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Orenburg
Оренбург
Flag of Orenburg
Coat of arms of Orenburg
Location of Orenburg
Map
Orenburg is located in Orenburg Oblast
Orenburg
Orenburg
Location of Orenburg
Orenburg is located in European Russia
Orenburg
Orenburg
Orenburg (European Russia)
Orenburg is located in Russia
Orenburg
Orenburg
Orenburg (Russia)
Coordinates: 51°47′N 55°06′E / 51.783°N 55.100°E / 51.783; 55.100
CountryRussia
Federal subjectOrenburg Oblast[1]
Founded1743[2]
Government
 • BodyCity Duma
 • HeadSergey Salmin[3]
Area
 • Total258.57 km2 (99.83 sq mi)
Elevation
150 m (490 ft)
Population
 • Total548,331
 • Estimate 
(2018)[6]
564,773 (+3%)
 • Rank28th in 2010
 • Density2,100/km2 (5,500/sq mi)
 • Subordinated toCity of Orenburg[1]
 • Capital ofOrenburg Oblast,[1] Orenburgsky District[7]
 • Urban okrugOrenburg Urban Okrug[8]
 • Capital ofOrenburg Urban Okrug, Orenburgsky Municipal District
Time zoneUTC+5 (MSK+2 Edit this on Wikidata[9])
Postal code(s)[10]
460000
Dialing code(s)+7 3532
OKTMO ID53701000001
Websiteorenburg.ru

Orenburg (Russian: Оренбу́рг, pronounced [ɐrʲɪnˈburk]), formerly known as Chkalov (1938–1957), is the administrative center of Orenburg Oblast, Russia. It lies in Eastern Europe, on the banks of the Ural River and is 1,478 kilometers (918 mi) southeast of Moscow.

Orenburg is also very close to the border with Kazakhstan.

Etymology

Several historians have tried to explain the origins of the city's name. It was traditionally accepted that the word "orenburg" means a fortress on the River Or.[11] In all probability, the word combination "orenburg" was proposed by I. K. Kirillov [ru], the founder of the city. In 1734, in accordance with his project, a package of governmental documents was worked out. This was the starting point for Orenburg as a fortress city near the meeting of the Or and Ural rivers.

On 7 June 1734, "A Privilege for Orenburg" (tsar's edict) was ordered by Empress Anna Ioannovna.

While the construction site of the main fortress changed many times (down the River Ural), the name "Orenburg" has not changed since its founding in 1743. Between 1938 and 1957, the city was referred to as Chkalov,[12][13] named after the famous Soviet pilot Valery Chkalov, although he was not born in and never lived in Orenburg, and never visited Orenburg. In 1954, Chkalov's five-meter bronze sculpture was erected on the occasion of his 50th birth anniversary; this was installed on a seven-meter pedestal on the Boulevard (the riverside promenade of the city, commonly named "Belovka").

History

In 1734, the Russian Empire began to expand its dominance and influence in Asia by building a fortified city called Orenburg on its eastern border (Southern Urals). For this purpose, in 1735, Ivan Kirilov, a cartographer and statistician, began to develop the settlement at the confluence of the rivers Or and Ural, and the first settlement was chosen during his expedition. He claimed that the town was needed "to open a transit route to Bukhara, Badakhshan, Balkh and India" and that "riches in the form of gold, lapis lazuli and garnets could be obtained from it". After his death, a new manager of the Orenburg expedition, Vasily Tatishchev, was appointed who did not consider the place suitable for building a city. Therefore, in 1739 he began preparations for the construction of a new town with the old name on Krasnaya Gora (Red Mountain), downstream of the Ural (Yaik)River. The old settlement was named the Orsk fortress (now the city of Orsk).[14]

On August 6, 1741, the new town was laid out. However, its construction never started. The place on Krasnaya Gora was not suitable for the construction of the city, as it was treeless, rocky and far from the river. A new manager of the Orenburg expedition Ivan Neplyuev was appointed, and on April 19, 1743, Orenburg was built up on the third attempt, at the place where the Berd settlement was earlier located, 75 km (46miles) from the Krasnaya Gora. In the summer of 1742, Neplyuev was assigned to build the city on the site of the rivers Yaik and Sakmara. The new place, surrounded by forests and fields where the Yaik and Sakumara rivers converge, was chosen by Neplyuev himself. Today it is the historical center of the city. The town built on the Red Mountain was named Krasnogorsk. Thus, in 1743 Ivan Neplyuev founded Orenburg on thesite of present-day Orsk, about 250 kilometers west of the Urals. This third Orenburg served as an important military outpost on the border with the nomadic Kazakhs. It became the center of the Orenburg Cossacks.

Orenburg played a major role in Pugachev's Rebellion (1773–1774), the largest peasant revolt in Russian history. At the time, it was the capital of a vast district and the seat of the governor. Yemelyan Pugachev besieged the city and its fortress from nearby Berda from October 1773 to March 26, 1774. The defense was organized by Governor of Orenburg lieutenant-general Reinsdorf.[15] General Golytsin defeated Pugachev at Berda, and later again at Kargala (north of Orenburg).[16] Most of the city was left in ruins, and thousands of inhabitants had died in the siege. Government forces crushed revolt towards the end of 1774 by General Michelsohn at Tsaritsyn. Further reprisals against rebel areas were carried out by General Peter Panin.

Alexander Pushkin visited Orenburg in 1833 during a research trip for his books The History of Pugachev and his famous novel The Captain's Daughter. He met his friend Vladimir Dal here, who would later write the first serious dictionary of the Russian language.

Orenburg was the base for General Perovsky's expeditions against the Khanate of Khiva in the 1830s through 1850s. After the incorporation of Central Asia into the Russian Empire, Orenburg became a trading station and, since the completion of the Trans-Aral Railway, a prominent railway junction en route to the new Central Asian possessions and to Siberia.

Orenburg functioned as the capital of the Kirghiz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (in present-day Kazakhstan) within Russia from 1920 to 1925. When that republic was renamed Kazakh Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic in 1925, Orenburg joined Russia and Kyzylorda became the new capital. Almaty became the capital in 1929 after the construction of the Turkestan–Siberia Railway. Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was promoted to union republic status as the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic Kazakh SSR in 1936. Orenburg remained in Russia. From 1938 to 1957, the city bore the name Chkalov (Чка́лов) (after the prominent test pilot Valery Chkalov). The city's distance from the German invasion during World War II led many Soviet enterprises to flee there, helping to spur the city's economic growth.

Administrative and municipal status

Historical population
YearPop.±%
189772,000—    
1926122,190+69.7%
1939171,726+40.5%
1959267,317+55.7%
1970344,266+28.8%
1979458,747+33.3%
1989546,501+19.1%
2002549,361+0.5%
2010548,331−0.2%
2021543,654−0.9%
Source: Census data

Orenburg is the administrative center of the oblast[1] and, within the framework of administrative divisions, it also serves as the administrative centre of Orenburgsky District,[7] even though it is not a part of it.[17] As an administrative division, it is, together with ten rural localities, incorporated separately as the City of Orenburg[1]—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[citation needed] As a municipal division, the City of Orenburg is incorporated as Orenburg Urban Okrug.[8]

Geography

The city is in the basin of the middle branch of the River Ural, near its confluence with the River Sakmara. The highest point of the city is 154.4 meters (507 ft).[citation needed]

Economy

Orenburg is home to several large companies or their subsidiaries: Orenburggazprom,[18] the subsidiary of Gazprom; Orenburgneft,[19] the subsidiary of TNK-BP oil company; Orenburgenergy, one of the biggest energy generating companies in Russia.

Transportation

Orenburg has been a major railway centre ever since the Samara-Zlatoust and Orenburg-Tashkent railroads were completed, respectively in 1876 and 1905.[20] Orenburg's main airport is the Orenburg Tsentralny Airport,[21] located about 25 kilometers (16 mi) east of the city, on the Orsk destination, and used to be the headquarters of now defunct Orenair.[21] City public transport includes bus, trolleybus and also marshrutkas (fixed-route cabs).

Climate

Orenburg has a relatively dry humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfa) with quite long and hot summers and long and cold winters. April and October are transition months, with the rest of the months being either summer or winter.

Climate data for Orenburg (1991–2020, extremes 1832–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 4.7
(40.5)
5.8
(42.4)
21.3
(70.3)
31.3
(88.3)
36.5
(97.7)
40.5
(104.9)
41.6
(106.9)
40.9
(105.6)
38.0
(100.4)
27.0
(80.6)
19.2
(66.6)
8.1
(46.6)
41.6
(106.9)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) −8.1
(17.4)
−7
(19)
−0.2
(31.6)
13.6
(56.5)
22.7
(72.9)
27.4
(81.3)
29.3
(84.7)
28.1
(82.6)
21.0
(69.8)
11.8
(53.2)
0.8
(33.4)
−6.1
(21.0)
11.1
(52.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) −11.8
(10.8)
−11.3
(11.7)
−4.4
(24.1)
7.2
(45.0)
15.9
(60.6)
20.6
(69.1)
22.5
(72.5)
20.9
(69.6)
14.2
(57.6)
6.4
(43.5)
−2.7
(27.1)
−9.6
(14.7)
5.7
(42.3)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −15.4
(4.3)
−15.4
(4.3)
−8.4
(16.9)
2.1
(35.8)
9.0
(48.2)
13.7
(56.7)
15.6
(60.1)
13.9
(57.0)
8.0
(46.4)
1.9
(35.4)
−5.7
(21.7)
−13.1
(8.4)
0.5
(32.9)
Record low °C (°F) −43.2
(−45.8)
−40.1
(−40.2)
−36.8
(−34.2)
−26
(−15)
−5.7
(21.7)
−0.7
(30.7)
4.9
(40.8)
−1
(30)
−5.3
(22.5)
−19.8
(−3.6)
−35.7
(−32.3)
−39.2
(−38.6)
−43.2
(−45.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 29
(1.1)
24
(0.9)
26
(1.0)
27
(1.1)
31
(1.2)
34
(1.3)
42
(1.7)
22
(0.9)
26
(1.0)
33
(1.3)
29
(1.1)
31
(1.2)
354
(13.9)
Average extreme snow depth cm (inches) 17
(6.7)
23
(9.1)
19
(7.5)
2
(0.8)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
3
(1.2)
9
(3.5)
23
(9.1)
Average rainy days 4 3 6 11 15 15 14 13 13 14 11 6 125
Average snowy days 23 20 13 4 0.2 0 0 0 0.3 4 15 21 101
Average relative humidity (%) 80 79 79 62 53 54 55 54 59 68 80 81 67
Mean monthly sunshine hours 75.7 111.7 171.1 234.8 312.4 338.0 350.2 301.7 225.5 139.8 73.3 62.5 2,396.7
Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net[22]
Source 2: NOAA[23]

Education and culture

Orenburg is a regional centre of education and has a number of cultural institutions and museums.

Education

Orenburg State University

Museums

Theatres

Mosques

Tourism

Pedestrian bridge over Ural River. The bridge is between Europe and Asia

Mountain and river tourism are developed in the region. There are a number of fast mountain rivers and rocks in pleated spurs of the southern edge of the Urals range, popular with tourists. The city is known for its location between Europe and Asia. The Ural River marks the border of Asia and Europe, and there is a bridge which connects the two sides.

The city is famous for its down Orenburg shawls. The thinnest lacy design, knitted by hand shawls and cobweb-like kerchiefs (pautinkas), is not only warm, but also is used for decorative purposes.

Architecture

A famous boulevard on the embankment of the Ural River is one of the most notable places in Orenburg. Orenburg TV Tower is a guyed mast of unusual design. It is a 200-meter (660 ft) tall mast equipped with six crossbars running from the mast structure to the guys.[26]

Sports

National events

In October 2015, the Russian Rink Bandy Cup was to be organised.[30]

Honors

The asteroid 27709 Orenburg was named after the city on June 1, 2007.

Notable people

Twin towns – sister cities

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Russia

Orenburg is twinned with:[31]

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f Law #1370/276-IV-OZ
  2. ^ Из истории Казахстана XVIII в
  3. ^ "Администрация города Оренбурга". Официальный портал города Оренбурга. Retrieved June 29, 2022.[permanent dead link]
  4. ^ Генеральный план Оренбурга. Материалы по обоснованию проекта. Раздел 4.1. Территория города. Стр. 29
  5. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  6. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  7. ^ a b Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 53 234», в ред. изменения №278/2015 от 1 января 2016 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division (OKATO). Code 53 234, as amended by the Amendment #278/2015 of January 1, 2016. ).
  8. ^ a b Law #2367/495-IV-OZ
  9. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  10. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  11. ^ Поспелов Е.М. Географические названия мира: топонимический словарь. — М.: Русские словари; Астрель; ACT, 2002. — ISBN 5-17-002938-1; 5-271-00446-5; 5-93259-014-9; 5-17-001389-2.
  12. ^ Оренбург — статья из Большой советской энциклопедии.
  13. ^ Город был переименован Указом ПрезидиумаПрезидиума Верховного Совета СССР от 26 декабря 1938 г.
  14. ^ С.М.Стрельников. Географические названия Оренбургской области. — Изд. 2-е, доп. и испр. — Кувандык, 2002. — 176 с.
  15. ^ Shane O'Rourke The Cossacks Manchester University Press, 2008 ISBN 9780719076800
  16. ^ Tatishchevo 1774 in Tony Jaques Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: P-Z ISBN 9780313335396
  17. ^ Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 53 401», в ред. изменения №278/2015 от 1 января 2016 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division (OKATO). Code 53 401, as amended by the Amendment #278/2015 of January 1, 2016. ).
  18. ^ "Gazprom". Archived from the original on April 30, 2009. Retrieved April 11, 2009.
  19. ^ "Orenburgneft". Archived from the original on May 3, 2009. Retrieved April 12, 2009.
  20. ^ Correspondence, Foreign (November 7, 1904). "RUSSIA'S NEW GREAT RAILROAD IN ASIA; Orenburg-Tashkent Line Was Completed a Few Days Ago. GREAT VALUE STRATEGICALLY Prince Hilkoff Pushed the Construction of the Road with Much Energy -- The Cities Traversed" (PDF). The New York Times.
  21. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on April 3, 2009. Retrieved April 12, 2009.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  22. ^ КЛИМАТ ОРЕНБУРГА (in Russian). Погода и климат. Retrieved November 8, 2021.
  23. ^ "Orenburg Climate Normals 1991–2020". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
  24. ^ Orenburg Maxim Gorky State Drama Theater
  25. ^ "Оренбургский театр музыкальной комедии". Archived from the original on May 31, 2009. Retrieved April 14, 2009.
  26. ^ "Оренбург".
  27. ^ "Google Translate".
  28. ^ "Google Translate".
  29. ^ fakelgazproma.ru/
  30. ^ "Google Translate".
  31. ^ "Братские узы: четыре города-побратима Оренбурга". govorimdelo.ru (in Russian). Govorim Delo. November 22, 2019. Archived from the original on March 8, 2021. Retrieved February 4, 2020.

Sources