|Reconstruction of||Kra languages|
Proto-Kra is the reconstructed ancestor of the Kra languages. It was reconstructed in 2000 by Weera Ostapirat in his Ph.D. dissertation.
Ostapirat (2000) provided preliminary phonological reconstructions for several lower-level groupings before attempting a reconstruction of Proto-Kra.
Proto-Kra has a total of 32 consonants, seven of which (marked in green) can occur as syllable finals (Ostapirat 2000:224, 236).
Marc Miyake (2008) proposes alternative reconstructions for Ostapirat's (2000) Proto-Kra retroflex consonants, suggesting that many of them were actually non-retroflexes that had been influenced by pre-syllables. Some examples of Miyake's (2008) revised Proto-Kra reconstructions are provided below.
Additionally, Miyake (2008) revises Ostapirat's Proto-Kra *pwl- as *CV-pl-, *bwl- as *CV-bl-, *m-pl- as *pl-, *(p/d/k)-l- as *(p/d/k)V-l-, *ʈ-l- as k-l-, and *ɖ-l- as *(k/tV)-l-.
Proto-Kra has a total of 6 vowels (Ostapirat 2000:235).
Proto-Kra has 4 diphthongs, which are not found in closed syllables.
Proto-Kra had an A–B–C–D tonal system typical of other Tai–Kadai languages (see Proto-Tai language#Tones). The tonal descriptions below are from Ostapirat (2000:237).
The following table of phonetic characteristics of Proto-Kra tones was adapted from Ostapirat (2000:237).
|Type of final||sonorants, vowels||lax larynx (?)||tense larynx||stops|
|Vocal cords||vibrating||wide open||closed||closed|
Below are reconstructed Proto-Kra forms from Ostapirat (2000).