Biao
Native toChina
RegionHuaiji County and Fengkai County, Guangdong
Native speakers
80,000 (2002)[1]
Kra–Dai
Latin script
Language codes
ISO 639-3byk
Glottologbiao1257

The Biao language (Chinese: 标话; also known as Kang Bau or Kang Beu) is a Kra–Dai language (or perhaps three languages)[2] spoken in southwestern Huaiji County and Fengkai County, Zhaoqing, Guangdong. Autonyms are kaːŋ˩ peu̯˥ and kaːŋ˩ paːu̯˥.

Speakers of this language are classified as part of Han Chinese ethnic groups.

Classification

Like Lakkia, the genetic affiliation of the Biao language within the Kra–Dai family is uncertain, although it could be a sister of the Kam–Sui languages.[3][4] Hsiu (2014)[5] suggests that Biao could either subgroup with Lakkia, or form an independent branch of Kra–Dai on its own.

Phonology

The tone categories and contour-tone values for three dialects of Biao are (Liang 2002: 53):

Tone category Shidong Yonggu Dagang
1 ˥ 55 ˥ 55 ˥˦ 54
2 ˨˩˦ 214 ˧˩ 31 ˧˩ 31
3 ˥˦ 54 ˥˦ 54 ˧˥ 35
4 ˩˧˨ 132 ˨˩˧ 213 ˩˧˨ 132
5 ˧˥ 35 ˨ 22 ˧˦ 34
6 ˨ 22 ˦˨ 42 ˨ 22
7 (voiceless checked) ˥ 55 ˥ 55 ˥ 55
9 (voiceless checked) ˧˥ 35 ˧ 33 ˧˦ 34
8 (voiced checked) ˩˨ 12 ˨˩ 21 ˨ 22
10 (voiced checked) ˨ 22 ˦˨ 42 ˦˨ 42

Dialects

There are three dialects of Biao (Hsiu 2014).[5] The Shidong dialect is documented in detail by Liang (2002). Additional data from the Yonggu and Dagang dialects are documented by Hsiu (2014). A sketch of Yonggu Biao phonology is also documented in Lin (2009).[6]

Yang (2012:73)[7] provides the following lexical comparisons for five dialects of Biao.

English gloss Chinese gloss Shidong 诗洞 Hezhou 贺州 Yonggu 永固 Dagang 大岗 Liangcun 梁村
bone 骨头 iɐk8 iɐk8 iɐk8 iɐk8 iɐk8
earth, soil pʰiɐn1 pʰɛn1 pøn3 piɛn1 piɛn1
body hair, feather iɐŋ1 iɐŋ6 iaŋ2 iɛŋ6 iɛŋ6
table 桌子 tsøŋ4 tsøŋ4 tsoŋ2 pɐt7tsoŋ6; tøy6 pɐt7tsoŋ6
vegetable 蔬(菜种得蔬) lɛu5; liau5 liau5 lɛu5 ly5 ly5
long (time) 久(很久不见) si2 si6 tsi2 tsɐi6 tsɐi6
dog mu3 mu3 mɔ1 mɔ1 mɔ1
weave (basket) 编(编簸箕) hɔo1 hɔo1 hɔ1 hɔ1 hɔ1

Liang (2002: 53-55, 61-62) lists the following comparative data for three dialects of Biao.

English gloss Chinese gloss Shidong 诗洞 Yonggu 永固 Dagang 大岗 Page number
shoe haːi4 aːi2 aːi2 53
hand hy2 iə2 iə2 53
enter hɔ2 ɔ4 ɔ4 53
stand up 站立 ɲyn1 ɲyn1 nyn1 53
earring 耳环 ɲɛŋ6 ɲɛŋ6 53
water naːm4 ɲaːm4 nia4 54
urine 尿 ɲu6 ɲiu6 nɛu6 54
rain tsʰan1 tsʰɛn1 san1 54
year pɛ1 pʰui1 pʰui1 54
bow kʰuŋ3 kuŋ1 kuŋ1 54
grapefruit 柚子 lak8pʰɔ3 lak8pø1 54
scold ly5 liə5 54
cross over ty6 tiə6 liə6 54
thorn, spur 刺儿 ky3 kiə3 kiə3 54
leaf 树叶 my1 miə1 miə1 54
li (distance) 一“里”路 ly1 liə4 liə4 54
chopsticks tsy6 tsy6 tsy6 54
book sy3 sy1 sy1 54
moon 月亮 pʰyn1 pʰyn1 pun1 54
release (bird) 放(鸟) pyŋ5 puŋ5 54
garlic θyn5 θun5 54
stand ɲyn1 ɲyn1 nyn1 54
red lyŋ5 luŋ5 luŋ5 54
sky, day 天、日 jan2 wɛn2 man2 55
snake tsʰy1 tʰo1 tsʰo1 55
day man1 man1 61
wind lam2 lam2 61
frost mai1 mui1 61
pond 池塘 tsam2 tɛm2 61
paddy field 水田 jo6 jo6 61
fire pai1 pai1 61
day jan2 wɛn2 61
foot puk7 puk7 61
child liak8 lɛk8 61
grandchild lɔn1 lɔn1 61
sell pʰa1 pʰa1 61
come naŋ1 nuŋ1 61
black muk7 muk7 61
cattle 黄牛 mɔ2 ŋau2 61
dragonfly 蜻蜓 tam1ɲɛu3 kam5tsʰe3 61
grasshopper 蚱蜢 ha1ɲak7 maːŋ3 61
tree muk8 mi4 61
banana 芭蕉 muk8juk8 wai2θiəu1 61
sprout miu4 ŋa2 61
tongue 舌头 tsʰu1 pʰyə1 62
sit naŋ6 pʰɔ3 62
will, future tense suk8 ui6 62
blood jan2 lyt10 62
throw (away) 扔(丢) san5 fak7 62
use sai1 yuŋ6 62

Distribution

Varieties of Biao include the Shidong 诗洞, Yonggu 永固, Qiaotou 桥头, and Dagang 大岗 dialects (Liang 2002:3). In Fengkai County, it is spoken in Chang'an 长安, Jinzhuang 金装, and Qixing 七星. The Fengshan County Almanac (1998) reports that in Fengkai County, (piau42) is spoken by 7,217 people in 48 natural villages in Chang'an 长安, Baoshan 宝山, and Dongshan 东山 townships. Fengkai Biao is reported by the Fengshan County Almanac (1998) to be a distinct dialect from Biao of Huaiji County. Yang (2011) reports that Biao is also spoken in Liandu 莲都 and He'erkou 河儿口镇 in Fengkai County, and Shatian 沙田镇, Hezhou, Guangxi. Comparative lexical data for 4 varieties of Biao spoken in Shatian Town, Hezhou (namely Fanglin 芳林, Dapan 大盘, Qiaotou 桥头, and Guishan 桂山) are provided in Chen & Yang (2011: 99-100).

Yang (2010)

According to Yang Biwan (2010), there are more than 160,000 speakers of Biao.[8]

Yang (2012)[7] notes that toponyms in Yonggu 永固 Township with the name “Luo 罗”, and toponyms in Shidong 诗洞 Township with “Liu 六”, “Feng 凤”, and “Nan 南” are of Biao origin.

References

  1. ^ Liang Min (2002)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forke, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2020). "Biaoic". Glottolog 4.3.
  3. ^ Edmondson, Jerold A. and David B. Solnit, editors. 1988. Comparative Kadai: Linguistic studies beyond Tai. Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington Publications in Linguistics, 86. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington. vii, 374 p.
  4. ^ Edmondson, Jerold A. and David B. Solnit, editors. 1997. Comparative Kadai: the Tai branch. Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington Publications in Linguistics, 124. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington. vi, 382 p.
  5. ^ a b Hsiu, Andrew. 2014. The Biao languages of northwestern Guangdong, China. Presented at SEALS 24, Yangon University, Yangon, Myanmar. (PPT slides) doi:10.5281/zenodo.1127818
  6. ^ Lin, Lunlun 林伦伦. 2009. Guangdong Huaiji Yonggu Biaohua yinxi ji qi zhuyao tedian 广东怀集永固标话音系及其主要特点. Nanfang Yuyanxue 南方语言学 (1), 143-151.
  7. ^ a b Yang Biwan 杨璧菀. 2012. On Preservation and Protection of Biaohua 论标话的保存和保护. Journal of Nanning Polytechnic 南宁职业技术学院学报 17(3).
  8. ^ Yang Biwan [杨璧菀] (2010). Biaohua de mingcheng youlai ji dili fenbu 标话的名称由来及地理分布.