East African Community
  • Jumuiya ya Afrika Mashariki (Swahili)
  • Communauté d'Afrique de l'Est (French)
  • Umuryango w’Ibihugu by’Iburasirazuba bw’Afurika (Kinyarwanda)
  • Bulshada Bariga Afrika (Somali)
  • Lisanga ya Afrika ya Est (Lingala)
  • ekitundu ky’obuvanjuba bwa Afrika (Luganda)
Motto: "Ushirikiano wa Afrika Mashariki"
Anthem: "Wimbo wa Jumuiya Afrika Mashariki"
An orthographic map projection of the world, highlighting the East African Community's member states (green)
An orthographic map projection of the world, highlighting the East African Community's member states (green)
HeadquartersArusha, Tanzania
3°22′S 36°41′E / 3.367°S 36.683°E / -3.367; 36.683
Largest cityKinshasa, DR Congo
Official languagesSwahili, English,[1] French
Lingua francaSwahili[1]
Demonym(s)East African
Partner states
• Summit Chairperson
South Sudan Salva Kiir Mayardit[2]
• Council Chairperson
South Sudan Deng Dau Deng
• EACJ President
Burundi Nestor Kayobera
• EALA Speaker
Burundi Joseph Ntakarutimana
Kenya Veronica Nduva
LegislatureLegislative Assembly
• First established
• Dissolved
• Re-established
7 July 2000
• Total
5,449,717[3] km2 (2,104,147 sq mi)includes Somaliland
• Water (%)
• 2024 estimate
• Density
63/km2 (163.2/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2024 estimate
• Total
US$1,027.067 billion[4]
• Per capita
GDP (nominal)2024 estimate
• Total
US$349.774 billion[4]
• Per capita
HDI (2022)0.515
www.eac.int Edit this at Wikidata

The East African Community (EAC) is an intergovernmental organisation composed of eight countries in East Africa. The member states are the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Federal Republic of Somalia, the Republics of Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan, Uganda and Tanzania.[5] Salva Kiir Mayardit, the president of South Sudan, is the current EAC chairman. The organisation was founded in 1967, collapsed in 1977, and was revived on 7th July 2000.[6] The main objective of the EAC was to foster regional economic integration.

In 2008, after negotiations with the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), the EAC agreed to an expanded free trade area including the member states of all three organizations. The EAC is an integral part of the African Economic Community.

The EAC is a potential precursor to the establishment of the East African Federation, a proposed federation of its members into a single sovereign state.[7] In 2010, the EAC launched its own common market for goods, labour, and capital within the region, with the goal of creating a common currency and eventually a full political federation.[8] In 2013, a protocol was signed outlining their plans for launching a monetary union within 10 years.[9] In September 2018, a committee was formed to begin the process of drafting a regional constitution.[10]


Formation and re-formation

From left to right: President Yoweri Museveni of Uganda, President Mwai Kibaki of Kenya, and President Jakaya Kikwete of Tanzania during the eighth EAC summit in Arusha, November 2006.

Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda have cooperated with each other since the early 20th century. The East African Currency Board provided a common currency from 1919 to 1966. The customs union between Kenya and Uganda in 1917, which Tanganyika joined in 1927, was followed by the East African High Commission (EAHC) from 1948 to 1961, the East African Common Services Organization (EACSO) from 1961 to 1967, and the EAC[11] from 1967 to 1977. Burundi and Rwanda joined the EAC on 6 July 2009.[12]

Inter-territorial co-operation between the Kenya Colony, the Uganda Protectorate, and the Tanganyika Territory was formalised in 1948 by the EAHC. This provided a customs union, a common external tariff, currency, and postage. It also dealt with common services in transport and communications, research, and education. Following independence, these integrated activities were reconstituted and the EAHC was replaced by the EACSO, which many observers thought would lead to a political federation between the three territories. The new organisation ran into difficulties because of the lack of joint planning and fiscal policy, separate political policies, and Kenya's dominant economic position. In 1967, the EACSO was superseded by the EAC. This body aimed to strengthen the ties between the members through a common market, a common customs tariff, and a range of public services to achieve balanced economic growth within the region.[13]

In 1977, the EAC collapsed. The causes of the collapse included demands by Kenya for more seats than Uganda and Tanzania in decision-making organs,[14] disagreements with Ugandan dictator Idi Amin who demanded that Tanzania as a member state of the EAC should not harbour forces fighting to topple the government of another member state, and the disparate economic systems of socialism in Tanzania and capitalism in Kenya.[15] The three member states lost over sixty years of co-operation and the benefits of economies of scale, although some Kenyan government officials celebrated the collapse with champagne.[16]

Presidents Daniel arap Moi of Kenya, Ali Hassan Mwinyi of Tanzania, and Yoweri Kaguta Museveni of Uganda signed the Treaty for East African Co-operation in Kampala on 30 November 1993 and established a Tri-partite Commission for Co-operation.[17] A process of re-integration was embarked on involving tripartite programmes of co-operation in political, economic, social and cultural fields, research and technology, defence, security, and legal and judicial affairs.

The EAC was revived on 30 November 1999, when the treaty for its re-establishment was signed. It came into force on 7 July 2000, 23 years after the collapse of the previous community and its organs. A customs union was signed in March 2004, which commenced on 1 January 2005. Kenya, the region's largest exporter, continued to pay duties on goods entering the other four countries on a declining scale until 2010. A common system of tariffs will apply to goods imported from third-party countries.[18] On 30 November 2016 it was declared that the immediate aim would be confederation rather than federation.[19]

South Sudan's accession

The presidents of Kenya and Rwanda invited the Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan to apply for membership upon the independence of South Sudan in 2011,[20][21] and South Sudan was reportedly an applicant country as of mid-July 2011.[20][22] Analysts suggested that South Sudan's early efforts to integrate infrastructure, including rail links and oil pipelines,[23] with systems in Kenya and Uganda indicated intention on the part of Juba to pivot away from dependence on Sudan and toward the EAC. Reuters considers South Sudan the likeliest candidate for EAC expansion in the short term,[24] and an article in Tanzanian daily The Citizen that reported East African Legislative Assembly Speaker Abdirahin Haithar Abdi said South Sudan was "free to join the EAC" asserted that analysts believe the country will soon become a full member of the regional body.[25]

On 17 September 2011, the Daily Nation quoted a South Sudanese MP as saying that while his government was eager to join the EAC, it would likely delay its membership over concerns that its economy was not sufficiently developed to compete with EAC member states and could become a "dumping ground" for Kenyan, Tanzanian, and Ugandan exports.[26] This was contradicted by President Salva Kiir, who announced South Sudan had begun the application process one month later.[27] The application was deferred by the EAC in December 2012,[28] however incidents with Ugandan boda-boda operators in South Sudan have created political tension and may delay the process.[29]

In December 2012, Tanzania agreed to South Sudan's bid to join the EAC, clearing the way for the world's newest state to become the regional bloc's sixth member.[30] In May 2013 the EAC set aside US$82,000 for the admission of South Sudan into the bloc even though admission may not happen until 2016. The process, to start after the EAC Council of Ministers meeting in August 2013, was projected to take at least four years. At the 14th Ordinary Summit held in Nairobi in 2012, EAC heads of state approved the verification report that was presented by the Council of Ministers, then directed it to start the negotiation process with South Sudan.[31]

A team was formed to assess South Sudan's bid; however, in April 2014, the nation requested a delay in the admissions process, presumably due to ongoing internal conflict.[32][33]

South Sudan's Minister of Foreign Affairs, Barnaba Marial Benjamin, claimed publicly in October 2015 that, following evaluations and meetings of a special technical committee in May, June, August, September and October, the committee has recommended that South Sudan be allowed to join the East African Community. Those recommendations, however, had not been released to the public. It was reported that South Sudan could be admitted as early as November 2015 when the heads of East African States had their summit meeting.[34]

South Sudan was eventually approved for membership to the bloc in March 2016,[35] and signed a treaty of accession in April 2016.[36] It had six months to ratify the agreement, which it did on 5 September, at which point it formally acceded to the community.[37][38] It does not yet participate to the same extent as the other members.[19][timeframe?]

Democratic Republic of the Congo's accession

In 2010, Tanzanian officials expressed interest in inviting the DR Congo to join the East African Community. The DRC applied for admission to the EAC in June 2019.[39] In June 2021, the EAC Summit launched a verification mission to assess the suitability of the DRC for admission to the Community, and has since drafted a report on their findings which is ready for submission to the EAC Council of Ministers.[40] On 23 November 2021: Ministers in charge of East African Community (EAC) Affairs have recommended for consideration by the EAC Heads of States the report of the verification team on the application by The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) to join the Community.[41] In February 2022, the EAC Council of Ministers recommended that the DRC be admitted as a new member state of the EAC.[42] On 18 March 2022, the EAC Secretary-General Peter Mathuki confirmed that the Heads of State would approve the admission on 29 March 2022.[43] The Democratic Republic of the Congo was admitted as a member of the EAC on 29 March 2022, at a virtual Head of State summit chaired by Uhuru Kenyatta of Kenya,[44] and officially became a member of the East African Community on 11 July 2022 after depositing the instrument of ratification with the EAC Secretary General at the bloc's headquarters in Arusha, Tanzania. The accession of the DRC gives the EAC its first port on the West African coast.

Somalia's accession

Representatives of Somalia applied for membership in the EAC in March 2012.[45] The application was considered by the EAC Heads of State in December 2012, which requested that the EAC Council work with Somalia to verify their application.[46] In February 2015, the EAC again deliberated on the matter but deferred a decision as verification had not yet started nor had preparations with the Somalian government been finalized.[47] During the 22nd Ordinary EAC Heads of State Summit on 22 July 2022, the EAC Heads of State, noted that the verification process for Somalia to join the community needs to be completed expeditiously.[48] In 2023, East African Community (EAC) Secretary-General Peter Mathuki said Somalia had made a critical step towards becoming the eighth member of the bloc, with negotiations on admission set to last from 22 August to 5 September.[49] Somalia was formally admitted on 24 November 2023 during the 23rd ordinary summit of the heads of state, following a five-hour closed-door meeting.[50][51] The treaty of accession was signed on 15 December 2023 at the presidential residence in Kampala, Uganda, with Somalia having 6 months to complete its ratification of the treaty.[52][53] Membership will be official after ratification has been completed.[54] On February 10, 2024, The Parliament endorsed the treaty of accession.[55] Somalia deposited its instruments of ratification on 4 March 2024, thus becoming the eighth member of the organisation.[56]

Somaliland is an independent autonomous zone within the borders of Somalia. With Somalia’s accession into the EAC, Somaliland released a statement stating that the “decision is a clear violation of Somaliland's sovereignty and territorial integrity,” and called for the EAC, the African Union, and the United Nations to recognize their statehood.[57]

Partner states

Overview of partner states in the East African Community
Country Capital Acces­sion Popula­tion[3] Area (km2) GDP
(US$ bn)[4]
per capita
(US$ bn)[4]
per capita
 Burundi Gitega 2007 13,590,102 27,834 3.075 226.27 12.241 900.73
 DR Congo Kinshasa 2022 115,403,027 2,344,858 73.761 639.16 160.197 1,388.15
 Kenya Nairobi 2000 58,246,378 580,367 104.001 1,785.54 365.854 6,281.15
 Rwanda Kigali 2007 13,623,302 26,338 13.701 1,005.70 46.658 3,424.87
 Somalia Mogadishu 2024 13,017,273 637,657 12.804 983.62 34.027 2,613.99
 South Sudan Juba 2016 12,703,714 644,329 6.517 513.00 7.031 553.46
 Tanzania Dodoma 2000 67,462,121 945,087 79.605 1,180.00 244.363 3,622.23
 Uganda Kampala 2000 49,283,041 241,550 56.310 1,142.58 156.696 3,179.51
343,328,958 5,448,020 349.774 1,018.77 1,027.067 2,991.50

Potential expansion


In 2019, President Lourenço mediated the re-opening of the borders and ending hostilities between EAC neighbours Rwanda and Uganda. Historically, Angola has been closely involved politically with the DRC with a focus on peace and stability in the DRC. Angola is currently leading the Luanda process for stability in the eastern DRC under the ICGLR with EAC Partner States – Uganda and Rwanda.[58][59]

Central African Republic

EAC partner states Burundi, DR Congo, Rwanda, and Tanzania have been involved in peace keeping missions in the Central African Republic. President Touadera has applauded Rwanda's support in securing peace in the country. With DRC in the EAC, and infrastructure developments from Pointe-Noire in the Republic of Congo to Bangui, the capital of the CAR, as well as inclusion of the country into the LAPSSET project from Lamu-Juba-Bangui-Douala, this could see the mineral and resource rich country realize economic benefits.[60][61]


In July 2023 Kenyan President William Ruto raised the idea of Comoros joining the EAC while signing an agreement for deeper bilateral cooperation between Kenya and Comoros. Comoros and existing member Tanzania have a maritime border.[62]

Republic of the Congo

The Republic of the Congo enjoys strong historical political, economic and cultural ties with DR Congo. The Republic of Congo is involved, under the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region (ICGLR), in the peace and stability efforts in eastern DR Congo together with Angola. Rwandan and Ugandan leaders have been meeting in Luanda with President Sassou Nguesso to support these peace efforts.[59][63]


With Somalia set to join the group in October 2023, Secretary General Peter Mathuki stated, “The vision of our leaders is to have a market of 800 million people. And that will be possible if we integrate all the countries in the horn of Africa and make one huge market,” hinting of the possible accession of Djibouti and Ethiopia.[64]


Kenyan President Uhuru Kenyatta proposed expanding the EAC to include Central, Northern, and Southern African states, such as Ethiopia.[65] The potential joining of Ethiopia into the EAC would bring the population to approximately 460 million.[3] Speaking at the opening of the One Stop Border post in Moyale in 2020, Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed of Ethiopia affirmed his commitment to regional integration saying that the east African people are one people and economic integration is a key goal for the region to achieve so as to unlock its potential.[66][67] With other horn of Africa countries like Somalia joining the EAC and the opening up of Ethiopia's sectors such as banking and telecommunications to the private sector, being part of the EAC could soon become a priority to accelerate economic gains.[68] With Somalia set to join the group in October 2023, Secretary General Peter Mathuki stated that the vision of the leaders is to have one market comprised of 800 million people through integration of the Horn of Africa into the EAC.[64] On 8 April 2024, Ministry of EAC Arid and Semi-arid Lands and Regional Development Cabinet Secretary Peninah Malonza revealed that the EAC and Ethiopia were in the final stages of negotiation for admission into the bloc, meaning Ethiopia is due to become the 9th member state of the EAC within the next few months.[69]


In 2010, Tanzanian officials expressed interest in inviting Malawi to join the EAC. Malawian Foreign Affairs Minister Etta Banda said, however, that there were no formal negotiations taking place concerning Malawian membership.[70]


Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni in May 2022, hinted at the possibility of deploying an East African regional force to Mozambique to counter insurgency in the Northern Provinces. Rwanda, at the request of Mozambique, in July 2021 had sent a strong contingent to Cabo Delgado. Mozambique shares cultural and historical ties with EAC Partner States. There is a significant Kiswahili speaking population in the country.[71][72]


Sudan applied to join the EAC in 2011, with Burundi, Kenya, and Rwanda supporting membership, while Tanzania and Uganda were opposed to it. They contended that because of the Sudan's lack of a direct border with the EAC at the time, its allegedly discriminatory actions toward black Africans, its record of human rights violations, and its history of hostilities with both South Sudan and Uganda, Sudan was ineligible to join and their application was rejected in December 2012.[73][74]

EAC Organs

The Treaty for the Establishment of the East African Community established seven EAC Organs to perform the functions of the community.

The Summit

Period Chairman
2012–2013 Uganda Yoweri Museveni
2013–2015 Kenya Uhuru Kenyatta
2015–2017 Tanzania John Magufuli
2017–2019 Uganda Yoweri Museveni
2019–2021 Rwanda Paul Kagame
2021–2022 Kenya Uhuru Kenyatta
2022–2023 Burundi Évariste Ndayishimiye
2023–present South Sudan Salva Kiir Mayardit

The Summit consists of the heads of state of each individual member country. The Summit gives "strategic direction towards the realization of the goal and objectives of the Community," and convenes once per year, with additional meetings at request of any member of the Summit. The Summit's decisions are arrived at by consensus.[75] The Chairperson of the Summit's tenure is one year and is in rotation from among the partner states. At Summit meetings, the Summit reviews annual progress reports and other reports from the Council. The summit appoints East African Court of Justice judges, assents to bills, and admits new member or observer states. The Summit may delegate many but not all of its powers to lower organs at the discretion of the Summit. The President of South Sudan, Salva Kiir Mayardit, serves as the current EAC Summit Chairperson.[76]

The Council

The Council consists of the Minister responsible for EAC affairs of each member State, any other Minister of the member state the member state elects; and the Attorney General of each Partner State. The Council meets twice a year, one time directly after the Summit and once later in the year.[75] The Council can also meet at the request of the Council Chairperson or member state. The Council main function is to implement decisions made by the Summit. The Council initiates and submits Bills to the Assembly, gives directions to the Partner States, and makes regulations, issues directives, and makes recommendations to all other organs (except the Summit, the Court, and the Assembly).[75] The Council also can establish Sectoral Committees from amongst its members to implement specific directives. Deng Alor Kuol, the Minister for East African Community Affairs in South Sudan, is the current Chairperson of the EAC Council of Ministers.[39] This position of Lead Council Chairperson is elected by the Head of State, and is replaced annually.[75]

The Coordination Committee

The Co-ordination Committee consists of the Permanent Secretaries of EAC affairs in each member state and any other Permanent Secretaries as determined by the member state. The Coordination Committee meets at least twice a year preceding the meetings of the Council. The Coordination Committee implements the directives decided by the Council and recommends the creation of Sectoral Committees to the Council.[75] The current acting Principal Secretary of the Coordinating Committee is Dr. Kevit Desai of Kenya.[77]

East African Court of Justice

Main article: East African Court of Justice

The East African Court of Justice is the judicial arm of the community and consists of the First Instance Division and an Appellate Division. The Judges are appointed by the Summit from candidates recommended by the member states provided there are no more than two judges of a member state on the First Instance Division and no more than one judge of a member state on the Appellate Division.[75] The court is composed of a maximum of fifteen judges with no more than ten of the First Instance Division and no more than five of the Appellate Division. Each Judge may serve for no more than seven years and holds office until that period expires, death, reaching seventy years-of-age, or removal for misconduct by the Summit after deliberation from a tribunal, bankruptcy, or conviction.[75] Upon suspension, the judge's member state recommends a qualified candidate for appointment to temporary judge. If a judge has a conflict-of-interest, they are to report to their higher-up for deliberation on their ability to fairly judge.[75] The court has jurisdiction over cases involving interpretation and application of the treaty, other jurisdiction as designated by the Summit, member states that consider another member state or EAC Organ to have failed obligations under the treaty, and disputes between the EAC and its employees.[75] The Summit, the Council, or a Partner State may also request the Court to give an advisory opinion on an issue regarding the Treaty.

East African Legislative Assembly

Main article: East African Legislative Assembly

The East African Legislative Assembly (EALA) is the legislative arm of the community. The EALA has 27 members who are all elected by the National Assemblies or Parliaments of the member states of the community.[75] The EALA has oversight functions on all matters that fall within the community's work and its functions include debating and approving the budget of the community, discussing all matters pertaining to the community and making recommendations to the council as it may deem necessary for the implementation of the treaty, liaising with National Assemblies or Parliaments on matters pertaining to the community and establishing committees for such purposes as it deems necessary.[75] The Assemblypersons have a term of five years and a term limit of two. The EALA meets at least once a year and since being inaugurated in 2001, the EALA has had several sittings as a plenum in Arusha, Kampala, and Nairobi. Any member may introduce a bill and upon a simple majority vote, the bill proceeds to the Heads of State in which if any Head of State declines to assent within three months, the bill heads back to the EALA for editing.[75]

The Speaker of the Assembly is Dan Kidega from Uganda who replaced Margaret Zziwa also from Uganda, after being impeached; she had succeeded Abdirahin Haithar H. Abdi from Kenya. The assembly has been credited with crucial bills, particularly those regarding regional and international trade, including EAC's stand on issues such as the World Trade Organization and transport on Lake Victoria.[78]

The Secretariat

Period Secretary-General
2000–2001 Kenya Francis Muthaura
2001–2006 Uganda Amanya Mushega
2006–2011 Tanzania Juma Mwapachu
2011–2016 Rwanda Richard Sezibera
2016–2021 Burundi Libérat Mfumukeko
2021–2024 Kenya Peter Mathuki
2024–present Kenya Veronica Nduva

The Secretariat is the executive organ of the EAC. The highest office of the Secretariat is the Secretary General. The Secretary General is appointed by the summit upon nomination by the current rotational head of state and serves one five-year fixed term.[75] The Secretariat also contains the offices of the Deputy Secretaries General appointed by the Summit and under the purview of the Secretary General. The Secretariat's principle function is the implementation of the decisions of the Summit and the Council with other functions including research on best methods to achieve the EAC treaty's goals, management of funds, and investigation of EAC affairs.[75] Veronica Nduva is the current Secretary General of the EAC,[76] having been appointed 7 June 2024 following Kenya's recall of former EAC Secretary-General Peter Mathuki for alleged misallocation of six million in funds from the Peace Fund at the Secretariat.[79]

EAC Institutions

There are eight current Heads of EAC Institutions. Vivienne Yeda Apopo of Zambia is the current acting Director-General of East African Economic Development and has had this position since 2009.[80] Dr. Novat Twungubumwe of Burundi is the current acting Attorney General and Executive Secretary East African Health Research Commission.[81] Dr. Sylvance Okeyo Okoth is the Executive Secretary of the East African Science and Technology Commission (EASTECO).[82] Dr. Caroline Asiimwe of Uganda is the serving Executive Secretary of the East African Kiswahili Commission.[77] Prof. Gaspard Banyankimbona of Uganda is the serving Executive Secretary of the Inter-University Council for East Africa.[77] Eng. Richard Gatete of Rwanda is the serving executive director of the Civil Aviation Safety and Security Oversight Agency.[77] Lilian K. Mukoronia of Kenya is the acting Registrar of the East African Community Competition Authority.[77] Dr. Masinde K. Bwire is the serving Executive Secretary Lake Victoria Basin Commission.[77]



EAC Helpfulness (2014-15 Survey)
Country EAC
a lot"
Uganda 20% 21% 15% 7% 37%
Kenya 16% 28% 27% 8% 20%
Tanzania 16% 28% 13% 16% 28%

Surveying of Tanzania in 2012 revealed that 70% of Tanzanians approved of free movement of people, goods, and services.[83] Meanwhile, 55% of Tanzanians approve the customs union and 54% approve of the proposed monetary union.[83] On all three issues, share of people answering "Don't Know" has more than halved since 2008 indicating higher rates of civic engagement on EAC issues.[83] Approval of a joint army went from 26% in 2008 to 38% in 2012, with the majority (53%) still disapproving.[83] In Kenya, approval for the free movement of people, goods, and services was at 52% as of 2021.[84] Support for the monetary union sat at 49%, with 44% disapproving.[84] 65% of those with no lived poverty approved of the free movement policy while only 44% of those with high lived poverty supported it.[84] 61% of the 18-25 demographic supported free movement while 43% of the 46-55 demographic supported it.[84] The group with highest support was those with post-secondary education, with 73% supporting.[84] Awareness of EAC Organs in Kenya is low; 43% had heard nothing of the EALA, with only 29% hearing "some" or "a great deal".[84] 47% of Kenyans said that their EALA representatives should be elected directly instead of elected by the Kenyan Parliament.[84] Surveying in May 2015 in Uganda found that 69% support free movement across borders in the region.[85] In Burundi, 64% supported free movement among the region.[85] A combined 56% of Ugandans thought the EAC "helps a lot", "helps somewhat", or "helps a little" in their country.[85] 71% of Kenyans thought the EAC helps in some capacity while 57% of Tanzanians thought the EAC helps in some capacity.[85][note 1]

DRC-EAC Tensions

The M23 Offensive

Main article: M23 offensive (2022–present)

The March 23 Movement, a Congolese rebel military group mostly comprised of ethnic Tutsi,[86] waged a rebellion in the northeastern DRC from 2012 to 2013. M23 was formed by deserters of the DRC Armed Forces (FARDC) who had previously been members of the CNDP rebel group and been dissatisfied with the conditions of their service. Both the CNDP as well as the March 23 Movement's first rebellion were supported by Rwanda and Uganda.[87][88] A United Nations report found that Rwanda created and commanded the M23 rebel group.[89] Rwanda ceased its support because of international pressure and the military defeat by the DRC and the UN in 2013.[90] After agreeing to a peace deal, M23 was largely dismantled, its fighters disarmed and moved into refugee camps in Uganda.[87] In 2017, an M23 splinter group fled Uganda to Kivu to resume their insurgency,[91] however, the operation achieved little as the M23 no longer enjoyed significant international support. Uganda and the DRC had greatly improved relations, cooperating against a common enemy in the Allied Democratic Forces[91] during Operation Shujaa. In early 2022, a growing number of M23 combatants began leaving their camps and move back to the DR Congo;[87] the rebel movement launched more attacks in February 2022, but these were repelled.[91] The M23 leadership argued that parts of their movement had resumed the insurgency because the conditions of the 2013 peace deal were not being honored by the DRC government.[87][88] The rebels also argued that they were attempting to defend Kivu's Tutsi minority from attacks by Hutu militants such as the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR).[92] This follows a long trend of Hutu-Tutsi violence, exemplified by the Burundi genocide of 1993 and the Rwandan genocide of 1994, the latter having been stopped by current President of Rwanda Paul Kagame, an ethnic Tutsi who has remained in power over the Hutu-majority country since the end of the genocide.

On 6 April 2022, the FARDC rejected any negotiations with the M23 forces based in the DR Congo, and started a counter-attack.[93] However, as the FARDC was increasingly losing ground to the insurgents, the DRC government and a number of rebel groups held peace talks in Nairobi in late April, only for the offensive to resume in May.[93] In late May, insurgents temporarily seized Rumangabo before it was retaken by the FARDC. According to independent researchers, the insurgents were supported by Rwandan soldiers during the battle for Rumangabo.[94] Following months of attempts, on 13 June 2022, M23 captured the town of Bunagana. FARDC spokesman Sylvain Ekenge declared that the fall of Bunagana constituted "no less than an invasion" by Rwanda.[95] Two senior Congolese security sources and members of the Congolese parliament also accused Uganda of supporting the rebel offensive.[96] The Congolese MPs claimed that the retreat of the Uganda People's Defense Force before the rebel attack had facilitated the takeover of Bunagana. The DRC ended military cooperation with Uganda, leading to Uganda subsequently halting Operation Shujaa.[97] Kenyan President Uhuru Kenyatta responded to the fall of Bunagana and the growing regional tensions by calling for the EAC to immediately organize a new peacekeeping mission called the East African Regional Force to restore security in the eastern DR Congo.[98] An EAC meeting was organized in Nairobi to discuss the diplomatic tensions between the DRC, Rwanda, and Uganda, as well as the deployment of a new peacekeeping force. The DRC declared that it would welcome an EAC peacekeeping mission but only under the condition of Rwanda's exclusion from the operation.[99][100] The EAC subsequently called on M23 to retreat from Bunagana[101] as precondition for a casefire, but the insurgents rejected the order.[102] Anti-Rwandan protests broke out on 31 October in Goma, demanding that the DRC leave the EAC and that Russia intervene in the conflict. On 2 November, Kenya announced that it would send 900 soldiers to fight against the M23.[103] The Ugandan military then joined the Kenyan troops in fighting the M23.[104] On 28 December 2022, South Sudan sent a contingency of 750 troops to join the EARF, to be stationed in Goma.[105] Over the next few months, the EARF made some ground, with various towns being ceded to the EARF.[106] On 3 April, Ugandan EARF soldiers entered Bunagana. However, instead of taking the city, the EARF coexisted with the rebel forces.[107] A similar arrangement was also observed at Rumangabo, where Kenyans and M23 inhabited the same base, and along the Sake-Kilolirwe-Kitshanga-Mwesso axis, where Burundian and rebel forces operated next to each other.[108]

In October 2023, the DRC ordered the EAC force in the country to leave by 8 December, due to a "lack of satisfactory results on the ground".[109] On 19 December 2023, the last of the EARF forces had withdrawn from the Eastern DRC.[110] To replace the EARF, SADC forces on 15 December 2023 were deployed to the region to “restore peace and security in the eastern DRC”.[111]

Rumours of DRC Exit

At the 23rd Extraordinary Summit, held on 7 June 2024 to appoint Veronica Mueni Nduva as Secretary General, Congolese President Felix Tshisekedi neither attended nor sent a representative.[112] The DRC neglected to either attend virtually or offer an apology. In addition, the DRC was expected to attend a Somalian delegation meant to acquaint Somalia to the workings of the EAC, which the DRC skipped as well without apology.[112] Insiders at the Secretariat have stated that the DRC rarely takes part in meetings and as of 22 June 2024, the DRC has yet to align its legal instruments with the EAC as per the treaty.[112] The DRC has implemented free movement of people however otherwise has not integrated to the extent the other member states have.[112] The DRC is required to remit money to the EAC as part of its membership and yet has not remitted a cent. The total debt owed is US$14 million over two years.[112] The absence could be due to the inauguration of the new government following the 2023 General Elections however analysts have suggested that the DRC’s absence was instead a boycott in response to Kenyan President William Ruto’s stance on the M23 conflict.[112] At a summit meeting, there was a discussion on if the M23 were Rwandan or Congolese. Ruto would later say of the meeting, “The DRC told us: ‘They are Congolese.’ End of the debate. If they are Congolese, how does this become a Rwandan problem? How does this become a Kagame problem?”[113] Former Foreign Minister of the DRC Christophe Lutundula explained that the DRC strategy was “to join the Eastern bloc, of course for regional integration and economic reasons, but also to better plead the Congo’s security cause, where Rwanda is making its voice heard,” suggesting that EAC accession to the EAC was in large part due to counteracting Rwanda's influence in the bloc.[112] Congolese legislators in the EALA said the DRC was not considering quitting the EAC however stated that decision was up to President Tshisekedi.[112] MP Bertran Ewanga, head of the DRC chapter of the EALA, also suggested that additional tension was created due to a statement by Kenyan President William Ruto during his state dinner with US President Joe Biden, although the specific statement that caused the tension is yet unknown.[112] DRC Spokesman Patrick Muyaya said the peace in Kivu was taking too long to be realised and that “some Congolese are now questioning why we even asked to join the EAC.”[112] He also said the DRC is "happier in the SADC than in the EAC," reflecting the EARF's replacement at request of Tshisekedi with SADC forces.[112] Tshisekedi recalled the ambassador of the DRC to Kenya in December 2023 and has yet to accredit the new Kenyan ambassador to the DRC due to disagreements surrounding the Congo River Alliance, a group including DRC politicians and various secessionist militias including the M23.[112][114] Tshisekedi demanded that Kenya hand over any persons engaging in "subversive activities," to which Kenyan foreign minister Musalia Mudavadi said “Kenya strongly disassociates itself from any utterances or activities likely to injure the peace and security of the friendly nation of DRC and has commenced an investigation.”[114] Ultimately, Kenya found the statements to fall under constitutionally protected speech.[112] The DRC's entry into the EAC was facilitated by Kenyan President and friend to Tshisekedi, Uhuru Kenyatta. Kenyatta's successor, Ruto, is seen as reversing on the positions that allowed the DRC to join in the first place.[112] DRC Opposition leader Martin Fayulu has always criticised the DRC’s membership in the EAC, calling it a “big mistake”.[112] There are no provisions in the treaty allowing for the forcible exit of a member state, with only sanctioning having been outlined in the treaty.[112] During the 7 June 2024 Summit, Paul Kagame called for a meeting of the Council of Ministers to discuss peace in the region.[112]


The "Committee on Fast Tracking East African Federation" was created in 2004, a result of longstanding pressure by President Museveni for further integration. It recommended creating a federation with a single elected president by 2013. National committee in the then-five members to study the issue operated from 2007 to 2009. Except for Tanzania, these committees found that the majority of their populations were in favour of further integration. Nonetheless, while appointed committees continued to study integration until 2012, enthusiasm for the idea waned.[115]: 13.9–13.10  The full implementation of the customs union established in 2005 was repeatedly delayed.[115]: 13.12  The Common Market remains hampered by national restrictions.[115]: 13.13 

Some have questioned the extent to which the visions of a political union are shared outside the elite and the relatively elderly, arguing that the youthful mass of the population is not well informed about the process in any of the countries.[116] Others have pointed to an enhanced sense of East African identity developing from modern communications.[116] For these, the shared vision for a politically united East Africa is commendable and a potential driver for change.[117] Commitment to the formal EAC idea is relatively narrow, in both social and generational terms, and thus many have questioned the timetable for the project. Fast-tracking political union was first discussed in 2004 and enjoyed a consensus among the three presidents of Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda.[116] Thus, a high-level committee headed by Amos Wako of Kenya was commissioned to investigate the possibility of speeding integration so as to achieve political federation sooner than previously visualised.[116] Yet, there have been concerns that rapid changes would allow popular reactionary politics against the project.[116] There has been an argument, however, that there are high costs that would be required at the beginning and that fast-tracking the project would allow the benefits to be seen earlier.[116] The East African Community appointed South Sudan President Salva Kiir Mayardit as its chairperson in November 2023. However, this decision has been criticized by some regional observers. For example, Duop Chak Wuol, an influential South Sudanese analyst, authored a scathing article, "Justifying Dictatorship in South Sudan: A Case Against the East African Community," in December 2023. In the piece, he criticizes the East African Community's decision to appoint Kiir as its chairperson, pointing out that the EAC failed to uphold its moral obligations and accuses the bloc of ignoring what he described as Salva Kiir's tyranny.

There remain significant political differences between the states. Museveni's success in obtaining his third-term amendment raised doubts in the other countries.[116] The single-party dominance in the Tanzanian and Ugandan parliaments is unattractive to Kenyans, while Kenya's ethnic-politics remains absent in Tanzania.[116] Rwanda has a distinctive political culture with a political elite committed to building a developmental state.[116] It has been argued, however, that the commonalities go far deeper. Many of the national elites old enough to remember the former EAC often share memories and a sharp sense of loss at its eventual dissolution.[116] More cynically, others have argued that this historical ambition provides politicians with the ability to present themselves as statesmen and representatives of a greater regional interest.[116] Furthermore, EAC institutions bring significant new powers to dispose and depose to those who serve in them.[116]

A "Coalition of the Willing", made up of Kenya, Rwanda, and Uganda, began a number of initiatives amongst themselves including joint railway and oil pipeline projects, a joint tourist visa, and a defence and security pact, to get around reluctance from other members.[115]: 13.14  However, even within this grouping, progress on projects has been delayed. Bilateral friction between members, a lack of enthusiasm, and political instability have been the primary reasons behind the delaying and weakening of integration efforts.[115]: 13.15  New members are expected to adjust their laws to meet EAC requirements following their accession, but this is impeded by domestic politics. South Sudan, the first member outside of the original five, remains out of step with Common Market laws.[118]


Importance of the customs union

The key aspects of the customs union include:[116]

  1. a Common External Tariff (CET) on imports from third countries;
  2. duty-free trade between the member states; and
  3. common customs procedures.

The CET's default rate is 25%.[119] The CET for goods can range from 0% to 100% in the case of sugar.[120] For the most part, goods do not exceed a CET of 35% except for "sensitive items" which include dairy products, maize, rice, and woven fabrics.[120] Recently, the Council of Ministers has agreed to duty remission for raw materials needed to stimulate EAC domestic production.[119] Kenya was also granted a temporary exception to the CET to import grain at a lower tariff to meet local demand and increase food security.[119] The customs union is not yet exercised in the full extent of the promise. For instance, Kenya still holds excise duties on many products, raising excise duty rates in 2023.[121] And although Kenya recently loosened certain duties, they still haven't enacted full free movement of goods.[119] This also means that countries outside of the EAC must still navigate local tax and duties opposed to a singular tax policy, simplifying the process of investing in EAC member states. For EAC internal trade in the third quarter of 2023, Tanzania was the biggest exporter with US$798.12 million, Uganda was the biggest importer with US$649.3 million, and Rwanda had the highest internal EAC in trade deficit of US$375.23 million.[122] Intra-regional trade currently stands at 15% of EAC trade according to Summit Chairman Salva Kiir, which was deemed unsatisfactory.[76]

Emerging business trends

Business leaders are far more positive than economists about the benefits of EAC integration, its customs union as a step in the process, as well as the wider integration under COMESA.[116] The larger economic players perceive long-term benefits in a progressively expanding regional market.[116] Patterns of regional development are already emerging, including:[116]

Due to the DRC's accession into the EAC, Congolese in Kisangani and Goma are now receiving their goods through ports in Mombasa and Dar es Salaam.[112]

Trade negotiations

Main article: Trade in the East African Community

On 16 July 2008, the United States and the EAC signed a Trade and Investment Framework Agreement, strengthening United States-EAC trade.[123] The U.S. exported $1.1 billion and imported $1.3 billion from the EAC in 2022. This shifted the net goods traded from a total trade deficit of $211 million in 2021 to a trade surplus of $135 million in 2022.[123] In Q4 2024, the EAC exported US$6.3 Billion.[122] Out of trade partners, the top five were China, the United Arab Emirates, India, South Africa, and Malaysia. The top importer of EAC goods was the UAE and the top source of inputed goods was China.[122] Trade with COMESA accounted for 11.5% of total EAC Trade while trade with SADC accounted for 12.9.[122]

Poverty reduction

EAC that have economies have large informal sectors, unintegrated with the formal economy and large business.[116] The concerns of large-scale manufacturing and agro-processing concerns are not broadly shared by the bulk of available labour.[116] Research suggest the promised investments on the conditions of life of the region's overwhelmingly rural poor will be slight, with the significant exception of agro-industrial firms with out-grower schemes or that otherwise contribute to the co-ordination of smallholder production and trade.[116]

It is informal trade across borders that is most often important to rural livelihoods and a customs union is unlikely to significantly impact the barriers that this faces and taxes are still being fixed separately by countries.[116] However, the introduction of one-stop border posts being introduced and the reduction in tariff barriers are coming down progressively.[116]

The establishment of a common market will create both winners (numerous food producers and consumers on both sides of all borders) and losers (smugglers and the customs, police and local government officers who currently benefit from bribery at and around the borders) in the border areas.[116] More substantial impact could be attained by a new generation of investments in world-market production based on the region's comparative advantages in natural resources (especially mining and agriculture) and the new tariff structure creates marginally better conditions for world-market exporters, by cheapening inputs and by reducing upward pressures on the exchange rate.[116]

Common market

EAC heads in 2009. From left to right: Yoweri Museveni (Uganda), Mwai Kibaki (Kenya), Paul Kagame (Rwanda), Jakaya Kikwete (Tanzania), Pierre Nkurunziza (Burundi).

On 1 July 2010, Kenyan President Mwai Kibaki launched the East African Common Market Protocol, an expansion of the bloc's existing customs union that entered into effect in 2005.[124] The protocol will leads the free movement of labour, capital, goods and services within the EAC.[124] Member states will have to change their national laws to allow the full implementation of some aspects of the Common Market such as immigration and customs.[8] This legislation may take up to five years for each of the countries to enact fully but official recognition of the common market took place on 1 July.[125] Kenya expects that its citizens will begin to enjoy freedom of movement in the EAC within two months.[126] Kenya, Rwanda and Burundi have already agreed to waive work permit fees for EAC citizens.[126] The Common Market is seen as a step towards the implementation of a common currency by 2024 and full political federation afterwards.[7] Kenyan businesses complain that the benefits of the Common Market only exist on paper by 2011, and that all the work remains to be done. Arbitrary rules and delays continue to make trade between Kenya and Tanzania expensive and difficult.[127]

The free movement of people in the EAC is set to be improved with the introduction of "third generation" ID cards. These cards will identify the holder as a dual citizen of their home country and of "East Africa".[128] Third generation cards are already in use in Rwanda with Kenya set to introduce them in July 2010 and the other countries following afterwards.[129] Mutual recognition and accreditation of higher education institutions is also being worked towards as is the harmonisation of social security benefits across the EAC.[129]

The full adoption of the common market has been undermined by continued protectionism between member states, with decisions driven by political pressures on national leaders slowing down the implementation of commitments to integration, even within founding members. Bilateral political tensions have led to border controls in some periods, further undermining the shared labour market. Corruption has led to some integration initiatives being underfunded.[130]

East African Passport

The East African passport was launched on 1 April 1999.[131] The East African passport has been introduced as a travel document to ease border crossing for EAC residents.[132][133] It is valid for travel within the EAC countries only and will entitle the holder to a multi-entry stay of renewable six months' validity in any of the countries.[132] The passport is issued in three of the EAC member states (Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania). The passports are available at the headquarters of the respective Immigration Departments in Nairobi, Kampala and Dar es Salaam. Only East African nationals may apply to be issued with the passports.[132][133] The passport costs US$10 or the equivalent in EAC currencies.[133] Processing of applications for the passports will normally take two to three weeks. Although the passport is only valid within the EAC, modalities of internationalising the East African passport were being discussed with the aim towards having a common travel document for EAC residents by 2006.[132]

Other measures meant to ease border crossing for East African Community residents include the issuance of interstate passes (which commenced on 1 July 2003), a single immigration Departure/Entry card (adopted by all three member states), the finalisation of harmonised procedures of work permits and the classification process, and the compilation of studies on the Harmonization of Labour Laws and Employment Policies (now in its final stages).[132]


Main article: East African Federation

The new treaty was proposed with plans drawn up in 2004 to introduce a monetary union with a common currency some time between 2012 and 2015. There were also plans for a political union, the East African Federation, with a common President (initially on a rotation basis) and a common parliament by 2010. However, some experts, like those based in the public think tank Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis (KIPPRA), noted that the plans were too ambitious to be met by 2010 because a number of political, social and economic challenges are yet to be addressed. The proposal was the subject of National Consultative discussions, and a final decision was to be taken by the EAC Heads of State in mid-2007.[134] In 2013, a protocol was signed outlining their plans for launching a monetary union within 10 years.[9]

Given the infrastructure problems that persist in the fledgling country since South Sudanese President Salva Kiir cut off oil commerce with Sudan, the state has decided to invest in constructing pipelines that circumvent Sudan's, which it had been using until that time. These new pipelines would extend through Ethiopia to the ports of Djibouti, as well as to the southeast to the coast of Kenya.[135]

In September 2018, a committee was formed to begin the process of drafting a regional constitution.[10]

In January 2023, the East African Community plans to issue a single currency within the next four years. The Council of Ministers of the organization must decide on the location of the East African Monetary Institute and the establishment of a roadmap for the issuance of the single currency.[136]

Single tourist visa

It had been hoped that an East African Single Tourist Visa may have been ready for November 2006, if it was approved by the relevant sectoral authorities under the EAC's integration programme. Had it been approved, the visa would have been valid for all three current member states of the EAC (Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda). Under the proposal for the visa, any new EAC single visa could be issued by any member state's embassy. The visa proposal followed an appeal by the tourist boards of the partner states for a common visa to accelerate promotion of the region as a single tourist destination and the EAC Secretariat wanted it approved before November's World Travel Fair (or World Travel Market) in London.[137] When approved by the EAC's council of ministers, tourists could apply for one country's entry visa which would then be applicable in all regional member states as a single entry requirement initiative.[138]

A single East African Tourist Visa for the EAC countries of Kenya, Rwanda, and Uganda has been available since 2014.[139]


Main article: East African Federation § Geography

The geographical region encompassed by the EAC covers an area of 5,449,717 km2 (2,104,147 sq mi). The EAC spans the continent from the Indian Ocean to the Atlantic Ocean, with a population of 343,328,958 as of 2024.[3] The DRC has plentiful mining operations, in particular the mining of Cobalt. The mining sector of the EAC contributes around 2.3% of the GDP. Mining is one of the leading components in generating foreign exchange earnings within the non-traditional exports. Gold was the second highest exported product following petroleum in the fourth quarter of 2023.[122]

Largest population centres of the East African Community
According to the most recent Censuses and Estimates[t 1][t 2][t 3][t 4]
Rank City name State Pop. Rank City name State Pop.


Dar es Salaam

1 Kinshasa Democratic Republic of the Congo 15,628,000 11 Mwanza Tanzania 1,245,000


2 Dar es Salaam Tanzania 7,405,000 12 Kigali Rwanda 1,208,000
3 Nairobi Kenya 5,119,000 13 Bukavu Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,190,000
4 Kampala Uganda 3,652,000 14 Bujumbura Burundi 1,139,000
5 Mbuji-Mayi Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,765,000 15 Tshikapa Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,024,000
6 Lubumbashi Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,695,000 16 Bunia Democratic Republic of the Congo 768,000
7 Mogadishu Somalia 2,610,000 17 Zanzibar Tanzania 766,000
8 Kananga Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,593,000 18 Goma Democratic Republic of the Congo 707,000
9 Mombassa Kenya 1,389,000 19 Uvira Democratic Republic of the Congo 657,000
10 Kisangani Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,366,000 20 Mbeya Tanzania 620,000
  1. ^ "Africa: Population Statistics in Maps and Charts for Cities, Agglomerations and Administrative Divisions of all Countries in Africa". citypopulation.de.
  2. ^ Trizer, Mwanyika (4 November 2019). "2019 Kenya Population and Housing Census Results".
  3. ^ "2019 Kenya Population and Housing Census Volume I: Population by County and Sub-County".
  4. ^ "Africa Population (2022)". populationstat.com.

The EAC contains 15 cities with populations of over one million (half of which are in Democratic Republic of the Congo alone), the largest being Kinshasa. Kampala is the largest urban centre located on Lake Victoria, the second largest freshwater lake in the world and Mwanza coming in second and Kisumu third.


2024 Population statistics of constituent states
Name Population[3] % of Total Population Annual Population Growth[3] TFR HDI
 DR Congo 115,403,027 33.6% 3.11% 6.0 0.481
 Tanzania 67,462,121 19.6% 2.72% 4.5 0.532
 Kenya 58,246,378 17.0% 2.06% 3.2 0.601
 Uganda 49,283,041 14.4% 3.18% 4.2 0.550
 Somalia 13,017,273 3.8% 2.55% 6.0 0.380
 Rwanda 13,623,302 4.0% 1.62% 3.6 0.548
 Burundi 13,590,102 4.0% 2.81% 4.8 0.420
 South Sudan 12,703,714 3.7% 4.65% 4.1 0.381
 East African Community 343,328,958 100% 2.83% 4.8 0.515

The population of the constituent parts of the EAC is composed of 65% under 30-year-olds.[140] This youth bulge is anticipated to grow to 75% of the population under the age of 25 in this region by 2030.[140]

The East African Community's current urban population stands at about 20%.[citation needed]

Religions in the EAC [141]

  Christianity (79.80%)
  Islam (15.97%)
  Unaffiliated (1.49%)
  Other (Hinduism, Buddhism, etc.) (0.27%)


Data comes from CIA World Factbook[3] or 2020 Pew Research estimates.[142]


Kiswahili, English and French are designated as the official languages of the EAC, with Swahili designated for development as the lingua franca of the community.[1] Within the EAC, there are three countries whose official language is French: the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda and Burundi. Numerous local languages are also spoken: for example, there are 56 local languages spoken in Uganda,[143] 125 in Tanzania, 72 in South Sudan and 67 local languages in Kenya. Kinyarwanda is spoken in Rwanda and Uganda.[144] There are over 200 local languages spoken in the DRC. Lingala is widely spoken in the western Democratic Republic of Congo, with about 15 million speakers and Kiswahili with 23 million speakers across the country.[145]

Comparison with other regional blocs

This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (November 2023)
African Economic Community
Pillar regional
blocs (REC)
Population GDP (PPP) ($US) Member
(millions) (per capita)
EAC 5,449,717 343,328,958 737,420 2,149 8
ECOWAS/CEDEAO 5,112,903 349,154,000 1,322,452 3,788 15
IGAD 5,233,604 294,197,387 225,049 1,197 7
AMU/UMA a 6,046,441 106,919,526 1,299,173 12,628 5
ECCAS/CEEAC 6,667,421 218,261,591 175,928 1,451 11
SADC 9,882,959 394,845,175 737,392 3,152 15
COMESA 12,873,957 406,102,471 735,599 1,811 20
CEN-SAD a 14,680,111 29
Total AEC 29,910,442 853,520,010 2,053,706 2,406 54
Other regional
Population GDP (PPP) ($US) Member
(millions) (per capita)
WAMZ 1 1,602,991 264,456,910 1,551,516 5,867 6
SACU 1 2,693,418 51,055,878 541,433 10,605 5
CEMAC 2 3,020,142 34,970,529 85,136 2,435 6
UEMOA 1 3,505,375 80,865,222 101,640 1,257 8
UMA 2 a 5,782,140 84,185,073 491,276 5,836 5
GAFTA 3 a 5,876,960 1,662,596 6,355 3,822 5
During 2004. Sources: The World Factbook 2005, IMF WEO Database.
  Smallest value among the blocs compared.
  Largest value among the blocs compared.
1: Economic bloc inside a pillar REC.
2: Proposed for pillar REC, but objecting participation.
3: Non-African members of GAFTA are excluded from figures.
a: The area 446,550 km2 used for Morocco excludes all disputed territories, while 710,850 km2 would include the Moroccan-claimed and partially-controlled parts of Western Sahara (claimed as the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic by the Polisario Front). Morocco also claims Ceuta and Melilla, making up about 22.8 km2 (8.8 sq mi) more claimed territory.

See also


  1. ^ Survey does not include option for "EAC harms"


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