|Интеркосмос Космическая Программа|
Interkosmos Kosmicheskaya Programma
|Purpose||crewed and uncrewed space mission for Soviet allies|
|First crewed flight|
|Part of a series of articles on the|
|Soviet space program|
Interkosmos (Russian: Интеркосмос) was a Soviet space program, designed to help the Soviet Union's allies with crewed and uncrewed space missions.
The program was formed in April 1967 in Moscow. All members of the program from USSR were given the Hero of the Soviet Union medal or the Order of Lenin. The program included the allied east-European states of the Warsaw Pact, Eastern Bloc, CoMEcon, and other socialist states like Afghanistan, Cuba, Mongolia, and Vietnam. In addition, pro-Soviet non-aligned states such as India and Syria participated, and even states such as the United Kingdom, France and Austria, despite them being capitalist states.
Following the Apollo–Soyuz, there were talks between NASA and Interkosmos in the 1970s about a "Shuttle-Salyut" program to fly Space Shuttle missions to a Salyut space station, with later talks in the 1980s even considering flights of the future Buran-class orbiter to a future US space station. Whilst the Shuttle-Salyut program never materialized during the existence of the Soviet Interkosmos program, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Shuttle–Mir Program would follow in these footsteps in the mid-1990s and eventually pave the way to the International Space Station.
Beginning in April 1967 with unmanned research satellite missions, the first manned Interkosmos mission occurred in February 1978. So called joint manned spaceflights enabled 14 non-Soviet cosmonauts to participate in Soyuz space flights between 1978 and 1988. The program was responsible for sending into space the first citizen of a country other than the USA or USSR: Vladimír Remek of Czechoslovakia. Interkosmos also resulted in the first black and Hispanic person in space, Arnaldo Tamayo Méndez of Cuba, and the first Asian person in space, Phạm Tuân of Vietnam. Of the countries involved, only Bulgaria sent two cosmonauts in space, although the second one did not fly under the Interkosmos program, and the French spationaut Jean-Loup Chrétien flew on two separate flights.
The Soviet Union also made offers of joint human spaceflight on a commercial basis to the United Kingdom and Japan resulting in the first British and Japanese cosmonauts. In the early 1980s an offer was made to Finland as well, with test pilot Jyrki Laukkanen mentioned as one of potential Finnish cosmonauts. The pilots of the Test Flight (Koelentue) refused on the grounds that participation would not benefit the Flight or test pilot activity in any way. No further offers were made to Finland regarding the matter.
|2 March 1978||Vladimír Remek||Oldřich Pelčák||Soyuz 28
|27 June 1978||Mirosław Hermaszewski||Zenon Jankowski||Soyuz 30
|26 August 1978||Sigmund Jähn||Eberhard Köllner||Soyuz 31
|10 April 1979||Georgi Ivanov||Aleksandr Aleksandrov||Soyuz 33
|26 May 1980||Bertalan Farkas||Béla Magyari||Soyuz 36
|23 July 1980||Phạm Tuân||Bùi Thanh Liêm||Soyuz 37
|18 September 1980||Arnaldo Tamayo Méndez||José López Falcón||Soyuz 38
|23 March 1981||Jügderdemidiin Gürragchaa||Maidarjavyn Ganzorig||Soyuz 39
|14 May 1981||Dumitru Prunariu||Dumitru Dediu||Soyuz 40
|24 June 1982||Jean-Loup Chrétien||Patrick Baudry||Soyuz T-6
|2 April 1984||Rakesh Sharma||Ravish Malhotra||Soyuz T-11
|22 July 1987||Muhammed Ahmed Faris||Munir Habib Habib||Soyuz TM-3
|7 June 1988||Aleksandr Aleksandrov||Krasimir Stoyanov||Soyuz TM-5
|29 August 1988||Abdul Ahad Mohmand||Mohammad Dauran Ghulam Masum||Soyuz TM-6
|26 November 1988||Jean-Loup Chrétien||Michel Tognini||Soyuz TM-7
|2 December 1990||Toyohiro Akiyama||Ryoko Kikuchi||Soyuz TM-11
|18 May 1991||Helen Sharman||Timothy Mace||Soyuz TM-12
|2 October 1991||Franz Viehböck||Clemens Lothaller||Soyuz TM-13
In general, most of the films associated with programs are propaganda short TV documentaries from that era. The two exceptions include (largely fictionalised) Interkosmos from 2006, and cooperation document from 2009 (in Polish) titled Lotnicy Kosmonauci ("Aviators-Cosmonauts").