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Salzburg
Clockwise from top: view of University of Salzburg in front of the Salzach, with Nonnberg Abbey in the background; Hohensalzburg Fortress; Salzburg Cathedral; Roittner-Durchhaus; and Getreidegasse
Flag of Salzburg

Banner of Salzburg
Coat of arms of Salzburg
Salzburg is located in Salzburg
Salzburg
Salzburg
Location within Austria
Salzburg is located in Austria
Salzburg
Salzburg
Salzburg (Austria)
Coordinates: 47°48′00″N 13°02′42″E / 47.80000°N 13.04500°E / 47.80000; 13.04500
Country Austria
Federal stateSalzburg
DistrictStatutory city
Government
 • MayorHarald Preuner (ÖVP)
Area
 • Total65.65 km2 (25.35 sq mi)
Elevation
424 m (1,391 ft)
Population
 (1 October 2020)[2]
 • Total157,245
 • Density2,400/km2 (6,200/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
5020
Area code0662
Vehicle registrationS
Websitewww.stadt-salzburg.at
Historic Centre of the City of Salzburg
UNESCO World Heritage Site
CriteriaCultural: ii, iv, vi
Reference784
Inscription1996 (20th Session)
Area236 ha
Buffer zone467 ha

Salzburg (Austrian German: [ˈsaltsbʊʁk], German: [ˈzaltsbʊʁk] ;[note 1]) is the fourth-largest city in Austria. In 2020, it had a population of 156,872.[7]

The town is on the site of the Roman settlement of Iuvavum. Salzburg was founded as an episcopal see in 696 and became a seat of the archbishop in 798. Its main sources of income were salt extraction, trade, as well as gold mining. The fortress of Hohensalzburg, one of the largest medieval fortresses in Europe, dates from the 11th century. In the 17th century, Salzburg became a center of the Counter-Reformation, with monasteries and numerous Baroque churches built.

Salzburg's historic center (German: Altstadt) is renowned for its Baroque architecture and is one of the best-preserved city centers north of the Alps. The historic center was enlisted as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1996.[8] The city has three universities and a large population of students.

Etymology

The name "Salzburg" was first recorded in the late 8th century.[a] It is composed of two parts; the first being "Salz-" German for "salt" and the second being "-burg" from Proto-West-Germanic: *burg conveying the same meaning as Latin: oppidum, lit.'fortified settlement, city' and not that of the New High German: Burg, lit. 'fortress'.[9]

History

For a chronological guide, see Timeline of Salzburg.

Antiquity and Bavarian ownership until the High Middle Ages

In the 8th century the Benedictine monastery of Nonnberg was founded for Erentrudis, who was later canonized.

The area of the city has been inhabited continuously since the Neolithic Age until the present. In the La Tène period it was an administrative centre of the Celtic Alums in the Kingdom of Noricum.

After the Roman invasion in 15 BC, the various settlements on the Salzburg hills were abandoned, following the construction of the Roman city in the area of the old town. The newly created Municipium Claudium Juvavum was awarded the status of a Roman municipium in 45 CE and became one of the most important cities of the now Roman province of Noricum.

When the province of Noricum collapsed in 488 at the beginning of the migration period, part of the Romano-Celtic population remained in the country. In the 6th century they came under the rule of the Baiuvarii. The Life of Saint Rupert credits the 8th-century saint with the city's rebirth, when around 696 CE, Bishop Rupert of Salzburg received the remains of the Roman town from Duke Theodo II of Bavaria as well as a castrum superius (upper castle) on the Nonnberg Terrace as a gift.[10] In return he was to evangelize the east and south-east of the country of Bavaria.

Rupert reconnoitred the river for the site of his basilica and chose Juvavum. He ordained priests and annexed the manor of Piding. Rupert built a church at St. Peter on the site of today's cathedral and probably also founded the associated monastery and the Benedictine nunnery on Nonnberg for his relative Erentrude.[11] Salzburg has been the seat of a diocesan bishop since 739 CE[12] and an archbishopric since 798 CE. The first cathedral was built under Archbishop Virgil. The Franciscan Church existed since the beginning of the 9th century at the latest.[13] The Marienkirche dates from 1139.

The Romanesque Palace, Hohensalzburg Fortress, with a ring wall enclosing the hilltop, built on the site of a Roman fort.

The first use of the German name Salzburg, meaning Salt-Castle, can be traced back to 739 CE when the name was used in Willibald's report on the organization of the Bavarian dioceses by Saint Boniface.[14] The name derives from the barges carrying salt on the River Salzach, which were subject to a toll in the 8th century as was customary for many communities and cities on European rivers. Hohensalzburg Fortress, the city's fortress was built on the site of a Roman fort[15] in 1077 by Archbishop Gebhard, who made it his residence.[16] It was greatly expanded during the following centuries. This site is not the site of the Roman castrum superius, which was located on the Nonnberg nearby.

The state of Salzburg and its counties soon gained more and more influence and power within Bavaria due to the flourishing salt mining and the wide-ranging missionary activities.[17] In 996 Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor rented Archbishop Hartwig the market rights and minting rights (probably also the toll law). The first part of Hohensalzburg Fortress was built in 1077. A city judge was first mentioned in a document in 1120/30. On the left bank of the Salzach an extensive spiritual district was created with the cathedral, the bishop's residence north-west of the cathedral, the cathedral monastery on its south side, St Peter's monastery and the Frauengarten (probably after a former women's convent that was dissolved in 1583). Only during the 12th century did the civil settlement begin to spread into the Getreidegasse, the Abtsgasse (Sigmund Haffner-Gasse) and along the quay. Around 1280 the first city fortifications were created.[18] The oldest known city law document dates from the year 1287.[19]

Independence

Independence from Bavaria was secured in the late 14th century. Salzburg was the seat of the Archbishopric of Salzburg, a prince-bishopric of the Holy Roman Empire. As the Reformation movement gained steam, riots broke out among peasants in the areas in and around Salzburg. The city was occupied during the German Peasants' War, and the Archbishop had to flee to the safety of the fortress.[20] It was besieged for three months in 1525.

Eventually, tensions were quelled, and the city's independence led to an increase in wealth and prosperity, culminating in the late 16th to 18th centuries under the Prince Archbishops Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau, Markus Sittikus, and Paris Lodron. It was in the 17th century that Italian architects (and Austrians who had studied the Baroque style) rebuilt the city center as it is today along with many palaces.[21]

Modern era

Religious conflict

Main article: Salzburg Protestants

On 31 October 1731, the 214th anniversary of the 95 Theses, Archbishop Count Leopold Anton von Firmian signed an Edict of Expulsion, the Emigrationspatent, directing all Protestant citizens to recant their non-Catholic beliefs. 21,475 citizens refused to recant their beliefs and were expelled from Salzburg. Most of them accepted an offer by King Friedrich Wilhelm I of Prussia, travelling the length and breadth of Germany to their new homes in East Prussia.[22] The rest settled in other Protestant states in Europe and the British colonies in America.

Illuminism

In 1772–1803, under archbishop Hieronymus Graf von Colloredo, Salzburg was a center of late Illuminism. Colloredo is known for being one of the main employers of Mozart. He often had arguments with Mozart and he dismissed him[clarification needed] by saying, "Soll er doch gehen, ich brauche ihn nicht!" (He should go; I don't need him!). Mozart would leave Salzburg for Vienna in 1781 with his family, although his father Leopold stayed back as he had a close relationship with Colloredo.

Electorate of Salzburg

In 1803, the archbishopric was secularised by Emperor Napoleon; he transferred the territory to Ferdinando III of Tuscany, former Grand Duke of Tuscany, as the Electorate of Salzburg.

Austrian and Bavarian rule

In 1805, Salzburg was annexed to the Austrian Empire, along with the Berchtesgaden Provostry. In 1809, the territory of Salzburg was transferred to the Kingdom of Bavaria after Austria's defeat at Wagram. After the Congress of Vienna with the Treaty of Munich (1816), Salzburg was definitively returned to Austria, but without Rupertigau and Berchtesgaden, which remained with Bavaria. Salzburg was integrated into the Province of Salzach and Salzburgerland was ruled from Linz.[23]

In 1850, Salzburg's status was restored as the capital of the Duchy of Salzburg, a crownland of the Austrian Empire. The city became part of Austria-Hungary in 1866 as the capital of a crownland of the Austrian Empire. The nostalgia of the Romantic Era led to increased tourism. In 1892, a funicular was installed to facilitate tourism to Hohensalzburg Fortress.[24]

Salzburg in 1914; cathedral on the left, Hohensalzburg Fortress in the background

20th century

First Republic

Following World War I and the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Salzburg, as the capital of one of the Austro-Hungarian territories, became part of the new German Austria. In 1918, it represented the residual German-speaking territories of the Austrian heartlands. This was replaced by the First Austrian Republic in 1919, after the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1919).

Annexation by Nazi Germany

Young Austrians at celebrations just after the Anschluss, March 1938

The Anschluss (the occupation and annexation of Austria, including Salzburg, into Nazi Germany) took place on 12 March 1938, one day before a scheduled referendum on Austria's independence. German troops moved into the city. Political opponents, Jewish citizens and other minorities were subsequently arrested and deported to concentration camps. The synagogue was destroyed.

World War II

After Germany invaded the Soviet Union, several POW camps for prisoners from the Soviet Union and other enemy nations were organized in the city.

During the Nazi occupation, a Romani camp was built in Salzburg-Maxglan. It was an Arbeitserziehungslager (work 'education' camp), which provided slave labor to local industry. It also operated as a Zwischenlager (transit camp), holding Roma before their deportation to German camps or ghettos in German-occupied territories in eastern Europe.[25]

Salzburg was also the location of five subcamps of the Dachau concentration camp.[26]

Allied bombing destroyed 7,600 houses and killed 550 inhabitants. Fifteen air strikes destroyed 46 percent of the city's buildings, especially those around Salzburg railway station. Although the town's bridges and the dome of the cathedral were destroyed, much of its Baroque architecture remained intact. As a result, Salzburg is one of the few remaining examples of a town of its style. American troops entered the city on 5 May 1945 and it became the centre of the American-occupied area in Austria. Several displaced persons camps were established in Salzburg—among them Riedenburg, Camp Herzl (Franz-Josefs-Kaserne), Camp Mülln, Bet Bialik, Bet Trumpeldor, and New Palestine.

Today

After World War II, Salzburg became the capital city of the Federal State of Salzburg (Land Salzburg) and saw the Americans leave the area once Austria had signed a 1955 treaty re-establishing the country as a democratic and independent nation and subsequently declared its perpetual neutrality. In the 1960s, the city became the shooting and setting of the family musical film The Sound of Music. On 27 January 2006, the 250th anniversary of the birth of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, all 35 churches of Salzburg rang their bells after 8:00 p.m. (local time) to celebrate the occasion. Major celebrations took place throughout the year.

As of 2017 Salzburg had a GDP per capita of €46,100, which was greater than the average for Austria and most European countries.[27]

Geography

Salzburg is on the banks of the River Salzach, at the northern boundary of the Alps. The mountains to Salzburg's south contrast with the rolling plains to the north. The closest alpine peak, the 1,972‑metre-high Untersberg, is less than 16 km (10 mi) from the city center. The Altstadt, or "old town", is dominated by its baroque towers and churches and the massive Hohensalzburg Fortress. This area is flanked by two smaller hills, the Mönchsberg and Kapuzinerberg, which offer green relief within the city. Salzburg is approximately 150 km (93 mi) east of Munich, 281 km (175 mi) northwest of Ljubljana, Slovenia, and 300 km (186 mi) west of Vienna. Salzburg has about the same latitude as Seattle.

Due to its proximity to the Austrian-German border, the greater Salzburg urban area has sometimes been regarded as, unofficially, including contiguous parts of Germany, including Freilassing (until 1923 known as Salzburghofen), Ainring and Piding.

Climate

The Köppen climate classification specifies Salzburg's climate as a humid continental climate (Dfb). However, with the −3 °C (27 °F) isotherm for the coldest month, Salzburg can be classified as having a four-season oceanic climate (Cfb) with significant temperature differences between seasons. Due to the location at the northern rim of the Alps, the amount of precipitation is comparatively high, mainly in the summer months. The specific drizzle is called Schnürlregen in the local dialect. In winter and spring, pronounced foehn winds regularly occur.

Climate data for Salzburg-Flughafen (LOWS) 1991–2020, extremes 1874–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20.8
(69.4)
21.7
(71.1)
24.9
(76.8)
30.3
(86.5)
34.1
(93.4)
35.7
(96.3)
37.7
(99.9)
36.6
(97.9)
33.3
(91.9)
28.2
(82.8)
24.1
(75.4)
19.1
(66.4)
37.7
(99.9)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 3.4
(38.1)
6.2
(43.2)
10.2
(50.4)
15.7
(60.3)
19.3
(66.7)
23.2
(73.8)
24.3
(75.7)
24.0
(75.2)
19.9
(67.8)
14.4
(57.9)
8.5
(47.3)
4.0
(39.2)
14.4
(57.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.0
(32.0)
1.6
(34.9)
5.7
(42.3)
10.1
(50.2)
14.4
(57.9)
17.9
(64.2)
19.6
(67.3)
19.4
(66.9)
15.0
(59.0)
10.4
(50.7)
4.8
(40.6)
0.9
(33.6)
10.0
(50.0)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −3.6
(25.5)
−2.8
(27.0)
0.7
(33.3)
4.3
(39.7)
8.3
(46.9)
12.5
(54.5)
13.8
(56.8)
13.6
(56.5)
10.1
(50.2)
5.6
(42.1)
0.9
(33.6)
−2.5
(27.5)
5.1
(41.2)
Record low °C (°F) −30.4
(−22.7)
−30.6
(−23.1)
−21.6
(−6.9)
−9.2
(15.4)
−3.4
(25.9)
−0.1
(31.8)
3.7
(38.7)
2.0
(35.6)
−3.0
(26.6)
−8.3
(17.1)
−18.0
(−0.4)
−27.7
(−17.9)
−30.6
(−23.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 59
(2.3)
53
(2.1)
87
(3.4)
78
(3.1)
115
(4.5)
151
(5.9)
158
(6.2)
164
(6.5)
112
(4.4)
73
(2.9)
72
(2.8)
72
(2.8)
1,195
(47.0)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 20.0
(7.9)
19.5
(7.7)
11.5
(4.5)
1.4
(0.6)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.6
(0.2)
6.5
(2.6)
18.8
(7.4)
78.3
(30.8)
Average snowy days (≥ 1.0 cm) 14.6 12.2 5.6 0.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 3.8 10.0 47.2
Average relative humidity (%) (at 14:00) 71.7 63.5 56.1 50.5 53.0 54.6 53.2 55.0 59.3 62.9 71.1 73.9 60.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 67.0 91.9 130.0 152.6 196.4 193.9 221.1 202.8 167.7 129.7 81.2 62.8 1,697.1
Percent possible sunshine 26.9 34.4 37.9 39.4 44.3 43.7 48.8 48.3 47.4 42.9 30.8 26.7 39.3
Source 1: Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (precipitation 1981–2010, sun 1971–2000)[28][29][30]
Source 2: Meteo Climat (record highs and lows)[31]
Climate data for Salzburg-Flughafen (LOWS) 1961–1990[i]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean maximum °C (°F) 10.5
(50.9)
13.2
(55.8)
19.6
(67.3)
23.2
(73.8)
26.8
(80.2)
30.1
(86.2)
31.4
(88.5)
31.3
(88.3)
27.9
(82.2)
23.4
(74.1)
18.0
(64.4)
11.5
(52.7)
31.4
(88.5)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 2.4
(36.3)
4.9
(40.8)
9.5
(49.1)
14.1
(57.4)
18.9
(66.0)
21.8
(71.2)
23.8
(74.8)
23.4
(74.1)
20.1
(68.2)
15.1
(59.2)
8.0
(46.4)
3.2
(37.8)
13.8
(56.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) −1.3
(29.7)
0.7
(33.3)
4.7
(40.5)
8.9
(48.0)
13.3
(55.9)
16.4
(61.5)
18.3
(64.9)
18.0
(64.4)
15.0
(59.0)
10.0
(50.0)
4.2
(39.6)
−0.3
(31.5)
9.0
(48.2)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −5.0
(23.0)
−3.4
(25.9)
−0.1
(31.8)
3.7
(38.7)
7.7
(45.9)
11.1
(52.0)
12.9
(55.2)
12.7
(54.9)
9.9
(49.8)
5.0
(41.0)
0.4
(32.7)
−3.7
(25.3)
4.3
(39.7)
Mean minimum °C (°F) −15.1
(4.8)
−11.9
(10.6)
−7.5
(18.5)
−1.9
(28.6)
1.5
(34.7)
5.3
(41.5)
7.8
(46.0)
7.1
(44.8)
3.8
(38.8)
−1.6
(29.1)
−7.5
(18.5)
−14.0
(6.8)
−15.1
(4.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 63.4
(2.50)
59.1
(2.33)
66.1
(2.60)
82.9
(3.26)
128.6
(5.06)
154.3
(6.07)
160.0
(6.30)
152.8
(6.02)
89.9
(3.54)
68.0
(2.68)
73.9
(2.91)
71.4
(2.81)
1,170.4
(46.08)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 10.7 10 11.1 12.3 13.3 15.1 14.5 13.8 10 8.6 10.2 11.6 141.2
Average relative humidity (%) 82 79 74 70 69 71 71 75 78 80 81 82 76
Average afternoon relative humidity (%) 74 67 58 54 53 56 55 57 60 63 70 76 62
Average dew point °C (°F) −3.7
(25.3)
−2.9
(26.8)
−0.6
(30.9)
2.8
(37.0)
7.2
(45.0)
10.6
(51.1)
12.5
(54.5)
12.7
(54.9)
10.5
(50.9)
6.0
(42.8)
0.7
(33.3)
−2.7
(27.1)
4.4
(40.0)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 68.2 90.4 130.2 153 189.1 201 223.2 201.5 174 139.5 78 62 1,710.1
Mean daily sunshine hours 2.2 3.2 4.2 5.1 6.1 6.7 7.2 6.5 5.8 4.5 2.6 2 4.7
Source 1: Deutscher Wetterdienst[32]
Source 2: NOAA(mean monthly max/min-Dew Point)[33]
  1. ^ afternnon humidity measured at 14:00 local time

Demography

History

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1869 27,858—    
1880 33,241+19.3%
1890 38,081+14.6%
1900 48,945+28.5%
1910 56,423+15.3%
1923 60,026+6.4%
1934 69,447+15.7%
1939 77,170+11.1%
1951 102,927+33.4%
1961 108,114+5.0%
1971 129,919+20.2%
1981 139,426+7.3%
1991 143,978+3.3%
2001 142,662−0.9%
2011 145,367+1.9%
2016 150,887+3.8%
2021 155,416+3.0%
Source: Statistik Austria[34]

Salzburg's official population significantly increased in 1935 when the city absorbed adjacent municipalities. After World War II, numerous refugees found a new home in the city. New residential space was constructed for American soldiers of the postwar occupation and could be used for refugees when they left. Around 1950, Salzburg passed the mark of 100,000 citizens, and in 2016, it reached the mark of 150000 citizens.

Migrant communities

Salzburg is home to large German, Bosnian, Serbian, and Romanian communities.

Largest groups of immigrants by 1 January 2021 :

 Germany 7,816
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 5,189
 Serbia 4,805
 Romania 2,914
 Croatia 2,521
 Turkey 2,457
 Syria 1,947
 Afghanistan 1,686
 Hungary 1,595
 Italy 1,197

Architecture

View from Mönchsberg (left to right), Kollegienkirche (right behind Salzburger Dom), Franziskanerkirche, St Peter's Abbey, Salzburg and, in the background, Hohensalzburg Fortress
View from Hohensalzburg Fortress

Romanesque and Gothic

The Romanesque and Gothic churches, the monasteries and the early carcass houses dominated the medieval city for a long time. The Cathedral of Archbishop Conrad of Wittelsbach was the largest basilica north of the Alps. The choir of the Franciscan Church, construction was begun by Hans von Burghausen and completed by Stephan Krumenauer, is one of the most prestigious religious gothic constructions of southern Germany. At the end of the Gothic era Nonnberg Abbey, the Margaret Chapel in St Peter's Abbey, St George's Chapel, and the stately halls of the "Hoher Stock" in Hohensalzburg Fortress were constructed.

Renaissance and baroque

Inspired by Vincenzo Scamozzi, Prince-Archbishop Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau began to transform the medieval town to the architectural ideals of the late Renaissance. Plans for a massive cathedral by Scamozzi failed to materialize upon the fall of the archbishop. A second cathedral planned by Santino Solari rose as the first early Baroque church in Salzburg. It served as an example for many other churches in Southern Germany and Austria. Markus Sittikus and Paris von Lodron continued to rebuild the city with major projects such as Hellbrunn Palace, the prince archbishop's residence, the university buildings, fortifications, and many other buildings. Giovanni Antonio Daria managed by order of Prince Archbishop Guido von Thun the construction of the residential well. Giovanni Gaspare Zuccalli, by order of the same archbishop, created the Erhard and the Kajetan church in the south of the town. The city's redesign was completed with buildings designed by Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach, donated by Prince Archbishop Johann Ernst von Thun.

After the era of Ernst von Thun, the city's expansion came to a halt, which is the reason why there are no churches built in the Rococo style. Sigismund von Schrattenbach continued with the construction of "Sigmundstor" and the statue of holy Maria on the cathedral square. With the fall and division of the former "Fürsterzbistum Salzburg" (Archbishopric) to Upper Austria, Bavaria (Rupertigau) and Tyrol (Zillertal Matrei) began a long period of urban stagnancy. This era didn't end before the period of promoterism (Gründerzeit) brought new life into urban development. The builder dynasty Jakob Ceconi and Carl Freiherr von Schwarz filled major positions in shaping the city in this era.[35]

Classical modernism and post-war modernism

Buildings of classical modernism and in particular, post-war modernism is frequently encountered in Salzburg. Examples are the Zahnwurzen house (a house in the Linzergasse 22 in the right center of the old town), the "Lepi" (public baths in Leopoldskron) (built 1964), and the original 1957 constructed congress-center of Salzburg, which was replaced by a new building in 2001. An important and famous example of the architecture of this era is the 1960 opening of the Großes Festspielhaus by Clemens Holzmeister.

Contemporary architecture

Adding contemporary architecture to Salzburg's old town without risking its UNESCO World Heritage status is problematic. Nevertheless, some new structures have been added: the Mozarteum at the Baroque Mirabell Garden (Architecture Robert Rechenauer),[36] the 2001 Congress House (Architecture: Freemasons), the 2011 Unipark Nonntal (Architecture: Storch Ehlers Partners), the 2001 "Makartsteg" bridge (Architecture: HALLE1), and the "Residential and Studio House" of the architects Christine and Horst Lechner in the middle of Salzburg's old town (winner of the architecture award of Salzburg 2010).[37][38] Other examples of contemporary architecture lie outside the old town: the Faculty of Science building (Universität Salzburg – Architecture Willhelm Holzbauer) built on the edge of free green space, the blob architecture of Red Bull Hangar-7 (Architecture: Volkmar Burgstaller[39]) at Salzburg Airport, home to Dietrich Mateschitz's Flying Bulls and the Europark Shopping Centre. (Architecture: Massimiliano Fuksas)

Districts

Districts of Salzburg

Salzburg has twenty-four urban districts and three extra-urban populations. Urban districts (Stadtteile):

Extra-urban populations (Landschaftsräume):

Main sights

Salzburg Cathedral
Gardens in Mirabell Palace, with Hohensalzburg Fortress in the distance
View of shoppers on Getreidegasse, which is one of the oldest streets in Salzburg
The Red Bull Hangar-7

Salzburg is a tourist favorite, with the number of visitors outnumbering locals by a large margin in peak times. In addition to Mozart's birthplace noted above, other notable places include:

Old Town

Outside the Old Town

Greater Salzburg area

Education

Salzburg is a center of education and home to three universities, as well as several professional colleges and gymnasiums (high schools).

Universities and higher education institutions

Notable citizens

Mozart was born in Salzburg.
plaque of Christian Doppler, ca 1845
Herbert von Karajan statue in Salzburg

Events

Transport

Salzburg Airport
Map of the Salzburg trolleybus system

Salzburg Hauptbahnhof is served by comprehensive rail connections, with frequent east–west trains serving Vienna, Munich, Innsbruck, and Zürich, including daily high-speed ICE services. North–south rail connections also serve popular destinations such as Venice and Prague. The city acts as a hub for southbound trains through the Alps into Italy.

Salzburg Airport has scheduled flights to European cities such as Frankfurt, Vienna, London, Rotterdam, Amsterdam, Brussels, Düsseldorf, and Zürich, as well as Hamburg, Edinburgh and Dublin. In addition to these, there are numerous charter flights.

In the main city, there is the Salzburg trolleybus system and bus system with a total of more than 20 lines, and service every 10 minutes. Salzburg has an S-Bahn system with four Lines (S1, S2, S3, S11), trains depart from the main station every 30 minutes, and they are part of the ÖBB network. Suburb line number S1 reaches the world-famous Silent Night chapel in Oberndorf in about 25 minutes.

Popular culture

In the 1960s, The Sound of Music, based on the true story of Maria von Trapp, who took up with an aristocratic family and fled the German Anschluss, used locations in Salzburg and Salzburg State as filming locations.

The city briefly appears on the map when Indiana Jones travels through the city in Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade.

Salzburg is the setting for the Austrian crime series Stockinger and an Austrian-German television crime drama series Der Pass.

In the 2010 film Knight & Day, Salzburg serves as the backdrop for a large portion of the film.

Language

Austrian German is widely written and differs from Germany's standard variation only in some vocabulary and a few grammar points. Salzburg belongs to the region of Austro-Bavarian dialects, in particular Central Bavarian.[51] It is widely spoken by young and old alike although professors of linguistics from the Universität Salzburg, Irmgard Kaiser, and Hannes Scheutz, have seen over the past few years a reduction in the number of dialect speakers in the city.[52][53] Although more and more school children are speaking standard German, Scheutz feels it has less to do with parental influence and more to do with media consumption.[54]

Sports

Football

Stadion Wals-Siezenheim

The former SV Austria Salzburg reached the UEFA Cup final in 1994. On 6 April 2005 Red Bull bought the club and changed its name to FC Red Bull Salzburg. The home stadium of Red Bull Salzburg is the Wals Siezenheim Stadium in a suburb in the agglomeration of Salzburg and was one of the venues for the 2008 European Football Championship. FC Red Bull Salzburg plays in the Austrian Bundesliga.

After Red Bull had bought the SV Austria Salzburg and changed its name and team colors, some supporters of the club decided to leave and form a new club with the old name and old colors, wanting to preserve the traditions of their club. The reformed SV Austria Salzburg was founded in 2005 and at one point played in the Erste Liga, only one tier below the Bundesliga. However, in recent years they have struggled to climb back up to the Austrian second tier and since 2019 they compete in the Regionalliga Salzburg in the Austrian Football third tier.

Ice-hockey

Red Bull also sponsors the local ice hockey team, the EC Salzburg Red Bulls. The team plays in the Erste Bank Eishockey Liga, an Austria-headquartered cross-border league featuring the best teams from Austria, Hungary, Slovenia, Croatia, and Italy, as well as one Czech team.

Other sports

Salzburg was a candidate city for the 2010 and 2014 Winter Olympics, but lost to Vancouver and Sochi respectively.

International relations

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Austria

Twin towns—sister cities

Salzburg is twinned with:[55]

Gallery

A view of the city center of Salzburg with cirrus clouds in the sky
A night time long exposure of Salzburg
Salzburg old town with a typical narrow alleyway
Salzburg Altstadt panorama
Salzburg panorama as seen from Hohensalzburg fortress

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Spelled "Salzpurch" in the earliest vita of Saint Boniface

References

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Bibliography