This article's lead section may be too short to adequately summarize the key points. Please consider expanding the lead to provide an accessible overview of all important aspects of the article. (May 2022)
Mwai Kibaki
Kibaki in 2012
3rd President of Kenya
In office
30 December 2002 – 9 April 2013
Prime MinisterRaila Odinga (2008–2013)
Vice PresidentMichael Wamalwa
Moody Awori
Kalonzo Musyoka
Preceded byDaniel Arap Moi
Succeeded byUhuru Kenyatta
4th Vice President of Kenya
In office
14 October 1978 – 24 March 1988
PresidentDaniel Arap Moi
Preceded byDaniel Arap Moi
Succeeded byJosephat Karanja
5th Minister for Health
In office
PresidentDaniel Arap Moi
Preceded bySamuel Ole Tipis
Succeeded byJoshua Mulanda Angatia
2nd Minister for Finance (Kenya)
In office
PresidentDaniel Arap Moi
Jomo Kenyatta
Preceded byJames Gichuru
Succeeded byArthur Magugu
3rd Member of Parliament
In office
1974 – 28 March 2013
Preceded byKing'ori Muhiukia
Succeeded byMary Wambui
Member of Parliament
In office
Preceded byPost established
Succeeded byJames Muriuki
Personal details
Emilio Stanley Mwai Kibaki

(1931-11-15)15 November 1931
Gatuyaini, British Kenya
Died21 April 2022(2022-04-21) (aged 90)
Nairobi, Kenya
Resting placeMinister for Finance
Political partyKenya African National Union (1963–1992)
Democratic Party (1992–2007)
Party of National Unity (2007–2013)
(m. 1961; died 2016)
  • Minister for Finance
EducationUniversity of East Africa, Makerere College, Kampala.(BA in Economics, History and Political Science)
London School of Economics (BSc in Public Finance)

Emilio Mwai Kibaki[needs IPA] CGH[1] (15 November 1931 – 21 April 2022)[2] was a Kenyan politician who served as the third President of Kenya from December 2002 until April 2013.[3]

He had previously served as the fourth Vice-President of Kenya for ten years from 1978 to 1988 under President Daniel arap Moi. He also held cabinet ministerial positions in the Jomo Kenyatta and Daniel arap Moi governments, including as minister for Finance (1969–1981) under Kenyatta, and Minister for Home Affairs (1982–1988) and Minister for Health (1988–1991) under Moi.[4]

Kibaki served as an opposition Member of Parliament from 1992 to 2002. He unsuccessfully vied for the presidency in 1992 and 1997. He served as the Leader of the Official Opposition in Parliament from 1998 to 2002. Following the 2002 presidential election, he was elected as President of Kenya.

Early life and education

Kibaki was born on 15 November 1931 in Gatuyaini village, Othaya division of Kenya's then Nyeri District (now Nyeri County).[5] He was the youngest son of Kikuyu peasants Kibaki Gĩthĩnji and Teresia Wanjikũ. Though baptised as Emilio Stanley by Italian missionaries in his youth, he has been known as Mwai Kibaki throughout his public life.[6] Kibaki started his schooling at the village school in Gatuyaini, where he completed two years.[5] He then continued his education at the Karima mission school, close to Othaya town, before moving to Mathari School (now Nyeri High School) between 1944 and 1946.[7] In addition to his academic studies, he learned carpentry and masonry at the school. After Karima Primary and Nyeri Boarding primary schools, he proceeded to Mang'u High School, where he studied between 1947 and 1950, gaining the highest grade in his O Level examinations.[5]

In his last year at Mang'u, Kibaki briefly considered enlisting in the army, but this ambition was thwarted when Kenya's Chief colonial secretary, Walter Coutts, prohibited members of Kikuyu, Embu, and Meru communities from joining the military. Kibaki instead attended Makerere University in Kampala, Uganda, where he studied economics, history, and political science. He graduated with a first class honours degree in economics.[5] After graduation, Kibaki remained in Uganda, working for the Shell Company of East Africa. He then earned a scholarship entitling him to undertake postgraduate studies at any British university. He chose the London School of Economics, from which he obtained a BSc in public finance, with distinction.[8] In 1958, he went back to Makerere, where he taught as an assistant lecturer in the economics department until 1961.[5] In 1961, Kibaki married Lucy Muthoni, the daughter of a church minister, who was then a secondary school head teacher.[5]

Political career prior to presidency


In early 1960, Mwai Kibaki left academia for active politics by giving up his job at Makerere and returning to Kenya to become an executive officer of Kenya African National Union (KANU), at the request of Thomas Joseph Mboya[9] (who was the secretary general of KANU). Kibaki then helped to draft Kenya's independence constitution.[10]

In 1963, Kibaki was elected as Member of Parliament for the Doonholm Constituency (subsequently called Bahati and now known as Makadara) in Nairobi.[11] His election was the start of a long political career. In 1963 Kibaki was appointed the Permanent Secretary for the Treasury.[12] Appointed Assistant Minister of Finance and chairman of the Economic Planning Commission in 1963, he was promoted to Minister of Commerce and Industry in 1966.[13] In 1969, he became Minister of Finance and Economic Planning where he served until 1982.[14]

In 1974, Kibaki, facing serious competition for his Doonholm Constituency seat from an opponent Mrs. Jael Mbogo, whom he had only narrowly and controversially beaten for the seat in the 1969 elections,[15] moved his political base from Nairobi to his rural home, Othaya, where he was subsequently elected as Member of Parliament. The same year Time magazine rated him among the top 100 people in the world who had the potential to lead. He was re-elected Member of Parliament for Othaya in the subsequent elections of 1979, 1983, 1988, 1992, 1997, 2002, and 2007.[16]

When Daniel arap Moi succeeded Jomo Kenyatta as President of Kenya in 1978, Kibaki was elevated to the Vice Presidency, and kept the Finance portfolio until Moi changed his ministerial portfolio from Finance to Home Affairs in 1982. He had in 1978 rejected an offer to become World Bank Vice President for Africa instead choosing to further his political career. As of 2023, he is still regarded as one of the most effective and consequentual finance ministers of the Republic of Kenya. Later as President, he kept close tabs with the treasury and directly influenced key economic policies resulting in steady economic growth. Kibaki fell out of favour with President Moi in March 1988, and was dropped as vice president and moved to the Ministry of Health.[16][17]

Kibaki's political style during these years was described as gentlemanly and non-confrontational. This style exposed him to criticism that he was a spineless, or even cowardly, politician who never took a stand: according to one joke, "He never saw a fence he didn't sit on".[18] Similarly, Kenneth Matiba also referred to him as "General Kiguoya" for refusing to resign the Kanu government and join the opposition after he was dropped as vice president in 1988. 'Kiguoya' translates to the 'fearful one' in the Kikuyu language. He also, as the political circumstances of the time dictated, projected himself as a loyal stalwart of the ruling single party, KANU. In the months before multi-party politics were introduced in 1992, he infamously declared that agitating for multi-party democracy and trying to dislodge KANU from power was like "trying to cut down a fig tree with a razor blade".[18]

It was therefore with great surprise that the country received the news of Kibaki's resignation from government and leaving KANU on Christmas Day in December 1991, only days after the repeal of Section 2A of the then Constitution of Kenya, which restored the multi-party system of government. Soon after his resignation, Kibaki founded the Democratic Party (DP)[19] and entered the presidential race in the upcoming multi-party elections of 1992. Kibaki was regarded as one of the favourites among Moi's challengers, although his support came mainly from the Kikuyu voters as the election was fought along ethnic lines, confirming a prediction made by both Moi and political analysts at the beginning of multipartyism.[20]

Kibaki came third in the subsequent presidential elections of 1992, when the divided opposition lost to president Moi and KANU despite having received more than two-thirds of the vote.[21][22] He then came second to Moi in the 1997 elections, when again, Moi beat a divided opposition to retain the presidency.[23] Kibaki joined third-placed Raila Odinga in accusing the president of rigging the poll, and both opposition leaders boycotted Moi's swearing in for his fifth term in office.[24]

2002 elections

In preparation for the 2002 elections, Kibaki's Democratic Party affiliated with several other opposition parties to form the National Alliance of Rainbow Coalition (NARC). A group of disappointed KANU presidential aspirants then quit KANU in protest after being overlooked by outgoing President Moi when Moi had Uhuru Kenyatta (founding Father Jomo Kenyatta's son and Kibaki's successor as Kenya's 4th President after the 2013 General Election) nominated to be the KANU presidential candidate, and hurriedly formed the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP). NAK later combined with the LDP to form the National Rainbow Coalition (NARC). On 14 October 2002, at a large opposition rally in Uhuru Park, Nairobi, Kibaki was nominated the NARC opposition alliance presidential candidate after Raila Odinga made the famous declaration; "Kibaki Tosha!" (Swahili for "Kibaki [is] enough") [25]

On 3 December 2002, Kibaki was injured in a road accident while on his way back to Nairobi from a campaign meeting at Machakos junction 40 kilometres (25 miles) from Nairobi. He was subsequently hospitalized in Nairobi, then London, after sustaining fracture injuries in the accident.[26] After the accident, he had to move using a wheel chair up to months later after his presidency. For the remainder of his life, he walked rather awkwardly as a result of those injuries.

The rest of his presidential campaign was thus conducted by his NARC colleagues in his absence, led by Raila Odinga and Kijana Wamalwa (who went on to become the Vice President) who campaigned tirelessly for Kibaki after stating, "The captain has been injured in the field... but the rest of the team shall continue."[26] On 27 December 2002, Kibaki and NARC won a landslide victory over KANU, with Kibaki getting 62% of the votes in the presidential elections, against only 31% for the KANU candidate Uhuru Kenyatta.[27]


Presidential Standard of Mwai Kibaki

Swearing in

On 30 December 2002, still nursing injuries from the motor vehicle accident and in a wheel chair, Kibaki was sworn in as the third President and Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Kenya, in front of thousands of cheering supporters at the historic Uhuru Park within Nairobi City. At his inauguration, he stressed his opposition to government corruption, saying:

"Government will no longer be run on the whims of individuals."[28]

Kibaki's swearing in marked the end of four decades of KANU rule, the party having ruled Kenya since independence.[29] Moi, who had been in power for 24 years, began his retirement.[30]

Leadership style

President Kibaki's style was that of a low key publicity averse but highly intelligent and competent technocrat.[31]

He, unlike his predecessors, never tried to establish a personality cult;[32] never had his portrait on every unit of Kenya's currency; never had all manner of streets, places, and institutions named after him;[32] never had state sanctioned praise songs composed in his honour; never dominated news bulletins with reports of his presidential activities - however routine or mundane; and never engaged in the populist sloganeering of his predecessors.[31]

President Mwai Kibaki meets with Adm. William J. Fallon, Commander of U.S. Central Command.

His style of leadership gave him the image of a seemingly aloof, withdrawn technocrat or intellectual and made him seem out of touch with the street,[33] and his seemingly hands-off leadership-by-delegation style made his governments, especially at the cabinet level, appear dysfunctional.[34]

First term health issues

It is widely acknowledged that age and the 2002 accident denied the country the witty, sporty, eloquent Kibaki of the previous years. A man who could make lengthy and flowery contributions on the floor of Parliament without notes was confined to reading speeches at every forum.[35]

In late January 2003, it was announced that the President had been admitted to Nairobi Hospital to have a blood clot– the after-effect of his car accident– removed from his leg. He came out of hospital and addressed the public outside the hospital on TV in a visibly incoherent manner, and speculation after that was that he had suffered a stroke, his second, the first being said to have occurred sometimes in the 1970s.[36] His subsequent ill health greatly diminished his performance during his first term and the affairs of government during that time are said to have been largely run by a group of loyal aides, both in and out of government.[36][37] Kibaki did not seem well, for instance, when he appeared live on TV on 25 September 2003 to appoint Moody Awori Vice President after the death[38] in office of Vice President, Michael Wamalwa Kijana.

2003: Free primary education

In January 2003, Kibaki introduced[failed verification] a free primary education initiative, which brought over 1 million children who would not have been able to afford school the chance to attend.[39] The initiative received positive attention, including praise from Bill Clinton, who met Kibaki in Kenya in July 2005.[40][41] In his tenure he was involved in numerous academic events including the famous Equity Group Foundation, Wings to Fly 2013 scholars commissioning.

2005: Constitutional referendum, the NARC fallout and government of national unity

President Kibaki in 2005

The 2005 Kenyan constitutional referendum was held on 21 November 2005. The main issue of contention in the Constitution review process was how much power should be vested in the Kenyan Presidency. In previous drafts, those who feared a concentration of power in the president added provisions for European-style power-sharing between a ceremonial President elected via universal suffrage and an executive Prime Minister elected by Parliament. The draft presented by Attorney General Amos Wako for the referendum retained sweeping powers for the Presidency.[42]

Though Kibaki supported the proposal, some members of his own cabinet, mainly from the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) wing led by Raila Odinga, allied with the main opposition party KANU to mobilize a powerful NO campaign that resulted in a majority of 58% of voters rejecting the draft.[43]

As a consequence of, and immediately after, the referendum loss, on 23 November 2005, Kibaki dismissed his entire cabinet in the middle of his administration's term, with the aim of purging all Raila-allied ministers from the cabinet.[44] About his decision Kibaki said;

"Following the results of the referendum, it has become necessary for me, as the President of the Republic, to re-organize my government to make it more cohesive and better able to serve the people of Kenya".

The only members of the cabinet office to be spared a midterm exit were the Vice President and Minister of Home Affairs, Moody Awori, and the Attorney General whose position is constitutionally protected. A new cabinet of Kibaki loyalists, including MP's from the opposition, termed the Government of National Unity (GNU), was thereafter appointed, but some MP's who were offered ministerial positions declined to take up posts.[45]

A report by a Kenyan Commission of Inquiry, the Waki Commission, contextualises some issues. They reported that Kibaki, after agreeing to an informal Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to create the post of Prime Minister, reneged on this pact after being elected. They cited criticism of Kibaki neglecting his pre-election agreement, leaving the public to identify it as an attempt by the Kibaki Government to "keep power to itself rather than share it."[46]

2007: Elections

On 26 January 2007, President Kibaki declared his intention of running for re-election in the 2007 presidential election.[47] On 16 September 2007, Kibaki announced that he would stand as the candidate of a new alliance incorporating all the parties who supported his re-election, called the Party of National Unity. The parties in his alliance included the much diminished former ruling KANU,[48][49] DP, Narc-Kenya, Ford-Kenya, Ford People, and Shirikisho.[49]

Kibaki's main opponent, Raila Odinga, had used the referendum victory to launch the ODM, which nominated him as its presidential candidate for the 2007 elections.

On 30 September 2007, President Kibaki launched his presidential campaign at Nyayo Stadium, Nairobi.[50]

Kalonzo Musyoka then broke away from Raila's ODM to mount his own fringe bid for the presidency, thus narrowing down the contest between the main candidates, Kibaki, the incumbent, and Odinga.[51] Opinion polls up to election day showed Kibaki behind Raila Odinga nationally, but closing. On regional analysis, the polls showed him behind Raila in all regions of the country except Central Province, Embu, and Meru, where he was projected to take most of the votes, and behind Kalonzo Musyoka in Kalonzo's native Ukambani.[52][53]

2007–2008: Results dispute and post-election violence

Main article: 2007–2008 Kenyan crisis

Three days later, after a protracted count which saw presidential results in Kibaki's Central Kenya come in last, allegedly inflated, in a cloud of suspicion and rising tensions, amid vehement protests by Raila's ODM, overnight re-tallying of results and chaotic scenes, all beamed live on TV, at the national tallying center at the Kenyatta International Conference Center in Nairobi, riot police eventually sealed off the tallying Center ahead of the result announcement, evicted party agents, observers, and the media,[54] and moved the Chairman of the Electoral Commission, Samuel Kivuitu, to another room where Kivuitu went on to declare Kibaki the winner by 4,584,721 votes to Odinga's 4,352,993,[55] placing Kibaki ahead of Odinga by about 232,000 votes in the hotly contested election with Kalonzo Musyoka a distant third.[56]

One hour later, in a hastily convened dusk ceremony, Kibaki was sworn in at the grounds of State House, Nairobi for his second term, defiantly calling for the "verdict of the people" to be respected and for "healing and reconciliation" to begin. Tension arose and led to protests by a huge number of Kenyans who felt that Kibaki had refused to respect the verdict of the people and was now forcibly remaining in office.[57][58][59]

Immediately the results were announced, Odinga bitterly accused Kibaki of electoral fraud.[60] Odinga's allegations scored with his supporters, and seemed meritorious since the results had defied pre-election polls and expectations[61] and election day exit polls.[62] Furthermore, Odinga, who had campaigned against the concentration of political power in the hands of Kikuyu politicians,[63][64] had won the votes of most of the other Kenyan tribes and regions,[65] with Kibaki's victory being attained only with the near exclusive support of the populous Kikuyu, Meru, and Embu communities-who had turned out to vote for Kibaki in large numbers after feeling, in reaction to the Odinga campaign, and with the covert encouragement of the Kibaki campaign, increasingly besieged and threatened by the pro-Odinga tribes. Moreover, ODM had won the most parliamentary and local authority seats by a wide margin.[66] A joint statement by the British Foreign Office and Department for International Development cited "real concerns" over irregularities, while international observers refused to declare the election free and fair. The European Union chief observer, Alexander Graf Lambsdorff, cited one constituency where his monitors saw official results for Kibaki that were 25,000 votes lower than the figure subsequently announced by the Electoral Commission, leading him to doubt the accuracy of the announced results.[67]

It was reported that Kibaki, who had previously been perceived as an "old-school gentleman", had "revealed a steely side" when he swore himself in within an hour of being announced the victor of the highly contested election—one where the results were largely in question.[68][69] Odinga's supporters said he would be declared president at a rival ceremony on Monday, but police banned the event. Koki Muli, the head of local watchdog, the Institute of Education in Democracy, said called the day the " the history of democracy in this country" and "a coup d'etat."[70]

Opposition supporters saw the result as a plot by Kibaki's Kikuyu tribe, Kenya's largest, to keep power by any means.[64][71][72] The tribes that lost the election were upset at the prospect of five years without political power, and anti-Kikuyu sentiment swelled,[46][63] spawning the 2007–2008 Kenyan crisis, as violence broke out in several places in the country, started by the ODM supporters protesting the "stealing" of their "victory", and subsequently escalating as the targeted Kikuyus retaliated.[46][73][74] As unrest spread, television and radio stations were instructed to stop all live broadcasts. There was widespread theft, vandalism, looting, destruction of property, and a significant number of atrocities, killings,[75] and sexual violence reported.

The violence continued for more than two months, as Kibaki ruled with "half" a cabinet he had appointed,[76] with Odinga and ODM refusing to recognize him as president.[77]

When the election was eventually investigated by the Independent Review Commission (IREC) on the 2007 Elections chaired by Justice Johann Kriegler, it was found that there were too many electoral malpractices from several regions perpetrated by all the contesting parties to conclusively establish which candidate won the December 2007 Presidential elections. Such malpractices included widespread bribery, vote buying, intimidation, and ballot stuffing by both sides, as well as incompetence from the Electoral Commission of Kenya (ECK), which was shortly thereafter disbanded by the new Parliament.[78]

2008: National accord and Grand Coalition Government

The country was only saved by the mediation of United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan with a panel of "Eminent African Personalities" backed by the African Union, the United States, and the United Kingdom.

Following the mediation, a deal, called the national accord, was signed in February 2008 between Raila Odinga and Kibaki, now referred to as the "two Principals". The accord, later passed by the Kenyan Parliament as the National Accord and Reconciliation Act 2008 provided inter alia for power-sharing, with Kibaki remaining President and Raila Odinga taking a newly re-created post of Prime Minister.

On 17 April 2008, Raila Odinga was sworn in as Prime Minister of Kenya, along with a power-sharing Cabinet, with 42 ministers and 50 assistant ministers, Kenya's largest ever. The cabinet was fifty percent Kibaki appointed ministers and fifty percent Raila appointed ministers, and was in reality a carefully balanced ethnic coalition. The arrangement, which also included Kalonzo Musyoka as vice president, was known as the "Grand Coalition Government".[79]

Economic legacy: turnaround

The Kibaki presidency set itself the main task of reviving and turning round country after years of stagnation and economic mismanagement during the Moi tenure[80] – a feat faced with several challenges, including the aftermath of the Nyayo Era (Moi Presidency), western donor fatigue, the President's ill health during his first term, political tension culminating in the break-up of the NARC coalition, the 2007–2008 post election violence, the 2007–2008 Global Financial crisis, and a tenuous relationship with his coalition partner, Raila Odinga, during his second term.

President Mwai Kibaki with, from left to right, Presidents Yoweri Museveni of Uganda, Paul Kagame of Rwanda, Jakaya Kikwete of Tanzania, and Pierre Nkurunziza of Burundi at an East African Community Head of States Meeting

President Kibaki, the economist whose term as Finance minister in the 1970s is widely celebrated as outstanding, did much as president to repair the damage done to the country's economy during the 24-year reign of his predecessor, President Moi. Compared to the Moi years, Kenya was much better managed, by far more competent public sector personnel, and was much transformed.[81]

Kenya's economy in the Kibaki years experienced a major turnaround. GDP growth picked up from a low 0.6% (real −1.6%) in 2002 to 3% in 2003, 4.9% in 2004, 5.8% in 2005, 6% in 2006, and 7% in 2007, then after the post election chaos and Global Financial Crisis—2008 (1.7%)and 2009 (2.6%), recovered to 5% in 2010 and 5% in 2011.[82]

Development was resumed in all areas of the country, including the hitherto neglected and largely undeveloped semi-arid or arid north.[83][84] Many sectors of the economy recovered from total collapse pre-2003.[85] Numerous state corporations that had collapsed during the Moi years were revived and began performing profitably.[86] The telecommunications sector boomed. Rebuilding, modernisation, and expansion of infrastructure began in earnest, with several ambitious infrastructural and other projects, such as the Thika Superhighway, which would have been seen as unattainable during the Moi years were completed.[86][87][88] The country's cities and towns also began being positively renewed and transformed.

The Constituency Development Fund (CDF) was also introduced in 2003. The fund was designed to support constituency-level, grass-root development projects.[89] It was aimed to achieve equitable distribution of development resources across regions and to control imbalances in regional development brought about by partisan politics.[90] It targeted all constituency-level development projects, particularly those aiming to combat poverty at the grassroots.[91] The CDF programme has facilitated the putting up of new water, health, and education facilities in all parts of the country including remote areas that were usually overlooked during funds allocation in national budgets.[92] CDF was the first step towards the devolved system of government introduced by the 2010 Constitution, by which Local Government structures were Constitutionally redesigned, enhanced, and strengthened.[93]

President Kibaki also oversaw the creation of Kenya's Vision 2030, a long-term development plan aimed at raising GDP growth to 10% annually and transforming Kenya into a middle income country by 2030, which he unveiled on 30 October 2006.[94][95]

President Mwai Kibaki with, from left to right, Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni and Tanzanian President Jakaya Kikwete during the 8th EAC summit in Arusha

The Kibaki regime also saw a reduction of Kenya's dependence on western donor aid, with the country being increasingly funded by internally generated resources such as increased tax revenue collection.[96][97] Relations with the People's Republic of China, Japan, and other non-western powers improved and expanded remarkably in the Kibaki years.[98][99] The People's Republic of China and Japan especially, the Asian Tigers such as Malaysia and Singapore, Brazil, the Middle East and to a lesser extent, South Africa, Libya, other African Countries, and even Iran, became increasingly important economic partners.[100][101][102]

President Mwai Kibaki with the British Foreign Office Minister Henry Bellingham, Lord Mayor of the City of London, Alderman David Wootton and Minister of Trade Moses Wetangula at the Kenya Investment Conference in London, 31 July 2012

Political legacy

President Kibaki was accused of ruling with a small group of his elderly peers, mainly from the educated side of the Kikuyu elite that emerged in the Jomo Kenyatta era, usually referred to as the "Kitchen Cabinet"[31] or the "Mount Kenya Mafia".[103] There was therefore the perception that his was a Kikuyu presidency. This perception was reinforced when the President was seen to have trashed the pre- 2002 election Memorandum of Understanding with the Raila Odinga-led Liberal Democratic Party,[104] and was further reinforced by his disputed 2007 election victory over the Raila Odinga led ODM Party being achieved nearly exclusively with the votes of the populous Mt. Kenya Kikuyu, Meru and Embu communities.[105]

The Commission of Inquiry into Post Election Violence (CIPEV) put it thus:

The post election violence [in early 2008 therefore is, in part, a consequence of the failure of President Kibaki and his first Government to exert political control over the country or to maintain sufficient legitimacy as would have allowed a civilised contest with him at the polls to be possible. Kibaki's regime failed to unite the country, and allowed feelings of marginalisation to fester into what became the post election violence. He and his then Government were complacent in the support they considered they would receive in any election from the majority Kikuyu community and failed to heed the views of the legitimate leaders of other communities.[106]

Critics noted that President Kibaki failed to take advantage of the 2002 popular mandate for a complete break with the past and fix the politics largely mobilized along ethnic interests. "... when we achieved and the new world dawned, the old men came out again and took our victory to re-make in the likeness of the former world they knew."[33] Elected in 2002 on a reform platform,[35] Kibaki was seen to have re-established the status quo ante.[107] His opponents charged that a major aim of his presidency was the preservation of the privileged position of the elite that emerged during the Kenyatta years, of which he was part.[31][108]

In summary, the Kibaki Presidency did not do nearly enough to address the problem of tribalism in Kenya.

Lawyer George Kegoro, in an article published in the Daily Nation newspaper on 12 April 2013[109] summarized the Kibaki Political Legacy thus:-

"Kibaki was, by far, a better manager of the economy than Moi before him. He brought order to the management of public affairs, a departure from the rather informal style that characterised the Moi regime. Kibaki's push for free primary education remains an important achievement, as will the revival of key economic institutions such as the Kenya Meat Commission and the Kenya Cooperative Creameries, ruined during the Moi-era. ... However, Kibaki was not all success. Having come to power in 2003 on an anti-corruption platform, he set up two commissions, the Bosire Commission on the Goldenberg scandal and the Ndung'u Commission, which investigated irregular land allocation. However, the reports were not implemented. Further, the Kibaki administration was rocked by a corruption scandal of its own, the Anglo Leasing scam, involving his close associates. John Githongo, an inspired appointment by Kibaki for an anti-corruption czar, resigned from the government in 2005, citing lack of support from the president. As he leaves office, therefore, the fight against corruption remains unfulfilled. ... But, perhaps, the most controversial aspect of the Kibaki tenure will always be his relationship with senior politicians of his day, particularly Raila Odinga and Kalonzo Musyoka. The context of this complex relationship includes the post-election violence of 2007, whose roots go back to the dishonoured Memorandum of Understanding between Kibaki and Raila in 2002. The quarrel over the MoU directly led to the break-up of the Narc government, after which Kibaki showed Odinga the door and invited the opposition to rule with him. The effect was that the opposition, rejected at the polls, joined government while Raila's faction, validly elected to power, was consigned to the opposition. ... To the supporters of Raila and Kalonzo, Kibaki will be remembered as a person who did not keep political promises."

President Mwai Kibaki with British Foreign Secretary William Hague in Nairobi, Kenya

Failure to tame corruption

Though President Kibaki was never personally accused of corruption,[110] and managed to virtually end the grabbing of public land rampant in the Moi and Kenyatta eras, he was unable to adequately contain Kenya's widely entrenched culture of endemic corruption.[111][112][113]

The forty shilling coin with President Mwai Kibaki's portrait and inscription commemorating 40 Years of Independence

Michela Wrong describes the situation thus:[33]

"Whether expressed in the petty bribes the average Kenyan had to pay each week to fat-bellied policemen and local councillors, the jobs for the boys doled out by civil servants and politicians on strictly tribal lines, or the massive scams perpetrated by the country's ruling elite, corruption had become endemic. 'Eating', as Kenyans dubbed the gorging on state resources by the well-connected, had crippled the nation. In the corruption indices drawn up by the anti-graft organisation Transparency International, Kenya routinely trail[s] near the bottom ... viewed as only slightly less sleazy than Nigeria or Pakistan ..."

The Daily Nation, in an article published on 4 March 2013 titled "End of a decade of highs and lows for Mwai Kibaki" summarised it thus:

For a leader who was popularly swept into power in 2002 on an anti-corruption platform, Kibaki's tenure saw graft scandals where hundreds of millions of shillings were siphoned from public coffers. Kibaki's National Rainbow Coalition – which took power from the authoritarian rule of Daniel arap Moi—was welcomed for its promises of change and economic growth, but soon showed that it was better suited to treading established paths.

The initial response to corruption was very solid ... but it became clear after a while that these scams reached all the way to the president himself," said Kenya's former anti-corruption chief John Githongo in Michela Wrong's book It's Our Turn to Eat. Most notorious of a raft of graft scandals was the multi-billion shilling Anglo Leasing case, which emerged in 2004 and involved public cash being paid to a complicated web of foreign companies for a range of services—including naval ships and passports—that never materialised."[114]

2010 Constitution

The passage of Kenya's transformative 2010 Constitution, championed by President Kibaki in the Kenyan constitutional referendum in 2010 was a major triumph and achievement, which went a long way into addressing Kenya's governance and institutional challenges. With the new Constitution started wide-ranging institutional and legislative reforms, which President Kibaki skilfully and successfully steered in the final years of this presidency."His greatest moment was the promulgation of the new Constitution... It was a very deep and emotional moment for him," Kibaki's son Jimmy was quoted as saying.[115]

2013: Power handover

Kibaki handed over the Kenyan presidency to his successor, Uhuru Kenyatta, on 9 April 2013 at a public inauguration ceremony held at Kenya's largest stadium. "I am happy to pass the torch of leadership to the new generation of leaders", said Kibaki. He also thanked his family and all Kenyans for the support they had given him throughout his tenure in office, and cited the various achievements his government made.[116]

The handover marked the end of his presidency and of his 50 years of public service.[117]

Personal life

President Kibaki and Mrs. Lucy Kibaki with U.S. President George W. Bush and Laura Bush at the White House during a state visit in 2003

Kibaki was married to Lucy Muthoni from 1961 until her death in 2016.[118] They had four children: Judy Wanjiku, Jimmy Kibaki, David Kagai, and Tony Githinji. They also had several grandchildren: Joy Jamie Marie, Rachael Muthoni, Mwai Junior, and Krystinaa Muthoni.[119] Jimmy Kibaki has declared and aspired to be his father's political heir, though he has been unsuccessful in that endeavor so far.[120]

In 2004, the media reported that Kibaki had a second spouse, whom he allegedly married under customary law, Mary Wambui, and a daughter, Wangui Mwai. State House in response released an unsigned statement that Kibaki's only immediate family at the time was his then wife, Lucy, and their four children.[121] In 2009, Kibaki, with Lucy in close attendance, held an odd press conference to re-state publicly that he only had one wife.[122] The matter of Kibaki's alleged mistress, and his wife's unusually dramatic public reactions therein, provided an embarrassing side-show during his presidency, with the Washington Post[123] terming the entire scandal as a "new Kenyan soap opera".

Ms. Wambui, the rather popular "other woman", who enjoyed the state trappings of a presidential spouse and became a powerful and wealthy business-woman during the Kibaki Presidency,[124] frequently drove Lucy into episodes of highly embarrassing very publicly displayed rage.[125] Ms. Wambui, despite opposition from Kibaki's family, led publicly by Kibaki's son, Jimmy, and despite Kibaki's public endorsement and campaign for her opponent, succeeded Kibaki as Member of Parliament for Othaya in the 2013 General Election.[126] In December 2014, Senator Bonny Khalwale stated on KTN's Jeff Koinange Live that President Kibaki had introduced Wambui as his wife.[127]

Kibaki enjoyed playing golf and was a member of the Muthaiga Golf Club.[128] He was a practicing and a very committed member of the Roman Catholic Church and attended Consolata Shrines Catholic Church in Nairobi every Sunday at noon.[129]

On 21 August 2016, Kibaki was taken to Karen Hospital,[130] and later flew to South Africa for specialized treatment. Unlike the Kenyatta and Moi families, Kibaki's family has shown little interest in politics save for his nephew Nderitu Muriithi, Governor of Laikipia County, from 2017 to 2022.


Kibaki died on 21 April 2022, at the age of 90. His death was announced by President Uhuru Kenyatta, who issued a proclamation that Kibaki would be granted a state funeral with full civilian and military honors and declared a period of national mourning with flags flying at half-mast until President Mwai Kibaki is buried.[131]

On 25 April 2022, his body was taken to Parliament buildings on a military gun carriage to offset the lying in state component of his state funeral. President Uhuru Kenyatta and First Lady wife Margaret Kenyatta led Kenyans in viewing the body. His body was laid on a catafalque at the Speaker's way bearing the colour of his presidential standard and dressed in his trademark pin-striped suits. His body was also guarded by four Kenya Defence Forces colonels changing shifts after two hours. The lying in state continued until 27 April 2022 ahead of funeral service held at Nyayo National Stadium on 29 April 2022 which was attended by key dignitaries including some sitting presidents. He was finally interred at his Othaya home in Nyeri County on 30 April 2022 with full military honors after a church service held by the Catholic church[132] at Othaya approved school. The honors included the Last Post and The Long Reveille bugle cry, a 19 gun salute and The Missing Man formation fly past.[133][134] South Sudan declared three days of mourning;[135] Tanzania declared two days of mourning.[136][137]

Honours and awards

Honorary degrees

University Country Honour Year
University of Nairobi  Kenya Doctor of Letters 2004[138]
Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology  Kenya Doctor of Science ?[139]
Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology  Kenya Doctor of Science 2008[140]
University of Nairobi  Kenya Doctor of Laws 2008[141]
Kenyatta University  Kenya Doctor of Education 2010[142]
Makerere University  Uganda Doctor of Laws 2012[143]
Dedan Kimathi University of Technology  Kenya Doctor of Humane Letters 2013[144]


  1. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. "Mwai Kibaki". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
  2. ^ Mwangi, Denis (22 April 2022). "Ex-President Mwai Kibaki Dies, Uhuru Announces". Pulselive Kenya. Retrieved 22 April 2022.
  3. ^ "Mwai Kibaki Obituary". The Guardian. 3 May 2022. Retrieved 9 July 2022.[permanent dead link]
  4. ^ "List of positions held". Archived from the original on 7 April 2019. Retrieved 1 June 2016..
  5. ^ a b c d e f "State House profile". Archived from the original on 11 June 2009. Retrieved 7 June 2009.
  6. ^ Beresford, David (31 December 2007). "Baptized record". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 7 June 2009.
  7. ^ Muchire, Wilfred (6 January 2006). "Kenya: Kibaki the Schoolboy". Daily Nation. Retrieved 22 April 2022 – via
  8. ^ "Kenya's Mwai Kibaki: The hope and disappointment". BBC News. 22 April 2022. Retrieved 12 May 2022.
  9. ^ Goidsu'ortly, David (1982). Tom Mboya (first ed.). London: Heinemann. p. 147.
  10. ^ "Mwai Kibaki: Former Kenyan president leaves mixed legacy". France 24. Agence France Presse. 22 April 2022. Retrieved 22 April 2022.
  11. ^ "Eye on Kenyan Parliament". mzalendo. Archived from the original on 8 May 2008. Retrieved 7 June 2009.
  12. ^ Daily Nation, 13 April 2003: "The Influential Young Turks of the 60s". Archived from the original on 9 January 2004. Retrieved 21 April 2017.((cite web)): CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  13. ^ "Mwai Kibaki: Biography from". Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  14. ^ Smith, Russell (29 December 2002). "Profile – Kenya's New Leader," BBC News Online". BBC News. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  15. ^ Rice, Xan (3 February 2008). "Wave of anarchy blamed on Kenya's 'General Coward'". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 19 May 2010.
  16. ^ a b PROFILE OF HIS EXCELLENCY HON. MWAI KIBAKI, C.G.H., M.P., PRESIDENT AND COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF OF THE ARMED FORCES OF THE REPUBLIC OF KENYA "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 April 2014. Retrieved 27 June 2007.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  17. ^ "Columbia Encyclopedia: Mwai Kibaki". Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  18. ^ a b Walsh, Declan (4 January 2003). "Nairobi's corruption busting new leader tries to undo Moi's years of misrule". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 14 May 2013. Retrieved 19 May 2010.
  19. ^ Mwai Kibaki. Trailer Archived 7 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  20. ^ Hiltzik, Michael A. (7 January 1992). "One-Party Rule Now Crumbling in Kenya". The Los Angeles Times. p. 81. Retrieved 22 April 2022 – via
  21. ^ Tyson, Remer (4 January 1993). "Kenyan boss shows how elections fail". Detroit Free Press. Free Press Africa Bureau. p. 3. Retrieved 22 April 2022 – via
  22. ^ "Moi wins Kenya poll". Evening Standard. 4 January 1993. p. 18. Retrieved 22 April 2022 – via
  23. ^ "AFRICAN ELECTIONS DATABASE-Elections in Kenya". Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  24. ^ "Kenya's Moi begins 5th term as president, vows corruption battle". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Reuters. 6 January 1998. p. 8. Retrieved 22 April 2022 – via
  25. ^ "The deal and deal makers in Kibaki's 2002 victory". Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  26. ^ a b "Kenyan candidate treated in London". BBC News. 5 December 2002. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  27. ^ "Ref Elections in Kenya". Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  28. ^ "EMILIO MWAI KIBAKI 1. ENCYCLOPEDIA – COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY PRESS 2. BIOGRAPHY" (PDF). Google. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 November 2007. Retrieved 7 June 2009.
  29. ^ "Kenyan results". The Cincinnati Post. 2 January 2003. p. 2. Retrieved 22 April 2022 – via
  30. ^ Sudarsan Raghavan (5 January 2003). "Clipped from the Philadelphia Inquirer". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A02. Retrieved 22 April 2022 – via
  31. ^ a b c d Gitau Warigi (14 April 2006). "Kibaki's 'mafia' on the run". BBC News. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  32. ^ a b Walsh, Declan (30 December 2002). "New era for Kenya as opposition obliterates ruling party". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 26 August 2009. Retrieved 19 May 2010.
  33. ^ a b c Michela Wrong, It's Our Turn to Eat: The Story of a Kenyan Whistleblower p. 11, Harper, 2009, ISBN 0061346586
  34. ^ Bernard Namunane and David Mugonyi (17 February 2009). "Chaos in cabinet as Karua and Ruto clash". Daily Nation. Archived from the original on 14 September 2012. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  35. ^ a b "It's a mixed bag of fortunes as Kibaki heads off to retirement - Daily Nation". Retrieved 28 July 2016.
  36. ^ a b "Kibaki's failing health put on hold all pledges he had made". Daily Nation. Archived from the original on 12 March 2012. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  37. ^ "Assertive Kibaki suprises [sic] Kenyans". The Nairobi Chronicle. 23 March 2009. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  38. ^ "Kenya's vice-president dies". BBC News. 23 August 2003. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  39. ^ "Kenya: Free primary education brings over 1 million into school". UN Children's Fund. ReliefWeb. 22 July 2005. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
  40. ^ "Clinton Visits Kenya". CBS News. 22 July 2005. Archived from the original on 12 November 2010. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
  41. ^ Education Next, Fall 2005: "Private schools for the poor: education where no one expects it"
  42. ^ Analysis of the Wako Draft[dead link]
  43. ^ "Analysis by Wanjohi Kabukuru". Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  44. ^ "Kenya's entire cabinet dismissed" Archived 6 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, BBC News, 23 November 2005.
  45. ^ "KENYA: Year in Review 2005 – Searching for a constitution". 27 August 2004. Archived from the original on 11 July 2006. Retrieved 17 October 2007.((cite web)): CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link) IRIN News. 11 July 2006
  46. ^ a b c "The Waki Report" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 February 2009. Retrieved 20 December 2008.. the Commission of Inquiry into Post-Election Violence (CIPEV).
  47. ^ Martin Mutua and PPS. "Kibaki declares he is ready for a second presidential term". Archived from the original on 29 January 2007. Retrieved 4 June 2012.((cite web)): CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link) The Standard. 27 January 2007
  48. ^ "Kenyan president announces new party affiliation for re-election bid" Archived 19 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine, Associated Press (International Herald Tribune), 16 September 2007.
  49. ^ a b "Kenya president eyes re-election" Archived 21 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, BBC News, 16 September 2007.
  50. ^ "Kibaki: I deserve another term". Archived from the original on 5 March 2008. Retrieved 5 March 2008.((cite web)): CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link), AFP via, 30 September 2007.
  51. ^ "Too Close to Call: Why Kibaki Might Lose the 2007 Kenyan Election". Center for Strategic and International Studies. Archived from the original on 3 September 2009. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  52. ^ Stefan Dercon (Oxford University), Michael Bratton (Michigan State University), Mwangi Kimenyi (University of Connecticut), Roxana Gutierrez-Romero (Oxford University) and Tessa Bold (Oxford University). Ethnicity, Violence and the 2007 Elections in Kenya Archived 22 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine. 8 January 2008
  53. ^ "A Thomson Reuters Foundation Service". AlertNet. 6 November 2011. Retrieved 19 November 2011.
  54. ^ Rice, Xan (31 December 2007). "Kenyans riot as Kibaki declared poll winner". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 19 May 2010.
  55. ^ "Inside Kenya's elections 2008". Africa Confidential. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  56. ^ "BBC:Kibaki named victor in Kenya vote". BBC News. 30 December 2007. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  57. ^ "Kibaki re-elected Kenyan president: official results" Archived 23 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine, AFP (, 31 December 2007.
  58. ^ "Kibaki named victor in Kenya vote" Archived 4 June 2016 at the Wayback Machine, BBC News, 20 December 2007.
  59. ^ "Kibaki claims win in disputed Kenyan election". Mcclatchy. 30 December 2007. Archived from the original on 7 March 2008. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  60. ^ "Raila 2007 – Welcome". Archived from the original on 16 April 2010. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  61. ^ Rice, Xan (27 December 2007). "Kenya deaths and accusations on eve of polls". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 19 May 2010.
  62. ^ "Microsoft PowerPoint – 2008 August 14 Kenyan Election Day Poll December 27, 2007 [Compatibility Mode]" (PDF). Interinational Republican Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 March 2009. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  63. ^ a b "Kenya's Post-Election Violence". The Tokyo Foundation. Archived from the original on 16 April 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  64. ^ a b "The Kenya Election Violence Explained". 27 December 2007. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  65. ^ "Office of Government Spokesperson – Election 2007 – KENYA President". Archived from the original on 1 May 2010. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  66. ^ "Global Insight // Same-Day Analysis". Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  67. ^ Xan Rice in Nairobi (31 December 2007). "Kenyans riot as Kibaki declared poll winner". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  68. ^ Wangui Kanina and Duncan Miriri (9 January 2008). "Reuters". Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  69. ^ "Protests, deaths in Kenya after disputed election". 31 December 2007. Archived from the original on 13 June 2011. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  70. ^ "Violence ensues as Kibaki reelected". France 24. 30 December 2007. Archived from the original on 23 August 2009. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  71. ^ "Tribal Politics by Stanley Meisler". Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  72. ^ "Kenya: truth forgotten in the fires of violence". Radio Netherlands Worldwide. Retrieved 1 June 2010.[permanent dead link]
  73. ^ Michela Wrong, "It's Our Turn to Eat-The Story of a Kenyan Whistleblower" Chapter 17, Harper, 2009, ISBN 0061346586
  74. ^ "ReliefWeb ť Document ť Tribal rivalries underlie Kenya post-election violence". 31 December 2007. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  75. ^ "NBC News - Breaking News & Top Stories - Latest World, US & Local News". Retrieved 10 July 2009.[dead link]
  76. ^ Kibaki names part of Cabinet Archived 16 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine. (1 February 2008)
  77. ^ "African Union head meets Kenya's feuding parties". 10 January 2008. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  78. ^ IREC Executive Summary Archived 5 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
  79. ^ "Odinga Sworn in as Kenyan Premier" "Odinga sworn in as Kenyan premier". 17 April 2008. Archived from the original on 17 September 2016. Retrieved 8 June 2009.-accessed 8 June 2009.
  80. ^ Phombeah, Gray (5 August 2002). "BBC:Moi's legacy to Kenya". BBC News. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  81. ^ Ambassador Johnny Carson:From Moi to Kibaki:An Assessment of the Kenyan Transition "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original on 18 July 2006. Retrieved 30 September 2013.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  82. ^ "Kenya - GDP - real growth rate - Historical Data Graphs per Year". Retrieved 28 July 2016.
  83. ^ "Major Projects in Northern Kenya". 4 June 2009. Archived from the original on 21 June 2009. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  84. ^ Ali Abdi (4 July 2007). "Major transport project to open up northern Kenya". Archived from the original on 8 June 2009. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  85. ^ Accountability statement. Just 10% of what the Kibaki government has done Archived 30 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Government of Kenya
  86. ^ a b "The Kenya Government – Achievements of the 2002–2007 Government of Kenya". Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  87. ^ "What has Kibaki Government done with your Money? Truth be Told". Archived from the original on 13 December 2010. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  88. ^ "Kibaki's Achievements on the Infrastructure". Archived from the original on 5 October 2011. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  89. ^ "CDF was focus of Uhuru's stimulus plan". The Standard. 12 June 2009. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  90. ^ "Constituency Development Fund". 9 January 2004. Archived from the original on 17 February 2010. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  91. ^ "New source of funding for Kenya's rural projects". Archived from the original on 29 August 2008. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  92. ^ "Office of Public Communications – Office of Government Spokesperson". Archived from the original on 22 November 2010. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  93. ^ "Kenya laws, Kenya constitution - Objects and principles of devolved government". Archived from the original on 23 April 2013. Retrieved 6 May 2013.
  94. ^ Mugo Njeru. Kenya: Kibaki Launches Vision for Growth Kenya: Kibaki Launches Vision for Growth Archived 1 November 2006 at the Wayback Machine Daily Nation. 31 October 2006
  95. ^ "The unveiling of Kenya Vision 2030". 15 September 2009. Archived from the original on 20 August 2009. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
  96. ^ Retrieved 21 May 2009. ((cite web)): Missing or empty |title= (help)[permanent dead link]
  97. ^ Brian Adero. "Kenya: Kenyans Almost Weaned Off Donor Aid" Archived 9 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  98. ^ "China Confidential: China Closes Oil Exploration Deal in Kenya". 28 April 2006. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  99. ^ "Kenyan President thanks Chinese government for support". 26 February 2005. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  100. ^ "Iran extends credit facility to Kenya – People's Daily Online". People's Daily. 25 February 2009. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  101. ^ "Office of Public Communications – Office of Government Spokesperson". Archived from the original on 20 September 2010. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  102. ^ "China building solid road to Kenya relations". 11 October 2007. Archived from the original on 3 January 2011. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  103. ^ Mwakugu, Noel (21 January 2008). "Kenya's 'mafia' feel the heat". BBC News. Retrieved 19 May 2010.
  104. ^ Renson Buluma and Peter Atsiaya. Keriri Tells Why Kibaki Trashed Coalition's 2002 MoU Archived 11 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine. (11 September 2007)
  105. ^ "Ethnicity and Violence in the 2007 Elections in Kenya" (PDF). Afrobarometer Briefing Paper No. 48. February 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 May 2008. Retrieved 19 November 2011.
  106. ^ Report of the Justice Philip Waki Chaired Commission of Inquiry into Post Election Violence [CIPEV] formed to probe into the post 2007 Kenya General Elections Violence: pp. 29–30
  107. ^ Kenya's Proposed Government Faces Challenges in Overhauling Constitution Archived 5 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Voice of America (13 March 2008)
  108. ^ Mwakugu, Noel (21 January 2008). "Kenya's 'mafia' feel the heat". BBC News. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  109. ^ "KEGORO: Will the roads and economy define Kibaki's legacy or the lost chances? - Daily Nation". Archived from the original on 13 April 2013. Retrieved 28 July 2016.
  110. ^ "Kibaki, giant of Kenyan politics, wins last fight". 30 December 2007. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  111. ^ Kenya Still Beset by Widespread Corruption Archived 5 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Voice of America (2006-07-24, updated 31 October 2009)
  112. ^ Matthew Tostevin (12 February 2009). "Business Books: Corruption drains Kenya as donors turn blind eye". Reuters. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  113. ^ LYNN SWEET Sun-Times Columnist (29 August 2006). "Senator Obama Rebukes Kenya Corruption". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on 4 October 2009. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  114. ^ "End of a decade of highs and lows for Mwai Kibaki - Daily Nation". Archived from the original on 17 September 2016. Retrieved 28 July 2016.
  115. ^ "End of a decade of highs and lows for Mwai Kibaki - Daily Nation". Archived from the original on 17 September 2016. Retrieved 28 July 2016.
  116. ^ "Kibaki's Farewell Speech | the Star". Archived from the original on 15 June 2013.
  117. ^ For Kibaki, the curtain falls on 50 years of public service. Daily Nation."Nation - Breaking News, Kenya, Africa, Politics, Business, Sports | HOME". Archived from the original on 1 May 2016. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
  118. ^ Agutu, Nancy (26 April 2016). "Former First Lady Lucy Kibaki is dead". The Star.
  119. ^ "Official profile". Archived from the original on 6 April 2010. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  120. ^ Like father like son, Jimmy tastes politics Archived 8 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine. (7 July 2009)
  121. ^ I'm no polygamist – Kibaki Archived 4 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine News24 (4 March 2009)
  122. ^ "Kibaki: I have only one wife". YouTube. Archived from the original on 20 December 2011. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  123. ^ Emily Wax (30 January 2004). New Kenyan Soap Opera: The President's Two Wives Washington Post
  124. ^ "Mary Wambui still haunting State House | NTV". Archived from the original on 25 January 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2013.
  125. ^ Video on YouTube
  126. ^ "Wambui trounces Kibaki's chosen Othaya heir - Capital News". 5 March 2013. Retrieved 28 July 2016.
  127. ^ "Jeff Koinange Live: Tony Gachoka meets Bonny Khalwale where they make stunning revelations". Jeff Koinange Live. 3 December 2015. Archived from the original on 11 December 2021. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
  128. ^ Speech by H.E. President Mwai Kibaki Archived 23 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine State House of Kenya (6 November 2004)
  129. ^ "Kibaki leads latest Hall of Fame list as Kenya Open turns 50". 10 March 2018. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
  130. ^ - Panic as Kibaki Joins Moi at Nairobi Hospital,KDRTV, 31 October 2016
  131. ^ "Kibaki's Death: Uhuru Declares National Mourning Period". 22 April 2022.
  132. ^ Wanjiru, Margaret (30 April 2022). "Archbishop Muheria to lead Kibaki's burial service". The star.
  133. ^ "Kenya: Mwai Kibaki, former president, is dead". The Africa 22 April 2022. Retrieved 22 April 2022.
  134. ^ Mwangi, Denis (22 April 2022). "Ex-President Mwai Kibaki dies, Uhuru announces". Pulselive Kenya. Retrieved 22 April 2022.
  135. ^ "President Kiir eulogizes late Mwai Kibaki, declares three days of national mourning". 24 April 2022.
  136. ^ Ayega, Davis (29 April 2022). "Kenya: Suluhu Declares Two Days of National Mourning in Honour of Kibaki". Capital Fm.
  137. ^ "Tanzania declares two days of national mourning for Kibaki". 29 April 2022.
  138. ^ "Honorary Degrees". University of Nairobi. Archived from the original on 8 March 2015. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  139. ^ "Profile: Kibaki" (PDF). Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  140. ^ "President honoured by Masinde University". 4 July 2008. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  141. ^ "Citation" (PDF). University of Nairobi. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  142. ^ "KU Honours President Kibaki" (PDF). Kenyatta University. 19 July 2010. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  143. ^ "PRESS RELEASE: UNIVERSITY COUNCIL ENDORSES HONORARY DOCTORATE FOR H.E. MWAI KIBAKI". Makerere University. 2012. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  144. ^ "Kibaki receives Honorary Doctorate Degree". 2013. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
Political offices Preceded byDaniel arap Moi Vice President of Kenya 1978–1988 Succeeded byJosephat Karanja President of Kenya 2002–2013 Succeeded byUhuru Kenyatta