Cheboksary

Чебоксары
Other transcription(s)
 • ChuvashШупашкар
Left to right, top to bottom: A View of Red Square from Cheboksary Bay on Chuvash Republic Day; Hospital Square, Universitetskaya Street; Cheboksary Airport, Chapayev Monument on Chapayev Square; Chuvash State Agricultural Academy
Flag
Coat of arms
Anthem: Anthem of Cheboksary[2][3]
Location of Cheboksary
Cheboksary
Cheboksary
Location of Cheboksary
Cheboksary
Cheboksary
Cheboksary (European Russia)
Cheboksary
Cheboksary
Cheboksary (Europe)
Coordinates: 56°09′N 47°14′E / 56.150°N 47.233°E / 56.150; 47.233Coordinates: 56°09′N 47°14′E / 56.150°N 47.233°E / 56.150; 47.233
CountryRussia
Federal subjectChuvashia[1]
First mentioned1469[4]
City status since1781[4]
Government
 • BodyCity Assembly of Deputies[5]
 • Head[5]Oleg Nikolayev[6]
Area
 • Total250.9 km2 (96.9 sq mi)
Elevation
150 m (490 ft)
Population
 • Total453,721
 • Estimate 
(2018)[9]
492,331 (+8.5%)
 • Rank39th in 2010
 • Density1,800/km2 (4,700/sq mi)
 • Subordinated tocity of republic significance of Cheboksary[1]
 • Capital ofChuvash Republic[1]
 • Capital ofcity of republic significance of Cheboksary[1]
 • Urban okrugCheboksary Urban Okrug[10]
 • Capital ofCheboksary Urban Okrug[10]
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK Edit this on Wikidata[11])
Postal code(s)[12]
428000–428006, 428008–428015, 428017–428025, 428027–428029,428031, 428032, 428034–428038, 428899, 428999, 996200
Dialing code(s)+7 8352
OKTMO ID97701000001
City DayThird Sunday of August
Websitegov.cap.ru/main.asp?govid=81

Cheboksary (/ˌɛbɒkˈsæri/; Russian: Чебокса́ры, tr. Cheboksáry, IPA: [tɕɪbɐˈksarɨ]; Chuvash: Шупашкар, tr. Šupaškar) is the capital city of Chuvashia, Russia and a port on the Volga River. Population: 453,721 (2010 Census);[8] 440,621 (2002 Census);[13] 419,592 (1989 Census).[14]

Geography

The city is located in the Volga Upland region and stands on the shore of the Cheboksary Reservoir. Its area is 250.9 square kilometers (96.9 sq mi).[7] The satellite city of Novocheboksarsk is located about 6 kilometers (3.7 mi) east of Cheboksary.

History

It was first mentioned in written sources in 1469,[4] when Russian soldiers passed here on their way to the Khanate of Kazan.[citation needed] According to archaeological excavations, however, the area had been populated considerably earlier. The site hosted a Bulgarian city of Veda Suvar, which appeared after Mongols defeated major Volga Bulgarian cities in the 13th century. During Khanate period the town is believed by some[who?] to have had a Turkic (probably, Tatar[citation needed]) name Çabaqsar and that the current Russian and English names originate from it. However, in maps by European travelers it was marked as Cibocar (Pizzigano, 1367), Veda-Suar (Fra Mauro, 1459). Shupashkar, the Chuvash name literally means the "fortress of the Chuvash".

In 1555, the Russians built a fortress and established a settlement here. In 1625, there were 458 soldiers quartered in Cheboksary, and in 1646 there were 661 males living in the settlement. At the end of the 17th century, Cheboksary was regarded as a major commercial city of the Volga region, and in 1781 it was granted town status[4] within Kazan Governorate. In the beginning of the 19th century the population was about 5500, the town had a sawmill and several small manufactures.

Cheboksary also was noted for its twenty-five churches and four monasteries, and Cheboksary bells were known in London and Paris[citation needed].

In the 16th and the first half of the 17th century the Vvedensky cathedral, four monasteries and eighth churches had been built, in the 18th century the stone buildings of treasury and archive, magistracy, court, and ten churches. In 1880, here were counted 783 houses (33 of them from stone), 91 stores, 3 schools, 2 hospitals, and a bank.

In the beginning of the 20th century, 5,100 people lived in Cheboksary. In 1965, the population was 163,000.

Administrative and municipal status

Cheboksary is the capital of the republic.[1] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with two urban-type settlements (Novye Lapsary and Sosnovka) and two rural localities, incorporated as the city of republic significance of Cheboksary—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the city of republic significance of Cheboksary is incorporated as Cheboksary Urban Okrug.[10]

City divisions

For administrative purposes, Cheboksary is divided into three city districts: Kalininsky, Leninsky, and Moskovsky.

Demographics

The city of Cheboksary together with the satellite city Novocheboksarsk forms a polycentric agglomeration with a population of more than 680 thousand people.

Ethnic composition

The population of Cheboksary consists mainly of the two following ethnic groups; the Chuvash (62%), and ethnic Russians (34%).[15] Mixed marriages are quite common.

Culture

Like many cities of Russia, Cheboksary possesses many cultural opportunities. These include the Public Order (Badge of Honor) Russian Drama Theater, a philharmonic orchestra, the Chuvash State Puppet Theater and numerous theaters (showing productions in both Russian and Chuvash languages). However, a very popular gathering place for the locals is the recently completed zaliv (bay), beautifully situated in the middle of the city. There people gather to stroll, visit cafes, and socialize. Cheboksary also has beautiful boardwalks and beaches along the Volga River, where people swim in the summer. There are also a number of heated pools, health clubs, and museums (including the Chuvash National Museum and Russia's only beer museum).[16]

Cheboksary hosted a language festival in 1996.

Sport

Cheboksary regularly hosts athletics meetings and racewalking events, including the 2008 IAAF World Race Walking Cup, the 2015 European Team Championships Super League, and the 2016 Russian athletics and masters athletics championships.[17] The 2016 IAAF World Race Walking Team Championships were moved from Cheboksary to Rome as part of IAAF sanctions against doping in Russia.

Education

Educational institutions include the Chuvash State University, Chuvash State Agriculture Academy, the Chuvash State Pedagogical University, and the Cheboksary Cooperative Technical School.

Economy

Cheboksary is located near the Cheboksary Dam generating up to 1,404 MW, with a reservoir of 2,274 square kilometers (878 sq mi). Cheboksary is the location of the headquarters of the Concern Tractor Plants, Russia's leading machine building company and one of the largest heavy mechanical engineering companies in the world.[16][18]

Transportation

Local public transportation

An extensive system of trolleybuses, autobuses, and minibuses covers the city, providing quick, convenient access to all parts of the city. For those who prefer taxis, there are several taxi agencies available, but the favorite means of transportation among locals are so-called "Gypsy" cabs. In Russia, anybody who owns a car is potentially a taxi. This can be a convenient way to get around but it is also potentially dangerous. Official taxis cost less than 6 dollars for travel between most points within the city.[16]

River

Because the Volga River runs through Chuvashia, Cheboksary is a frequent stop on the many boat tours that travel along the major cities up and down the Volga. To the south, Volgograd, Rostov-on-Don, Astrakhan, the Caspian Sea, and Black Sea are directly reachable. To the west, the Volga River connects Cheboksary with Nizhny Novgorod, Yaroslavl, Moscow, and the northern regions of Russia. By using river-sea vessels, it is possible to take cargo from Chuvash riverports all the way to Saint Petersburg, Novorossiysk (on the Black Sea), Astrakhan, and ports situated on the Danube river. However, the river is frozen from December to April.[16]

Air

The Cheboksary Airport (IATA CSY, ICAO UWKS, international airport since 1995) receives both cargo and passenger aircraft of practically all types and sizes. There are regularly scheduled flights to Moscow and other destinations. Chuvashia Airlines was based at this airport until operations ceased in 2009. Cheboksary is located about a four-hour drive from Strigino International Airport near Nizhny Novgorod, which offers more flight connections.

Climate

The climate in the region is continental (Köppen: Dfb), and it is similar to the climate in Moscow, although colder in winter, which lasts from late November until late March with a permanent snow cover.

Climate data for Cheboksary, 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1929–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 4.7
(40.5)
5.0
(41.0)
13.5
(56.3)
28.6
(83.5)
32.6
(90.7)
36.4
(97.5)
38.6
(101.5)
39.9
(103.8)
29.7
(85.5)
25.0
(77.0)
13.4
(56.1)
7.0
(44.6)
39.9
(103.8)
Average high °C (°F) −7.0
(19.4)
−7.3
(18.9)
−0.5
(31.1)
9.6
(49.3)
17.9
(64.2)
22.3
(72.1)
25.0
(77.0)
22.2
(72.0)
15.9
(60.6)
7.7
(45.9)
−0.4
(31.3)
−5.8
(21.6)
8.3
(46.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) −10.2
(13.6)
−10.1
(13.8)
−4.1
(24.6)
5.2
(41.4)
12.9
(55.2)
17.5
(63.5)
19.7
(67.5)
17.1
(62.8)
11.1
(52.0)
4.4
(39.9)
−3.7
(25.3)
−8.5
(16.7)
4.3
(39.7)
Average low °C (°F) −12.7
(9.1)
−13.2
(8.2)
−7.3
(18.9)
1.4
(34.5)
7.8
(46.0)
12.9
(55.2)
15.8
(60.4)
13.2
(55.8)
8.2
(46.8)
2.1
(35.8)
−4.5
(23.9)
−10.6
(12.9)
1.1
(34.0)
Record low °C (°F) −42.3
(−44.1)
−42.2
(−44.0)
−32.5
(−26.5)
−21.4
(−6.5)
−5.1
(22.8)
−4.8
(23.4)
1.7
(35.1)
−1.5
(29.3)
−7.5
(18.5)
−15.3
(4.5)
−29.9
(−21.8)
−44.3
(−47.7)
−44.3
(−47.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 31
(1.2)
22
(0.9)
27
(1.1)
31
(1.2)
39
(1.5)
61
(2.4)
60
(2.4)
55
(2.2)
52
(2.0)
55
(2.2)
44
(1.7)
34
(1.3)
511
(20.1)
Average rainy days 2 0 3 10 16 15 13 12 20 15 11 10 127
Average snowy days 25 16 16 4 0 0 0 0 0 7 14 23 105
Average relative humidity (%) 85 80 79 58 56 59 52 62 74 79 87 86 71
Source: Погода и Климат[19]


Gallery

Cheboksary Bay
Cheboksary Bay
Artificial Bay in the city center
Artificial Bay in the city center

Twin towns – sister cities

Main article: List of twin towns and sister cities in Russia

Cheboksary is twinned with:[20][21]

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Law #28
  2. ^ Charter of Cheboksary, Article 4
  3. ^ Decision #1525
  4. ^ a b c d Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. pp. 510–512. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9.
  5. ^ a b Charter of Cheboksary, Article 23
  6. ^ Official website of Cheboksary. Leonid Ilyich Cherkesov, Head of the City of Cheboksary (in Russian)
  7. ^ a b Resolution #2083
  8. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  9. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  10. ^ a b c Law #37
  11. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  12. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  13. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  14. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  15. ^ Национальный состав населения районов и городов Чувашской Республики по данным переписи населения 2002 года
  16. ^ a b c d Steven Brown and Olin Lagon (June 2001). "Economic Overview of the Republic of Chuvashia". United States Peace Corps Business Development Volunteers in Chuvashia. Archived from the original on July 4, 2005. Retrieved January 10, 2009.
  17. ^ Ebel, Francesca; Silchenko, Veronika (June 19, 2016). "Despair and defiance as Russian athletes react to doping ban". Associated Press. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
  18. ^ "Company Profile". Concern Tractor Plants. Retrieved July 14, 2009.
  19. ^ "Climate Cheboksary". Pogoda.ru.net. Retrieved May 15, 2019.
  20. ^ "Города - побратимы г. Чебоксары". gcheb.cap.ru (in Russian). Cheboksary. Retrieved February 2, 2020.
  21. ^ "Kardeş Şehir Hamm". afyon.bel.tr (in Turkish). Afyonkarahisar. Retrieved February 2, 2020.

Sources