|MGM-140 ATACMS (Army Tactical Missile System)|
Tactical ballistic missile
|Place of origin||United States|
|Unit cost||$820,000 (FY1998) (or ~$1,476,000 FY2022)|
|Mass||3,690 pounds (1,670 kg)|
|Length||13 feet (4.0 m)|
|Diameter||24 inches (610 mm)|
|Wingspan||55 inches (1.4 m)|
|Maximum firing range||190 mi (300 km)|
|Flight ceiling||160,000 ft (50 km)|
|Maximum speed||In excess of Mach 3 (0.6 mi/s; 1.0 km/s)|
|GPS-aided inertial navigation guidance|
The MGM-140 Army Tactical Missile System (ATACMS) is a tactical ballistic missile manufactured by the US defense company Lockheed Martin. It has a range of up to 190 miles (300 km), with solid propellant, and is 13 feet (4.0 m) high and 24 inches (610 mm) in diameter. The ATACMS can be fired from the tracked M270 Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS), and the wheeled M142 High Mobility Artillery Rocket System (HIMARS).
An ATACMS launch container has a lid patterned with six circles like a standard MLRS rocket lid, but contains only one missile – the identical pattern makes it more challenging for enemy intelligence to single it out as a high-value target.
The concept of a conventional tactical ballistic missile was made possible by the doctrinal shift of the late Cold War, which rejected the indispensability of an early nuclear strike on the Warsaw Pact forces in the event the Cold War went hot. The AirLand Battle and Follow-on Forces Attack doctrines, which emerged in the late 1970s and early 1980s, necessitated a conventional-armed, hence much more accurate, missile to strike enemy reserves, so the US Army Missile Command sponsored the Simplified Inertial Guidance Demonstrator (SIG-D) program.
Within this program, Ling-Temco-Vought developed a solid-fuel analog of the MGM-52 Lance missile, designated T-22, with a new RLG-based inertial guidance package which demonstrated unprecedented accuracy. In 1978, DARPA started the Assault Breaker technology demonstration program to attack armor formations with many mobile hard targets at standoff ranges. It utilized the T-22 missile and the Patriot-based Martin Marietta T-16 missile with cluster warheads.
Development of the missile now known as ATACMS started in 1980, when the U.S. Army decided to replace the Lance with a similar nuclear, but also chemical or biological, tipped solid-fuel missile dubbed the Corps Support Weapon System (CSWS). Concerned that two branches were developing too many similar missiles with different warheads, the Department of Defense merged the program with DARPA’s Assault Breaker in 1981, and with U.S. Air Force’s Conventional Standoff Weapon (CSW) in 1982–1983.
The new missile system, designated Joint Tactical Missile System (JTACMS), soon encountered USAF resistance to the idea of an air-launched ballistic missile. As a result, in 1984 the Air Force ended its participation in the non-cruise missile portion of the program, leading to the missile being re-designated as the Army Tactical Missile System (ATACMS).
In March 1986, Ling-Temco-Vought won the contract for the missile design. The system was assigned the MGM-140 designation. The first test launch came two years later, thanks to earlier experience of the company with previous programs.
The first use of the ATACMS in combat was during Operation Desert Storm in 1991, where 32 of the missiles were fired from the M270 MLRS. During Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2003, more than 450 missiles were fired. As of early 2015, over 560 ATACMS missiles had been fired in combat.
In 2007, the U.S. Army terminated the ATACMS program due to cost, ending the ability to replenish stocks. To sustain the remaining inventory, the ATACMS Service Life Extension Program (SLEP) was launched, which refurbishes or replaces propulsion and navigation systems, replaces cluster munition warheads with the unitary blast fragmentation warhead, and adds a proximity fuze option to obtain area effects. Deliveries were projected to start in 2018. The ATACMS SLEP is a bridging initiative to provide time to complete analysis and development of a successor capability to the aging ATACMS stockpile, which could be ready around 2022.
In January 2015, Lockheed Martin received a contract to develop and test new hardware for Block I ATACMS missiles to eliminate the risk of unexploded ordnance by 2016. The first modernized Tactical Missile System (TACMS) was delivered in September 2016 with updated guidance electronics and added capability to defeat area targets using a unitary warhead, without leaving behind unexploded ordnance. Lockheed was awarded a production contract for launch assemblies as part of the SLEP in August 2017. In 2021, Lockheed Martin was contracted to upgrade existing M39 munitions to the M57 variant with a WDU-18/B warhead from the Harpoon missile by 2024.
A plan announced in October 2016 to add an existing seeker to enable the ATACMS to strike moving targets on land and at sea was terminated in December 2020 to pursue other missile efforts.
There was speculation in August 2022 that ATACMS, among a number of possibilities, was used by Ukraine for attacks on Crimean airbases that month. On 24 August, Undersecretary of Defense For Policy, Colin Kahl said: "It's our assessment that they don't currently require ATACMS to service targets that are directly relevant to the current fight. You know, we'll obviously continue to have conversations with the Ukrainians about their needs, but it's our judgment at the moment that we should be focusing on GMLRS, not ATACMS." In February 2023 Laura Cooper, the Pentagon's top official for Russia and Ukraine, said ATACMS won't be sent, due to the US having too few of them. However, in late May 2023 President Biden said that ATACMS were "still in play" for Ukraine.
Another system suggested for Ukrainian use is the SAAB-Boeing GLSDB. This is a combination of the GBU-39 Small Diameter Bomb and the M26 rocket, an obsolete weapon of which there is an abundant stockpile. The amount to be allocated to each GLSDB of the development and production costs of Boeing and Saab is unknown. The price per unit for ATACMS is estimated to be well over $1M.
Main article: Precision Strike Missile
In March 2016, Lockheed Martin, Boeing, and Raytheon announced they would offer a missile to meet the U.S. Army's Long Range Precision Fires (LRPF) requirement to replace the ATACMS. The missile will use advanced propulsion to fly faster and farther, originally out to 310 miles or 500 kilometres, while also being thinner and sleeker, increasing the loadout to two per pod, doubling the number that can be carried by the M270 MLRS and M142 HIMARS launchers.
Lockheed and Raytheon were to test-fire their submissions for the renamed Precision Strike Missile (PrSM) program in 2019, with the selected weapon planned to achieve Initial Operational Capability in 2023. The initial PrSM will only be able to hit stationary targets on land, but later versions will track moving targets on land and sea. With the United States withdrawal from the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty in August 2019, it was announced that the range of the PrSM would be increased beyond the '499 km' limitation previously placed upon it by the treaty.
In June 2020, the Army had begun testing a new multi-mode seeker — an upgrade for the Precision Strike Missile. The missile will enter service in 2023. The upgraded seeker is expected to be part of a major program improvement planned for 2025. In July 2021, the U.S. announced that Australia had become a partner in the PrSM Program with the Australian Army, signing a memorandum of understanding for Increment 2 of the program with the US Army's Defense Exports and Cooperation agency, and contributed US$54 million. The United Kingdom announced its intentions to field the PrSM starting in 2024 as part of an upgrade to the British Army’s M270 MLRS.
((cite news)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)