Oroqen
Native toChina
RegionInner Mongolia and Heilongjiang
EthnicityOroqen
Native speakers
1,200 (2009)[1]
Tungusic
  • Northern
    • Evenki
      • Oroqen
Language codes
ISO 639-3orh
Glottologoroq1238
ELPOroqen

Oroqen (/ˈɒrəɛn, ˈɒr-/; also known as Orochon, Oronchon, Olunchun, Elunchun or Ulunchun) is a Northern Tungusic language spoken in the People's Republic of China. Dialects are Gankui and Heilongjiang. Gankui is the standard dialect.[2] It is spoken by the Oroqen people of Inner Mongolia (predominantly the Oroqin Autonomous Banner) and Heilongjiang in Northeast China.

Since the 1980s, Oroqen-language materials were produced by teachers in Oroqen-speaking areas. They based the language's orthography either on IPA or Pinyin. A majority of Oroqen speakers use Chinese as a literary language and some also speak Daur.

Geographic distribution

Oroqen is spoken in the following counties of China (Ethnologue).

Dialects

The Gankui dialect is used as the standard dialect for the Oroqen language.

Phonology

Consonants

Bilabial Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Plosive/
Affricate
voiceless p t t͡ʃ k
voiced b d d͡ʒ ɡ
Fricative ɸ ʃ x [ɣ] [h]
Rhotic r
Approximant l j w

Vowels

Front Central Back
High i iː y u uː
Near-high ɪ ɪː ʊ ʊː
High-mid ə əː o oː
Low-mid ɛː ɔ ɔː
Low ɑ ɑː

Notes

  1. ^ "Oroqen". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2018-05-07.
  2. ^ Raymond G. Gordon Jr., ed. 2005, Ethnologue: Languages of the World. 15th edition. Dallas Summer Institute of Linguistics.
  3. ^ Hu, Zengyi (1986). Elunchun-yu jianzhi [Concise grammar of Oroqen]. Beijing: National Minorities Publ. pp. 3–19.