Interkosmos program
Interkosmos.svg
Interkosmos patch
Country
Organization
Purposecrewed and uncrewed space mission for Soviet allies
StatusCompleted
Program history
Duration1967–1994
First flight
  • Vertikal 1
  • November 28, 1970 (1970-11-28)
First crewed flight
Last flight
  • Interkosmos 26
  • March 2, 1994 (1994-03-02)
Launch site(s)Baikonur

Interkosmos (Russian: Интеркосмос) was a Soviet space program, designed to help the Soviet Union's allies with crewed and uncrewed space missions.

The program was formed in April 1967 in Moscow.[1][2] All members of the program from USSR were given the Hero of the Soviet Union medal or the Order of Lenin. The program included the allied east-European states of the Warsaw Pact, Eastern Bloc, CoMEcon, and other socialist states like Afghanistan, Cuba, Mongolia, and Vietnam. In addition, pro-Soviet non-aligned states such as India and Syria participated,[3][4] and even states such as the United Kingdom, France and Austria, despite them being capitalist states.[5][6]

Following the Apollo–Soyuz, there were talks between NASA and Interkosmos in the 1970s about a "Shuttle-Salyut" program to fly Space Shuttle missions to a Salyut space station, with later talks in the 1980s even considering flights of the future Buran-class orbiter to a future US space station.[7] Whilst the Shuttle-Salyut program never materialized during the existence of the Soviet Interkosmos program, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Shuttle–Mir Program would follow in these footsteps in the mid-1990s and eventually pave the way to the International Space Station.

Beginning in April 1967 with unmanned research satellite missions, the first manned Interkosmos mission occurred in February 1978.[6] So called joint manned spaceflights enabled 14 non-Soviet cosmonauts to participate in Soyuz space flights between 1978 and 1988. The program was responsible for sending into space the first citizen of a country other than the USA or USSR: Vladimír Remek of Czechoslovakia.[5] Interkosmos also resulted in the first black and Hispanic person in space, Arnaldo Tamayo Méndez of Cuba, and the first Asian person in space, Phạm Tuân of Vietnam. Of the countries involved, only Bulgaria sent two cosmonauts in space, although the second one did not fly under the Interkosmos program, and the French spationaut Jean-Loup Chrétien flew on two separate flights.[8]

The Soviet Union also made offers of joint human spaceflight on a commercial basis to the United Kingdom and Japan resulting in the first British and Japanese cosmonauts. In the early 1980s an offer was made to Finland as well, with test pilot Jyrki Laukkanen mentioned as one of potential Finnish cosmonauts. The pilots of the Test Flight (Koelentue) refused on the grounds that participation would not benefit the Flight or test pilot activity in any way. No further offers were made to Finland regarding the matter.[9][10]

Crewed missions

.mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}  Human spaceflight provider   participants   refused offer
  Human spaceflight provider
  participants
  refused offer
Date Image Prime Backup Country Mission Pin Space station
2 March 1978
VladimirRemek.jpg
Vladimír Remek[11] Oldřich Pelčák

Czechoslovakia

Soyuz 28
Soyuz 28 mission patch.svg
Soyuz-28 Pin.jpg
Salyut 6
27 June 1978
Miroslaw H.jpg
Mirosław Hermaszewski Zenon Jankowski

Poland

Soyuz 30
Soyuz 30 mission patch.svg
Soyuz-30 Intercosmos pin.jpg
Salyut 6
26 August 1978
Sigmund Jahn cropped.jpg
Sigmund Jähn Eberhard Köllner

GDR

Soyuz 31
Soyuz 31 mission patch.svg
Soyuz-31 Intercosmos.jpg
Salyut 6
10 April 1979
Georgi ivanov-676x1024.jpg
Georgi Ivanov Aleksandr Aleksandrov

Bulgaria

Soyuz 33
Soyuz-33 patch.png
Soyuz-33 Intercosmos.jpg
Salyut 6
(Docking failed)
26 May 1980
Bertalan Farkas first Hungarian astronaut.jpg
Bertalan Farkas Béla Magyari

Hungary

Soyuz 36
Soyuz36 patch.png
Soyuz-36 Intercosmos pin depicting the flown crew.jpg
Salyut 6
23 July 1980
Phạm Tuân .JPG
Phạm Tuân Bùi Thanh Liêm

Vietnam

Soyuz 37
Soyuz37 patch.png
Soyuz-37 Intercosmos pin.jpg
Salyut 6
18 September 1980
Arnaldo Tamayo Berlin 2018 - 2.jpg
Arnaldo Tamayo Méndez José López Falcón

Cuba

Soyuz 38
Soyuz38 patch.png
Soyuz-38 Intercoms pin.jpg
Salyut 6
23 March 1981
Jügderdemidiin Gürragchaa.jpeg
Jügderdemidiin Gürragchaa Maidarjavyn Ganzorig

Mongolia

Soyuz 39
Soyuz39 patch.png
Soyuz-39 Intercosmos pin.jpg
Salyut 6
14 May 1981
Stamp of Moldova md389.jpg
Dumitru Prunariu Dumitru Dediu

Romania

Soyuz 40
Soyuz 40 mission patch.svg
Soyuz-40 Intercosmos pin depicting the flown crew.jpg
Salyut 6
24 June 1982
Chretien.jpg
Jean-Loup Chrétien Patrick Baudry

France

Soyuz T-6
Soyuz T-6 mission patch.png
Salyut 7
2 April 1984
Rakesh sharma.jpg
Rakesh Sharma Ravish Malhotra

India

Soyuz T-11
Soyuz-T-11-Mission-Patch.svg
Soyuz-T11 Intercosmos pin depicting the flown crew.jpg
Salyut 7
22 July 1987
Muhammed Ahmed Faris.jpg
Muhammed Ahmed Faris Munir Habib Habib

Syria

Soyuz TM-3
Soyuz TM-3 mission patch.svg
Mir
7 June 1988
Александр Александров Панайотов.JPG
Aleksandr Aleksandrov Krasimir Stoyanov

Bulgaria

Soyuz TM-5
Soyuz TM-5 mission patch.svg
Mir
29 August 1988 Abdul Ahad Mohmand[12] Mohammad Dauran Ghulam Masum

Afghanistan

Soyuz TM-6
Soyuz TM-6 patch.svg
Mir
26 November 1988
Chretien.jpg
Jean-Loup Chrétien Michel Tognini

France

Soyuz TM-7
Soyuz TM-7 patch.png
Mir
2 December 1990
Toyohiro-Akiyama-First-Japanese-Person-in-Space-1990.png
Toyohiro Akiyama Ryoko Kikuchi

Japan

Soyuz TM-11
Soyuz TM-11 patch.png
Mir
18 May 1991
Dr. Helen Sharman (cropped).jpg
Helen Sharman Timothy Mace

United Kingdom

Soyuz TM-12
Soyuz TM-12 patch.png
Mir
2 October 1991 Franz Viehböck Clemens Lothaller

Austria

Soyuz TM-13
Soyuz TM-13 patch.png
Mir

Uncrewed missions

East German postage stamp
East German postage stamp
A commemorative coin issued in Mongolia
A commemorative coin issued in Mongolia

Films

In general, most of the films associated with programs are propaganda short TV documents and relations from that era. The two exceptions include (largely fictionalised) Interkosmos from 2006, and cooperation document from 2009 (in Polish) titled Lotnicy Kosmonauci ("Aviators-Cosmonauts").[13]

See also

References

  1. ^ Bergess, Colin; Vis, Bert (2015). Interkosmos - The Eastern Bloc's Early Space Program. New York: Springer Praxis. p. 11. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-24163-0. ISBN 978-3-319-24161-6. LCCN 2015953234.
  2. ^ Matignon, Louis de Gouyon (2019-04-05). "The Interkosmos space program". Space Legal Issues. Retrieved 2021-06-08.
  3. ^ "INDIAN JOINS SOVIET PAIR IN 8-DAY SPACE MISSION". The New York Times. 1984-04-04. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-06-08.
  4. ^ Garthwaite, Rosie (2016-03-01). "From astronaut to refugee: how the Syrian spaceman fell to Earth". the Guardian. Retrieved 2021-06-08.
  5. ^ a b Sheehan, Michael (2007). The international politics of space. London: Routledge. pp. 59–61. ISBN 978-0-415-39917-3.
  6. ^ a b Burgess, Colin; Hall, Rex (2008). The first Soviet cosmonaut team: their lives, legacy, and historical impact. Berlin: Springer. p. 331. ISBN 978-0-387-84823-5.
  7. ^ Wikisource:Mir Hardware Heritage/Part 2 - Almaz, Salyut, and Mir#2.1.6 Shuttle-Salyut .281973-1978.3B 1980s.29
  8. ^ Pinkham, Sophie (2019-07-16). "How the Soviets Won the Space Race for Equality". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-06-08.
  9. ^ "Jyrki Laukkasesta piti tulla Suomen ensimmäinen kosmonautti – kieltäytyi kutsusta, kun siitä ei olisi ollut mitään hyötyä" (in Finnish). Yle.fi. 10 July 2019. Retrieved July 26, 2020.
  10. ^ "Jyrki Laukkanen" (in Finnish). Suomen Tietokirjailijat ry. Retrieved July 26, 2020.
  11. ^ Roberts, Andrew Lawrence (2005). From Good King Wenceslas to the Good Soldier Švejk: a dictionary of Czech popular culture. Budapest: Central European University Press. p. 141. ISBN 963-7326-26-X.
  12. ^ Bunch, Bryan; Hellemans, Alexander (2004). The history of science and technology: a browser's guide to the great discoveries, inventions, and the people who made them, from the dawn of time to today. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 679. ISBN 0-618-22123-9.
  13. ^ "FilmPolski". Filmpolski.pl. Retrieved 10 August 2017.