RIM-162 Evolved SeaSparrow Missile (ESSM)
TypeMedium-range surface-to-air missile
Surface-to-surface missile[1]
Place of originUnited States
Service history
In service2004[1]
Used byAustralia, Canada, Chile, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Greece, Japan, Mexico, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Thailand, Turkey, and the US[2]
Production history
Unit cost
  • US$956,000 (FY2016)[3]
  • US$1,795,000 (FY2021) (average)
ProducedSeptember 1998
No. built2000th missile delivered 2 August 2012[4]
Mass620 lb (280 kg)
Length12 ft (3.66 m)
Diameter10 in (254 mm)
Warhead86 lb (39 kg) blast-fragmentation
Proximity fuze

EngineMk 134 Mod 0 solid fuel rocket
27 nmi+ (50 km+)[5]
Maximum speed Mach 4+[5]
  • Mk 41 VLS (RIM-162A/B)
  • Mk 48 VLS (RIM-162C)
  • Mk 56 VLS
  • Mk 57 VLS (RIM-162F)
  • Mk 29 box launcher (RIM-162D/G)[7]

The RIM-162 Evolved SeaSparrow Missile (ESSM) is a development of the RIM-7 Sea Sparrow missile used to protect ships from attacking missiles and aircraft.[8] ESSM is designed to counter supersonic maneuvering anti-ship missiles. ESSM also has the ability to be "quad-packed" in the Mark 41 Vertical Launch System, allowing up to four ESSMs to be carried in a single cell.


The original Sea Sparrow was an expedient design intended to provide short-range defensive fire in a system that could be deployed as rapidly as possible. The AIM-7 Sparrow was the simplest solution, as its radar guidance allowed it to be fired head-on at targets. The radar signal could be provided by mounting an aircraft radar on a trainable platform on a ship. In the years after its introduction, it was upgraded to follow improvements being made in the air-to-air Sparrow models used by the US Navy and US Air Force. The ultimate version in this line of weapons was the R model, which introduced a new dual-seeker homing system and many other upgrades. But this was passed over in favor of the AIM-120 AMRAAM, which offered much higher performance from a missile that was smaller and lighter. Development of the air-to-air Sparrow ended in the 1990s.

This left only the Sea Sparrow using the basic platform, and it no longer had to fit on aircraft. So instead of simply using the P and R models as they were, it was decided to dramatically upgrade the weapon as the Evolved SeaSparrow. The ESSM emerged as a completely new weapon, common only in name with the original, although using all of the same support equipment allowing it to be fit to ships already mounting the older models. Compared to the Sea Sparrow, ESSM has a larger, more powerful rocket motor, developed by Orbital ATK in cooperation with Nammo Raufoss, for increased range and agility, as well as upgraded aerodynamics using strakes and skid-to-turn. In addition, ESSM takes advantage of the latest missile guidance technology, with different versions for Aegis/AN/SPY-1, Sewaco/Active Phased Array Radar (APAR), and traditional target illumination all-the-way.

In the 2000s the NATO Seasparrow Project Office began planning an upgraded Block 2 version of the ESSM. In 2014 Canada pledged 200M CAD to underwrite their share of the Block 2's development cost.[9] ESSM Block 2 leverages the existing Block 1 rocket motor and features a dual-mode X band seeker, increased maneuverability, and other enhancements. Block 2 features enhanced communications systems that allow for mid-course guidance correction, which makes the missiles easy to network into the Navy's emerging Cooperative Engagement Capability.[10] Unlike Block 1, Block 2's active radar homing seeker will support terminal engagement without the launch ship's target illumination radars. The upgraded blast-fragmentation warhead was designed, developed and is being produced by Roketsan. The improved ESSM Block II will be fielded by the US Navy from 2020.[11][12]


Mk 29

An ESSM is launched from a Mk 29 launcher aboard USS Carl Vinson

The original launcher is Mark 29 Guided Missile Launching System Mod. 4 & 5 (Mk 29 GMLS Mod 4 & 5), which is developed from earlier models Mk 29 Mod 1/2/3 for Sea Sparrow. Mk 29 launchers provide on-mount stowage and launching capability for firing up to eight missiles in a self-contained environmentally controlled trainable launcher design.

Mk 41

A crane lifts an ESSM quadpack into a Mk 41 launcher aboard the guided-missile destroyer USS McCampbell
Mk 57 VLS

The Mark 41 Vertical Launching System is the primary launch system for the Evolved SeaSparrow Missile. The Mk 41 is deployed aboard destroyers and frigates, primarily of the United States and allied nations. The ESSM is quadpacked within a Mk 41 cell allowing a significantly increased missile load over SM-2.

Mk 48

In addition to the Mk 29 GMLS and Mk 41 VLS, the other primary launcher is Mk 48 VLS. The 2-cell module of Mk 48 makes the system very versatile and enables it to be installed on board in spaces that otherwise cannot be utilized. The weight of a 2-cell module of Mk 48 is 660 kg (1,450 lb; including empty canisters), 330 kg (725 lb) for exhaust system, and 360 kg (800 lb) for ship installation interfaces. Each canister of the Mk 48 VLS houses a single RIM-7VL (Vertically Launched) Sea Sparrow cell or two RIM-162 ESSM cells, though, with modification, other missiles can also be launched. There are a total of four models in the Mk 48 family, with Mod 0 & 1 housing either 2 RIM-7VL or 4 RIM-162 cells, Mod 2 housing either 16 RIM-7VL or 32 RIM-162 cells. Mod 0/1/2 are usually grouped into either a 16-cell module for RIM-7VL or a 32-cell module for RIM-162. Mod 3 fits into the StanFlex modules on Royal Danish Navy ships and can house either 6 RIM-7VL or 12 RIM-162 cells; the Danes now use the latter.

Vertical Missile Launcher Mk 48 GMVLS
Above deck
Mod # Width
Weight (kg)
incl. 16 RIM-7VLs incl. 32 RIM-162s
Above-deck Below-deck Above-deck Below-deck
Mod 0 228 127 478 15,128 814 29,568 408
Mod 1 173 132 465 12,464 814 26,020 408
Mod 2 477 417 474 16,834 814 30,482 408
Mod 3 366 271 473 7,272 476 11,340 476
Below deck
Missile Launching System
(1 per 16 cells, not required for Mod 3)
61 99 132 - - - -
Electrical Interface Unit
(1 per 4 cells, not required for Mod 3)
64 45 91 - - - -
Launching Controller
(1 per 8 cells, not required for Mod 3)
152 34 200 - - - -
ESSM Launching Controller
(1 per 16 cells, ESSM cells)
89 30 178 - - - -

Mk 56

The successor of the Mk 48 VLS is the Mark 56 Guided Missile Vertical Launching System (Mk 56 GMVLS) or simply Mk 56. In comparison to its predecessor, the Mk 56 utilizes a greater percentage of composite material, reducing the weight by more than 20%. The Mexican Navy will be one of the customers of the Mk 56, using an 8-cell launcher on their Sigma-class design frigates.[13]


Vertical Missile Launcher Mk 56 GMVLS
# of missiles 4 12 32 Launch controller
(1 per 16 missiles)
Width (cm) 173 366 477 94
Depth (cm) 132 271 417 34
Height (cm) 465 465 465 190
Weight (kg) w/ missiles 3,464 10,200 23,859 -
Weight (kg) w/
below deck launch controller
3,714 10,450 24,359 250

Mark 57 (Mk 57)

The Mk 57 Peripheral Vertical Launching System (PVLS), an evolution of Mk 41 VLS, is used on Zumwalt-class destroyers. It is designed to be installed on the ship periphery instead of centralized magazines. It comes in 4-cell launcher modules and provides backwards compatibility with existing missiles, while allowing new missiles with significantly increased propulsion and payloads.[14]



The AMRAAM-ER is an Extended Range upgrade to the AIM-120 AMRAAM missile for the NASAMS ground-based air defense system, which combines ESSM rocket motor with the AMRAAM two-stage seeker head.[15]

Operational history

The Australian frigate HMAS Ballarat firing two ESSMs in 2016

US operational evaluation was conducted in July 2002 aboard USS Shoup. Initial operational capability did not occur until later.[16]

In October 2003, at the USN Pacific Missile Range Facility near Hawaii, Australian frigate HMAS Warramunga conducted a successful firing of an ESSM. The firing was also the first operational use of the CEA Technologies CWI for guidance.[17][18]

In November 2003, approximately 200 nautical miles (370 km) from the Azores, the Royal Netherlands Navy (RNLN) frigate HNLMS De Zeven Provinciën conducted a live fire test of a single ESSM. This firing was the first ever live firing involving a full-size ship-borne active electronically scanned array (i.e. the APAR radar) guiding a missile using the Interrupted Continuous Wave Illumination (ICWI) technique in an operational environment.[19] As related by Jane's Navy International:

During the tracking and missile-firing tests, target profiles were provided by Greek-built EADS/3Sigma Iris PVK medium-range subsonic target drones. [...] According to the RNLN, ... "APAR immediately acquired the missile and maintained track until destruction". [...] These ground-breaking tests represented the world's first live verification of the ICWI technique.[20]

In August 2004, a German Navy Sachsen-class frigate completed a series of live missile firings at the Point Mugu missile launch range off the coast of California that included a total of 11 ESSM missile firings.[20] The tests included firings against target drones such as the Northrop BQM-74E Chukkar III and Teledyne Ryan BQM-34S Firebee I, as well as against missile targets such as the Beech AQM-37C and air-launched Kormoran 1 anti-ship missiles.[20]

Further live firings were performed by the RNLN frigate HNLMS De Zeven Provinciën in March 2005, again in the Atlantic Ocean approximately 180 nautical miles (330 km) west of the Azores.[20] The tests involved three live-firing events (two of which involved the ESSM) including firing a single SM-2 Block IIIA at an Iris target drone at long range, a single ESSM at an Iris target drone, and a two-salvo launch (with one salvo comprising two SM-2 Block IIIAs and the other comprising two ESSMs) against two incoming Iris target drones.[20]

All ESSM launches from De Zeven Provinciën and Sachsen-class frigates involved ESSMs quad-packed in a Mark 41 Vertical Launching System.

The first "kill" by the RIM-162D from a United States Navy carrier's Mk 29 launcher was achieved during a training exercise by USS John C. Stennis on 7 October 2008.[21]

On 14 May 2013, the ESSM intercepted a high-diving supersonic test target, demonstrating the ability to hit high-G maneuvering, low-velocity air threats, as well as surface targets. No software changes were needed to prove the ESSM's enhanced capability.[22]

On 30 August 2015, during the annual 'Co-operation Afloat Readiness and Training' ('CARAT') exercise, the ESSM was fired from the Royal Thai Navy Naresuan-class guided-missile frigate HTMS Naresuan and achieved a direct hit on a BQM-74E drone missile launched from the USN amphibious dock landing ship USS Germantown.[23]

On 9 October 2016, USS Mason fired one RIM-162 ESSM and two SM-2s to defend against two incoming Houthi anti-ship cruise missiles, potentially Chinese-built C-802 missiles. It is unknown if the RIM-162 was responsible for intercepting either of the missiles, but the incident marked the first time the ESSM was used in a combat situation.[24]

See also: USS Mason (DDG-87) § Attacks off the coast of Yemen

In 2018, the ESSM Block 2 passed its first live fire test, successfully intercepting a BQM-74E target drone using its active guidance seeker-head.[25]


The Spanish frigate Álvaro de Bazán launches an ESSM to intercept a simulated enemy missile during exercise Formidable Shield 2017

Source: US Navy—Fact File: Evolved Seasparrow Missile[26]

ESSM Consortium Members:

Foreign Military Sales (FMS):

See also


  1. ^ a b Evolved Seasparrow Missile Block 1 (ESSM) (RIM 162D)
  2. ^ "Bird in the hand: NATO gives fresh momentum to ESSM". Archived from the original on 30 March 2009. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
  3. ^ "Raytheon wins $177.9 million Navy order for 186 RIM-162 Evolved SeaSparrow shipboard missiles". 7 November 2016. Archived from the original on 14 October 2017. Retrieved 13 October 2017.
  4. ^ "Raytheon Evolved SeaSparrow program delivers 2,000th missile". Archived from the original on 26 October 2014. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
  5. ^ a b Raytheon RIM-162 ESSM Archived 3 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine Designation-Systems.net
  6. ^ "IDE wins ESSM Block 2 electronics contract | Jane's 360". Archived from the original on 3 August 2017. Retrieved 3 August 2017.
  7. ^ Raytheon. ESSM Mk-29 upgrade fact sheet Archived 27 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine. (PDF)
  8. ^ Raytheon Corporate Communications. "Raytheon ESSM product data sheet". Archived from the original on 26 October 2014. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
  9. ^ Pugliese, David. "Canada commits $200 million to development of next generation of Seasparrow missile". ottawacitizen.com. Ottawa Citizen. Archived from the original on 4 February 2019. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  10. ^ Rogoway, Tyler (2 November 2017). "Watch The Navy Fire Its New Evolved Sea Sparrow Block II Missile For The First Time". thedrive.com. The Drive. Archived from the original on 4 February 2019. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  11. ^ Greenert, Admiral Jonathan (18 September 2013). "Statement Before The House Armed Services Committee On Planning For Sequestration In FY 2014 And Perspectives Of The Military Services On The Strategic Choices And Management Review" (PDF). US House of Representatives. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 September 2013. Retrieved 21 September 2013.
  12. ^ Cevasco, Frank. "Evolved SEASPARROW Missile: The Evolution Continues" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 November 2016. Retrieved 24 May 2016.
  13. ^ "ESSM for Mexican Navy SIGMA 10514 POLA Surface Vessel". Archived from the original on 15 August 2018. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
  14. ^ Mk 57
  15. ^ Judson, Jen (4 October 2016). "Raytheon's Extended Range AMRAAM Missile Destroys Target in First Flight Test". www.defensenews.com. Sightline Media Group. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  16. ^ "ESSM completes OPEVAL with 'flying colors'" Archived 7 December 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Seapower, May 2003.
  17. ^ "Warramunga's ESSM firing success". Navy News. Archived from the original on 2 May 2004.
  18. ^ "Air Defence Discussion Board - ESSM Question". StrategyPage. 2003. Archived from the original on 21 November 2011. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
  19. ^ Jane's International Defence Review, February 2004, "Active phased array multifunction radars go live for missile firings"
  20. ^ a b c d e Jane's Navy International, October 2005, "Live firing tests rewrite the guiding principles"
  21. ^ "Stennis First with New ESSM". U.S. Navy. 10 October 2008. Archived from the original on 28 October 2008.
  22. ^ "ESSM Intercept of High-Diving Threat Proves Expanded Defensive Capability". PRNewswire.com. 14 May 2013. Archived from the original on 9 April 2015. Retrieved 4 April 2015.
  23. ^ "Naresuan class frigates of the Royal Thai Navy". Retrieved 24 October 2022.
  24. ^ "USS Mason Fired 3 Missiles to Defend From Yemen Cruise Missiles Attack". U.S. Naval Institute News. 12 October 2016. Archived from the original on 9 August 2018. Retrieved 13 October 2016.
  25. ^ Eckstein, Megan. "Evolved Seasparrow Missile Block 2 Successfully Intercepts Aerial Target in First Live Fire Test". news.usni.org. U.S. Naval Institute. Archived from the original on 4 February 2019. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  26. ^ Petty, Dan. "The US Navy -- Fact File: Evolved Seasparrow Missile (ESSM) (RIM 162D)". www.navy.mil. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 6 June 2018.
  27. ^ "Pohjanmaa-luokan korvetteihin ilmatorjuntaohjukset – verkkouutiset.fi". 21 February 2019. Archived from the original on 21 February 2019. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
  28. ^ "Finland buying Raytheon's ESSM for Squadron 2020 corvettes". navaltoday.com. 21 February 2019. Archived from the original on 21 February 2019. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
  29. ^ "POLA Sigma 10514 ARM Reformador Frigate Launched for Mexican Navy". Archived from the original on 3 December 2018. Retrieved 3 December 2018.