Vladikavkaz
Владикавказ
Other transcription(s)
 • OssetianДзӕуджыхъæу/Дзӕуӕгигъӕу
Terek River view, Bai Gora in Kosta Khetagurov Park, Musical theatre, Dzaugu Búgulov statue, Sunni mosque at night, Lutheran church, Symbol of Vladikavkaz, Train station, Corner of Prospekt Mir and Gogol, Monument to Nart Soslan on Prospekt Mira, Learning Campus
Coat of arms of Vladikavkaz
Location of Vladikavkaz
Map
Vladikavkaz is located in North Ossetia–Alania
Vladikavkaz
Vladikavkaz
Location of Vladikavkaz
Vladikavkaz is located in European Russia
Vladikavkaz
Vladikavkaz
Vladikavkaz (European Russia)
Vladikavkaz is located in Europe
Vladikavkaz
Vladikavkaz
Vladikavkaz (Europe)
Coordinates: 43°02′24″N 44°40′39″E / 43.04000°N 44.67750°E / 43.04000; 44.67750
CountryRussia
Federal subjectNorth Ossetia–Alania[1]
FoundedMay 6, 1784[2]
City status since1860
Government
 • BodyAssembly of Representatives[3]
 • HeadBoris Albegov[4]
Area
 • Total291 km2 (112 sq mi)
Elevation
692 m (2,270 ft)
Population
 • Total311,693
 • Estimate 
(2018)[6]
306,258 (−1.7%)
 • Rank60th in 2010
 • Density1,100/km2 (2,800/sq mi)
 • Subordinated toVladikavkaz City Under Republic Jurisdiction[1]
 • Capital ofRepublic of North Ossetia–Alania[7]
 • Capital ofVladikavkaz City Under Republic Jurisdiction[1]
 • Urban okrugVladikavkaz Urban Okrug[8]
 • Capital ofVladikavkaz Urban Okrug[8]
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK Edit this on Wikidata[9])
Postal code(s)[10]
362000
Dialing code(s)+7 8672
OKTMO ID90701000001
City DaySeptember 25[citation needed]
Websitevladikavkaz-osetia.ru

Vladikavkaz,[b] formerly known as Ordzhonikidze (Орджоники́дзе) and also known as Dzaudzhikau (Дзауджикау), is the capital city of North Ossetia-Alania, Russia. It is located in the southeast of the republic at the foothills of the Caucasus, situated on the Terek River. The city's population was 295,830 as of the 2021 Census. As a result, Vladikavkaz is one of the most populous cities in the North Caucasus region.

The city is an industrial and transportation centre. Manufactured products include processed zinc and lead, machinery, chemicals, clothing and food products.

Etymology

The name Vladikavkaz, derived from the Russian language, literally means "ruler of the Caucasus". The Ossetian name Dzæwdžyqæw/Dzæwægighæw literally means "Dzaug's [ru] settlement".[14][15][16]

In 1911, Dmitry Rakovich [ru] wrote that the Ossetians prove that fortress was founded on the site of the Ingush village Zaur by the name of Vladikavkaz in the Ossetian language:[17]

"...by their name of Vladikavkaz Dzaudzhi-Kau, the Ossetians confirm this opinion, since Dzauag is a proper name Zaur, and Kau means a village; otherwise - the village of Zaur."

In 1931, at the suggestion of the Ingush Regional Executive Committee, the city of Vladikavkaz was renamed Ordzhonikidze in honor of the Soviet political and military leader Sergo Ordzhonikidze, who during the Civil War established Soviet power in the region.

In 1944, after the deportation of the Chechens and Ingush, the city of Ordzhonikidze was renamed the city of Dzaudzhikau, and in 1954 again Ordzhonikidze.[18] In 1990, the city acquired a double name, Vladikavkaz in Russian and Dzaudzhikau in Ossetian.

The second part of the name Dzaudzhikau, i.e Kau (village), is a cognate of the word āguv (village) in the Eastern Iranian language of Khotanese Saka and the Avestan gava (district)[19]

History

The city was founded in 1784 as a Russian fortress at the entrance to the Darial Gorge on the site of the Ingush village Zaur,[20][21][22] which had the purpose of serving as an outpost for the routes of communication between Russia and Georgia.[23] Russian Encyclopedia states that the Vladikavkaz fortress was built around Ingush settlements.[24]

The Georgian Military Highway, crossing the mountains, was constructed in 1799 to link the city with Georgia to the south, and in 1875 a railway was built to connect it to Rostov-on-Don and Baku in Azerbaijan. Vladikavkaz has become an important industrial centre for the region, with smelting, refining, chemicals and manufacturing industries. During the Russian Empire, the settlement was the administrative capital of the Vladikavkazsky Okrug of the Terek Oblast.

A monument in the city

The city is one of the largest in the Russian-controlled Caucasus, along with Grozny, and was the capital of the Mountain Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, a Soviet Republic established after the annexation of the Mountainous Republic of the North Caucasus. It existed from 1921 to 1924 and comprised most of the modern-day territories of Chechnya, North Ossetia and Kabardino-Balkaria.

Vladikavkaz was fought over in both the Russian Civil War and World War II. In February 1919, the anti-Communist Volunteer Army under General Anton Denikin seized the city, before being expelled by the Red Army in March 1920. In early November 1942, the forces of Nazi Germany tried unsuccessfully to seize the city but were repelled by the Soviet army. The Nazis left North Ossetia in January 1943.

On 26 November 2008, Vitaly Karayev, the mayor of Vladikavkaz was assassinated by an unidentified gunman.[25] On 31 December 2008, his successor, Kazbek Pagiyev, was also assassinated by unidentified gunmen.[citation needed]

Administrative and municipal status

Vladikavkaz is the capital of the republic.[7] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with six rural localities, incorporated as Vladikavkaz City Under Republic Jurisdiction—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, Vladikavkaz City Under Republic Jurisdiction is incorporated as Vladikavkaz Urban Okrug.[8]

Transportation

The city is served by the bus network (marshrutkas). There are also tram (since 1904) and trolleybus (since 1977) networks, plus the main Vladikavkaz railway station.

The city is served by Beslan Airport located about 9 kilometres from the city.

The Georgian Military Road, which is a part of European route E117, starts in Vladikavkaz and it connects the city with the South Caucasus.

Population

According to the 1917 publication of the Kavkazskiy kalendar, Vladikavkaz had 73,243 residents in 1916, the national composition was as follows:[26]

Nationality Number %
Russians[c] 46,876 64.0%
North Caucasians 8,539 11.7%
Armenians 8,326 11.4%
Other Europeans 6,139 8.4%
Shia Muslims 2,463 3.4%
Jews 798 1.1%
Roma 102 0.1%
TOTAL 73,243 100%

According to the results of the 2021 Census, the city population of Vladikavkaz was 311,338. The ethnic makeup of city's population was:[27]

Nationality Number %
Ossetians 190,539 69.7%
Russians 60,052 22.0%
Armenians 7,953 2.9%
Georgians 4,478 1.6%
Ingush 1,802 0.7%
Azerbaijanis 1,655 0.6%
Others 6,818 2.5%
No ethnicity stated 38,041
TOTAL 311,338 100%

Sports

Historical population
YearPop.±%
189744,000—    
192673,599+67.3%
1939130,755+77.7%
1959164,420+25.7%
1970236,200+43.7%
1979278,930+18.1%
1989300,198+7.6%
2002315,608+5.1%
2010311,693−1.2%
2021295,830−5.1%
Source: Census data

FC Spartak Vladikavkaz was an association football club based in Vladikavkaz, which won the Russian Premier League in 1995. The club folded in 2020, and was succeeded by FC Alania Vladikavkaz.

Vladikavkaz is home to one of the World's most prestigious Freestyle Wrestling academies, opened in February 2016:[28] The Wrestling Academy of Aslan Khadartsev - the biggest wrestling academy in the South of Russia.[29] It provides access to a number of facilities including a swimming pool, sauna, gym, personal dietitians, dorm rooms (which include a TV, comfortable beds, wardrobes, en-suite bathroom and showers),[30] for 45 athletes and the main training hall, consisting of six mats- this academy is capable of hosting 250 wrestlers at one time. There have been many Olympic, World and European champions training at the academy: Soslan Ramonov, Zaurbek Sidakov, Artur Naifonov, Chermen Valiev, Khetag Tsabolov are just some of the successful athletes in recent times to train and represent the academy. This academy is also home to the Freestyle team of North Ossetia, to ensure a high-level of preparation and coaching is given to aid success in international and domestic tournaments.

Notable structures

Mira avenue, Vladikavkaz
Vladikavkaz Railway station
M. Tuganov Art Museum

The Mukhtarov Mosque, built in 1906, dominates the city. In Vladikavkaz, there is a guyed TV mast, 198 meters (650 ft) tall, built in 1961, which has six crossbars with gangways in two levels running from the mast structure to the guys.

Education

Higher education

Religion

St. George's Orthodox Cathedral
Mukhtarov Mosque

The city's primary religion is Eastern Orthodox Christianity, which is followed by the majority of Ossetians, Russians and Georgians. The rest of the Ossetian population adheres to the next largest religion, Sunni Islam, and to Uatsdin, an Ossetian folk religion, which is followed by 29% of the population nationwide. The remainder follow Protestantism, Armenian Orthodoxy and other beliefs.

Twin towns and sister cities

Main article: List of twin towns and sister cities in Russia

Vladikavkaz bus station

Vladikavkaz is twinned with:

Geography

Climate

Vladikavkaz experiences a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb) with warm, wet summers and cold, drier winters (though very mild for Russia).

Climate data for Vladikavkaz (1991–2020, extremes 1881–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 21.1
(70.0)
23.0
(73.4)
30.3
(86.5)
34.0
(93.2)
37.2
(99.0)
38.0
(100.4)
37.5
(99.5)
39.2
(102.6)
38.2
(100.8)
33.5
(92.3)
28.7
(83.7)
27.2
(81.0)
39.2
(102.6)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 3.5
(38.3)
4.6
(40.3)
9.4
(48.9)
15.5
(59.9)
20.5
(68.9)
24.5
(76.1)
26.8
(80.2)
26.6
(79.9)
21.9
(71.4)
16.2
(61.2)
9.0
(48.2)
5.0
(41.0)
15.3
(59.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) −1.7
(28.9)
−0.9
(30.4)
3.9
(39.0)
9.6
(49.3)
14.8
(58.6)
18.7
(65.7)
21.2
(70.2)
20.8
(69.4)
16.1
(61.0)
10.5
(50.9)
3.8
(38.8)
−0.3
(31.5)
9.7
(49.5)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −5.2
(22.6)
−4.7
(23.5)
0.0
(32.0)
5.0
(41.0)
10.2
(50.4)
14.1
(57.4)
16.6
(61.9)
16.3
(61.3)
11.7
(53.1)
6.3
(43.3)
0.3
(32.5)
−3.8
(25.2)
5.6
(42.0)
Record low °C (°F) −27.2
(−17.0)
−27.8
(−18.0)
−22.5
(−8.5)
−10.2
(13.6)
−6.1
(21.0)
2.2
(36.0)
6.4
(43.5)
6.0
(42.8)
0.0
(32.0)
−10.0
(14.0)
−23.1
(−9.6)
−25.0
(−13.0)
−27.8
(−18.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 31
(1.2)
34
(1.3)
62
(2.4)
94
(3.7)
148
(5.8)
181
(7.1)
112
(4.4)
90
(3.5)
71
(2.8)
62
(2.4)
40
(1.6)
30
(1.2)
955
(37.4)
Average extreme snow depth cm (inches) 8
(3.1)
9
(3.5)
4
(1.6)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
1
(0.4)
5
(2.0)
9
(3.5)
Average rainy days 4 4 10 16 18 19 16 14 14 13 10 6 144
Average snowy days 12 13 11 2 0.2 0 0 0 0 1 7 10 56
Average relative humidity (%) 79 79 78 74 76 76 74 75 79 80 81 80 78
Mean monthly sunshine hours 105 111 125 149 187 203 207 199 163 147 112 105 1,813
Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net[31]
Source 2: Climatebase (sun 1910–2012)[32]

Notable people

Notes

  1. ^ Бекова et al. 2009, p. 191; Барахоева, Кодзоев & Хайров 2016, p. 21; Кодзоев 2021, p. 52;
     • Previously "Buru" (Ingush: Buru;[11][12] Буру[13]).
  2. ^ Russian: Владикавказ, IPA: [vlədʲɪkɐˈfkas]; Iron Ossetian: Дзӕуджыхъӕу, Dzæwjyqæw, IPA: [ˈd͡zɐwd͡ʒəqɐw]; Digor Ossetian: Дзӕуӕгигъӕу, Dzæwægighæw, IPA: [d͡zɐwɐɡiʁɐw]; Ingush: Буро, Buro[a]
  3. ^ The Kavkazskiy kalendar did not distinguish between Russians, Ukrainians, and Belarusians.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Law #34-RZ
  2. ^ Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 75. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9.
  3. ^ "Собрание представителей". vladikavkaz-osetia.ru. Archived from the original on April 21, 2017.
  4. ^ "Приветственное слово главы АМС г. Владикавказа". vladikavkaz-osetia.ru. Archived from the original on April 26, 2017.
  5. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  6. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  7. ^ a b Constitution of the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania
  8. ^ a b c Law #10-RZ
  9. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  10. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  11. ^ Мальсагов 1925, p. 181.
  12. ^ Ужахов 1927, p. 32.
  13. ^ Материалы по истории Владикавказа 2002, p. 28, «Власть труда» : газета / орган Владикавказского окружного комитета ВКП(б), Исполнительного комитета и Совета профсоюзов. Владикавказ, 1931, 4 сентября.
  14. ^ "История". Archived from the original on May 21, 2012. Retrieved May 28, 2012. the official Ossetic name>Дзæуджыхъæу (Dzæwdžyqæw)
  15. ^ region15.ru. "15-й РЕГИОН: Владикавказ". «15-й РЕГИОН». Archived from the original on April 22, 2017.((cite web)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  16. ^ "КОНСТИТУЦИЯ РЕСПУБЛИКИ СЕВЕРНАЯ ОСЕТИЯ - АЛАНИЯ (с изменениями на: 10.05.2017), Конституция Республики Северная Осетия - Алания от 12 ноября 1994 года". docs.cntd.ru. Archived from the original on September 28, 2016.
  17. ^ Ракович 1911, p. 3.
  18. ^ Materials on the history of Vladikavkaz, 2002 , p. thirty.
  19. ^ Bailey H. W. 1982. The Culture of the Sakas in Ancient Iranian Khotan. Delmar N.Y: Caravan Books. p.27
  20. ^ Терскій календарь 1895, p. 14.
  21. ^ "Торжество празднованія 50-летия основанія г. Владикавказа" [The celebration of the 50th anniversary of the founding of the city of Vladikavkaz]. Терские ведомости (in Russian). No. 75. Владикавказъ. April 5, 1911.

    "Сегодня мы празднуемъ 50-​летіе города Владикавказа. Раньше, на томъ мѣстѣ, гдѣ нынѣ расположенъ г. Владикавказъ, существовалъ ингушскій аулъ Зауръ​, но въ 1784 г., по распоряженію князя Потемкина​, на мѣстѣ, гдѣ существовалъ этотъ аулъ, для охраненія Военно-Грузинской дороги, служившей единственнымъ удобнымъ путемъ для соединенія съ Закавказьемъ, была устроена крѣпость Владикавказъ, а въ 1785 г. по указу Императрицы Екатерины II, отъ 9 мая, въ крѣпости была выстроена первая православная церковь. Какъ только была устроена эта крѣпость, часть осетинской народности спустилась съ горъ и поселилась у стѣнъ этой крѣпости, подъ защитою мѣстныхъ войскъ. Образовавшійся осетинскій аулъ сталъ называться «​Капкай», что въ переводѣ на русскій языкъ означаетъ «​Горные ворота»."

  22. ^ Ракович 1911, p. 3:

    "...на том месте, где стояло селение Зауръ, была воздвигнута русскими сильная Владикавказская крепость... В некоторых печатных источниках говорится, что Владикавказская крепость была построена на месте осетинского селения Капъ-Кой. Это не так. Правый берег Терека принадлежал, какъ это мы видили ингушамъ и кистамъ; не могли осетины на чужой земле враждебных имъ племен иметь свой аулъ; наконец своим наименованіем Владикавказа Дзауджи-Кау, осетины подтверждаютъ это мненіе, т. к. Дзауагъ — есть имя собственное Зауръ, а Кау — значитъ селеніе; иначе — селеніе Заура."

  23. ^ Ракович Д.В. «Прошлое Владикавказа» (1918)
  24. ^ Русская Энциклопедія 1913, p. 288 (as PDF).
  25. ^ "Europe | Southern Russia mayor gunned down". BBC News. November 26, 2008. Archived from the original on December 4, 2008. Retrieved April 25, 2010.
  26. ^ Кавказский календарь на 1917 год, pp. 226–237.
  27. ^ "Национальный состав населения". Rosstat. Retrieved August 21, 2023.
  28. ^ "Вячеслав Битаров посетил Академию борьбы им. Аслана Хадарцев | Спорт | Новости Владикавказа: последние новости Северной Осетии". www.vladikavkaznews.com. January 26, 2020. Archived from the original on February 12, 2022. Retrieved February 12, 2022.
  29. ^ "Об академии". wrestlingrso.ru. Archived from the original on August 2, 2021. Retrieved February 12, 2022.
  30. ^ "Услуги". wrestlingrso.ru. Archived from the original on January 18, 2022. Retrieved February 12, 2022.
  31. ^ "Погода и Климат – Климат Владикавказ" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Archived from the original on April 20, 2021. Retrieved November 12, 2021.
  32. ^ "Vladikavkaz, Osetia, Russia #37228". Climatebase. Archived from the original on March 3, 2022. Retrieved November 12, 2021.
  33. ^ "Saminsky, Lazare". Milken Archive of Jewish Music. Retrieved October 28, 2021.
  34. ^ "Кемурджиан Александр Леонович". vniitransmash.ru (in Russian). Mobile Vehicle Engineering Institute. Archived from the original on October 23, 2018. Retrieved June 13, 2020. Republished in "Кемурджиан Александр Леонович" (in Russian). Roscosmos. Archived from the original on January 6, 2020.
  35. ^ "Генерал Норат Тер-Григорьянц: "Я предложил создать военную базу России в Армении"" (in Russian). REGNUM News Agency. January 15, 2015. Archived from the original on April 8, 2021.

Bibliography

Sources

Documents

  • Верховный Совет Республики Северная Осетия. 12 ноября 1994 г. «Республика Северная Осетия-Алания. Конституция.», в ред. Конституционного Закона №5-РКЗ от 4 декабря 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в Конституцию Республики Северная Осетия–Алания». Вступил в силу 7 декабря 1994 г. Опубликован: брошюрой "Конституция Республики Северная Осетия–Алания". (Supreme Council of the Republic of North Ossetia. November 12, 1994 Republic of North Ossetia–Alania. Constitution., as amended by the Constitutional Law #5-RKZ of December 4, 2013 On Amending the Constitution of the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania. Effective as of December 7, 1994.).
  • Закон №34-РЗ от 9 июля 2007 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Республики Северная Осетия-Алания», в ред. Закона №44-РЗ от 12 ноября 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в Приложение к Закону Республики Северная Осетия–Алания "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Республики Северная Осетия–Алания" и Закон Республики Северная Осетия–Алания "Об установлении границ муниципального образования Алагирский район, наделении его статусом муниципального района, образовании в его составе муниципальных образований — городского и сельских поселений"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Северная Осетия", №148(24949), 16 августа 2007 г. (Law #34-RZ of July 9, 2007 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania, as amended by the Law #44-RZ of November 12, 2013 On Amending the Appendix to the Law of the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania" and the Law of the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania "On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formation of Alagirsky District, Granting It the Status of a Municipal District, Establishing Municipal Formations—Urban and Rural Settlements—Within Its Structure". Effective as of the official publication date.).
  • Закон №10-РЗ от 5 марта 2005 г. «Об установлении границ муниципального образования город Владикавказ, наделении его статусом городского округа», в ред. Закона №34-РЗ от 19 июля 2006 г «О внесении изменений в Закон Республики Северная Осетия-Алания "Об установлении границ муниципального образования город Владикавказ, наделении его статусом городского округа"». Вступил в силу 1 марта 2005 г. Опубликован: "Северная Осетия", №43 (24344), 15 марта 2005 г. (Law #10-RZ of March 5, 2005 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formation of the City of Vladikavkaz and On Granting It Urban Okrug Status, as amended by the Law #34-RZ of July 19, 2006 On Amending the Law of the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania "On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formation of the City of Vladikavkaz and On Granting It Urban Okrug Status". Effective as of March 1, 2005.).