (1990-02-11UTC06:16Z) UTC
End of mission
Landing date9 August 1990, 07:33:57 (1990-08-09UTC07:33:58Z) UTC
Landing site70 kilometres (43 mi) NE of Arkalyk - 50.85 N; 67.28 E
Orbital parameters
Reference systemGeocentric
RegimeLow Earth
Perigee altitude373 kilometres (232 mi)
Apogee altitude387 kilometres (240 mi)
Inclination51.6 degrees
Period92.2 minutes
Docking with Mir
Docking date13 February 1990, 06:37:47 UTC
Undocking date9 August 1990, 04:08:49 UTC
Soyuz programme
(Crewed missions)

Soyuz TM-9 was the ninth expedition to the Russian Space Station Mir.[1]


Position Crew
Commander Soviet Union Anatoly Solovyev
Second spaceflight
Flight Engineer Soviet Union Aleksandr Balandin
First spaceflight

Mission highlights

During docking, cosmonauts aboard Mir noticed that three of the eight thermal blankets (layers of foil vacuum-shield insulation) on the descent module of the approaching Soyuz-TM 9 spacecraft had come loose from their attachments near the heat shield, yet remained attached at their top ends. The main concern was that the capsule might cool down, permitting condensation to form inside and short out its electrical systems. There was also fear that the blankets might block the infrared vertical sensor, which oriented the module for reentry.

Three other areas of concern emerged: that the explosive bolts binding the service module to the descent module might fail to work after direct exposure to space, that the heat shield might be compromised by direct space exposure, and that an EVA to repair the blankets might cause additional damage. Consideration was given to flying Soyuz TM-10 with one cosmonaut aboard as a rescue mission. During an EVA, the cosmonauts folded back two of the three blankets and left the third alone. During reentry, the cosmonauts ejected both the orbital module and the service module simultaneously in an effort to minimize the chances that a blanket could snag. Normally the orbital module went first. The descent module suffered no damage as a result of its prolonged exposure to space conditions. Reentry occurred as normal.


  1. ^ The mission report is available here: