Graphic legend of Army Transformation[a]

The reorganization plan of the United States Army was implemented from 2006 to 2016 under the direction of the Brigade Modernization Command. This effort formally began in 2006 when General Peter Schoomaker (the 35th Army Chief of Staff) was given the support to move the Army from its Cold War divisional orientation to a full-spectrum capability with fully manned, equipped and trained brigades; this effort was completed by the end of 2016.[1] It has been the most comprehensive reorganization since World War II and included modular combat brigades, support brigades, and command headquarters, as well as rebalancing the active and reserve components.

The plan was first proposed in 1999 by Army Chief of Staff General Eric Shinseki but was bitterly opposed internally by the Army.[2]

Origin and initial design

Before Schoomaker's appointment, the Army was organized around large, mostly mechanized, divisions of around 15,000 soldiers each, with the aim of being able to fight in two major theatres simultaneously. Under the new plan, the Army would be organized around modular brigades of 3,000–4,000 soldiers, intended to deploy continuously in different parts of the world and to organize the Army closer to the way it fights.[citation needed]

An additional 30,000 soldiers were recruited as a short-term measure to ease the structural changes, although a permanent end-strength change was not expected because of fears of funding cuts. This forced the Army to pay for the additional personnel from procurement and readiness accounts. Up to 60% of the defense budget is spent on personnel; at the time, each 10,000 soldiers cost roughly US$1.4 billion annually.[citation needed]

In 2002, the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs held a key conference: the "Belfer Center Conference on Military Transformation". Co-sponsored by the United States Army War College and the Dwight D. Eisenhower National Security Series, on November 22 and 23, it brought together present and former defense officials and military commanders to assess the Department of Defense's progress in achieving a "transformation" of U.S. military capabilities.[3]

In 2004, the United States Army Forces Command (FORSCOM), which commands most active and reserve forces based in the Continental United States, was tasked with supervising the modular transformation of its subordinate structure.

In March 2004, a contract was awarded to Anteon Corporation (later a part of General Dynamics) to provide "Modularity Coordination Cells" (MCCs) to each transforming corps, division and brigade within FORSCOM. Each MCC contained a team of functional area specialists who provided direct, ground-level support to the unit. The MCCs were coordinated by the Anteon office in Atlanta, Georgia.

In 2007 a new deployment scheme known as Grow the Army was adopted that enabled the Army to carry out continuous operations.[4] The plan was modified several times including an expansion of troop numbers in 2007 and changes to the number of modular brigades. On 25 June 2013, plans were announced to disband 13 modular brigade combat teams (BCTs) and expand the remaining brigades with an extra maneuver battalion, extra fires batteries, and an engineer battalion.

In 2009 an "ongoing campaign of learning" was the capstone concept for force commanders, meant to carry the Army from 2016 to 2028.[5][6]

History of "Army Force Generation" (ARFORGEN)

The Secretary of the Army approved implementing "Army Force Generation" (ARFORGEN), a transformational force generation model, in 2006. ARFORGEN process diagram 2010 Army Posture Statement, Addendum F, Army Force Generation (ARFORGEN)[7]

ARFORGEN model concept development began in the summer of 2004 and received its final approval from the Army's senior leadership in early 2006.[8]

FORSCOM, Department of the Army AR 525-29 Military Operations, Army Force Generation, 14 Mar 2011[dead link]

In 2016 the Army force generation process ARFORGEN was sidelined because it relied mostly on the Active Army, in favor of the total force policy, which includes the Reserve and National Guard; in the new model, the total force could have fallen to 980,000 by 2018,[9] subject to DoD's Defense Strategic Guidance to the Joint Staff.[10]: note especially pp.1–3  By 15 June 2017, the Department of the Army approved an increase in the Active Army's end-strength from 475,000 to 476,000. The total Army end-strength increases to 1.018 million.[11]

Planning process, evolution, and transformation

The commander-in-chief directs the planning process, through guidance to the Army by the Secretary of Defense.[10] Every year, Army Posture Statements by the Secretary of the Army and the Chief of Staff of the Army summarize their assessment[b] of the Army's ability to respond to world events,[13][14] and also to transform for the future.[15] In support of transformation for the future, TRADOC, upon the advice of the Army's stakeholders, has assembled 20 warfighting challenges.[16] These challenges are under evaluation during annual Army warfighting assessments, such as AWA 17.1, held in October 2016. AWA 17.1 was an assessment by 5,000 US Soldiers, Special Operations Forces, Airmen, and Marines,[17] as well as by British, Australian, Canadian, Danish, and Italian troops.[18][19][20][21] For example, "reach-back" is among the capabilities being assessed; when under attack in an unexpected location, a Soldier on the move might use Warfighter Information Network-Tactical (WIN-T). At the halt, a light Transportable Tactical Command Communications (T2C2 Lite) system[22]: p.356 [23][24][25][26] could reach back to a mobile command post, to communicate the unexpected situation to higher echelons,[27][28] a building block in multi-domain operations.[29][30][31][32][32]

Implementation and current status

Grow the Army was a transformation and re-stationing initiative of the United States Army which began in 2007 and was scheduled to be completed by fiscal year 2013. The initiative was designed to grow the army by almost 75,000 soldiers, while realigning a large portion of the force in Europe to the continental United States in compliance with the 2005 Base Realignment and Closure suggestions. This grew the force from 42 Brigade Combat Teams (BCTs) and 75 modular support brigades in 2007 to 45 Brigade Combat Teams and 83 modular support brigades by 2013.

On 25 June 2013, 38th Army Chief of Staff General Raymond T. Odierno announced plans to disband 13 brigade combat teams and reduce troop strengths by 80,000 soldiers. While the number of BCTs will be reduced, the size of remaining BCTs will increase, on average, to about 4,500 soldiers. That will be accomplished, in many cases, by moving existing battalions and other assets from existing BCTs into other brigades. Two brigade combat teams in Germany had already been deactivated and a further 10 brigade combat teams slated for deactivation were announced by General Odierno on 25 June. (An additional brigade combat team was announced for deactivation 6 November 2014.) At the same time the maneuver battalions from the disbanded brigades will be used to augment armored and infantry brigade combat teams with a third maneuver battalion and expanded brigades fires capabilities by adding a third battery to the existing fires battalions. Furthermore, all brigade combat teams—armored, infantry and Stryker—will gain a Brigade Engineer Battalion, with "gap-crossing" and route-clearance capability.[33]

On 6 November 2014, it was reported that the 1st Armored Brigade Combat Team, 2nd Infantry Division, currently stationed in South Korea, was to be deactivated in June 2015 and be replaced by a succession of U.S.-based brigade combat teams, which are to be rotated in and out, at the same nine-month tempo as practiced by the Army from 2001 to 2014.[34]

Eleven brigades were inactivated by 2015. The remaining brigades as of 2015 are listed below. On 16 March 2016, the Deputy Commanding General (DCG) of FORSCOM announced that the brigades would now also train to move their equipment to their new surge location as well as to train for the requirements of their next deployment.[35][36][37][38]

By 2018, 23rd Secretary of the Army Mark Esper noted that even though the large deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan had ceased, at any given time, three of the Armored Brigade Combat Teams are deployed to EUCOM, CENTCOM, and INDOPACOM, respectively, while two Infantry Brigade Combat Teams are deployed to Iraq, and Afghanistan, respectively.[39]

[At any given time,] there are more than 100,000 Soldiers deployed around the world —23rd Secretary of the Army Mark Esper[39]

In 2019 the 23rd Secretary of the Army asserted that the planning efforts, including Futures Command, the SFABs, and the Decisive Action readiness training of the BCTs are preparing the Army for competition with both near-peer and regional powers.[40][41] The Army and Marine Corps have issued "clear explanations and guidance for the 429 articles of the Geneva Conventions".[42][43]

The Budget Control Act could potentially restrict funds by 2020.[55] By 2024–2025, the Fiscal Year Development Plan (FYDP) will have reallocated $10 billion more into development of the top 6 modernization priorities,[c] taking those funds from legacy spending budgets.[56]

Reorganization plans by unit type

The Army has now been organized around modular brigades of 3,000–4,000 soldiers each, with the aim of being able to deploy continuously in different parts of the world, and effectively organizing the Army closer to the way it fights. The fact that this modernization is now in place has been acknowledged by the renaming of the 'Brigade Modernization Command' to the "U.S. Army Joint Modernization Command," on 16 February 2017.[1]

By 2021 the Army of 2030 was envisioned to consist of Brigades for the close fight, Divisions for Large scale combat operations, Corps for enduring, sustained operations, and Theater-scale commands.[57][58] See Transformation of the United States Army[a]

Modular combat brigades

Main article: Brigade combat team

Modular combat brigades are self-contained combined arms formations.[66][67] They are standardized formations across the active and reserve components, meaning an Armored BCT at Fort Cavazos is the same as one at Fort Stewart.[d]

Reconnaissance plays a large role in the new organizational designs. The Army felt the acquisition of the target was the weak link in the chain of finding, fixing, closing with, and destroying the enemy. The Army felt that it had already sufficient lethal platforms to take out the enemy and thus the number of reconnaissance units in each brigade was increased.[e] The brigades sometimes depend on joint fires from the Air Force and Navy to accomplish their mission. As a result, the amount of field artillery has been reduced in the brigade design.

The three types of BCTs are Armored Brigade Combat Teams (ABCTs), Infantry Brigade Combat Teams (IBCTs) (includes Light, Air Assault and Airborne units), and Stryker Brigade Combat Teams (SBCTs).

Armored Brigade structure

Armored Brigade Combat Teams, or ABCTs consist of 4,743 troops. This includes the third maneuver battalion as laid out in 2013. The changes announced by the U.S. army on 25 June 2013,[33] include adding a third maneuver battalion to the brigade, a second engineer company to a new Brigade Engineer Battalion, a third battery to the FA battalion, and reducing the size of each battery from 8 to 6 guns. These changes will also increase the number of troops in the affected battalions and also increase the total troops in the brigade. Since the brigade has more organic units, the command structure includes a deputy commander (in addition to the traditional executive officer) and a larger staff capable of working with civil affairs, special operations, psychological operations, air defense, and aviation units. An Armored BCT consists of:

Infantry Brigade structure

Infantry Brigade Combat Team, or IBCTs, comprised around 3,300 soldiers, in the pre-2013 design, which did not include the 3rd maneuver battalion. The 2013 end-strength is now 4,413 Soldiers:

Stryker Brigade structure

Stryker Brigade Combat Team or SBCTs comprised about 3,900 soldiers, making it the largest of the three combat brigade constructs in the 2006 design, and over 4,500 Soldiers in the 2013 reform. Its design includes:

Modular support brigades

Combat support brigades

Heavy Combat Aviation Brigade Structure
Full Spectrum Combat Aviation Brigade Structure

Similar modularity will exist for support units which fall into five types: Aviation, Fires (artillery), Battlefield Surveillance (intelligence), Maneuver Enhancement (engineers, signal, military police, chemical, and rear-area support), and Sustainment (logistics, medical, transportation, maintenance, etc.). In the past, artillery, combat support, and logistics support only resided at the division level and brigades were assigned those units only on a temporary basis when brigades transformed into "brigade combat teams" for particular deployments.

Combat Aviation Brigades are multi-functional, offering a combination of attack helicopters (i.e., Boeing AH-64 Apache), reconnaissance helicopters (i.e., OH-58 Kiowa), medium-lift helicopters (i.e., UH-60 Black Hawk), heavy-lift helicopters (i.e., CH-47 Chinook), and medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) capability. Aviation will not be organic to combat brigades but will continue to reside at the division-level due to resource constraints.

Heavy divisions (of which there are six) will have 48 Apaches, 38 Blackhawks, 12 Chinooks, and 12 Medevac helicopters in their aviation brigade. These are divided into two aviation attack battalions, an assault lift battalion, a general aviation support battalion. An aviation support battalion will have headquarters, refuelling/resupply, repair/maintenance, and communications companies.[72] Light divisions will have aviation brigades with 60 armed reconnaissance helicopters and no Apaches, with the remaining structure the same. The remaining divisions will have aviation brigades with 30 armed reconnaissance helicopters and 24 Apaches, with the remaining structure the same. Ten Army Apache helicopter units will convert to heavy attack reconnaissance squadrons, with 12 RQ-7B Shadow drones apiece.[69][73] The helicopters to fill out these large, combined-arms division-level aviation brigades comes from aviation units that used to reside at the corps-level.

Fires Brigade Structure

Field Artillery Brigades (known as "Fires Brigades" prior to 2014) provide traditional artillery fire (M109 Paladin self-propelled howitzer, M270 MLRS and HIMARS rocket artillery) as well as information operations and non-lethal effects capabilities. After the 2013 reform, the expertise formerly embodied in the pre-2007 Division Artillery (DIVARTY) was formally re-instituted in the Division Artillery (DIVARTY) of 2015, with a colonel as commander.[74] The operational Fires battalions will now report to this new formulation of DIVARTY, for training and operational Fires standards, as well as to the BCT.[75][76]

Air Defense: The Army was no longer to provide an organic air defense artillery (ADA) battalion to its divisions as of 2007. Nine of the ten active component (AC) divisional ADA battalions and two of the eight reserve (ARNG) divisional ADA battalions will deactivate. The remaining AC divisional ADA battalion along with six ARNG divisional ADA battalions will be pooled at the Unit of Employment to provide on-call air and missile defense (AMD) protection. The pool of Army AMD resources will address operational requirements in a tailorable and timely manner without stripping assigned AMD capability from other missions. Maneuver short-range air defense (MSHORAD)[77] with laser cannon prototypes fielding by 2020.[78] But by 2015 the Division Artillery was restored.

Maneuver Enhancement Brigades are designed to be self-contained, and will command units such as chemical, military police, civil affairs units, and tactical units such as a maneuver infantry battalion. These formations are designed so that they can operate with coalition, or joint forces such as the Marine Corps, or can span the gap between modular combat brigades and other modular support brigades.[f]

Combat Sustainment Brigade Structure

Sustainment Brigades provide echelon-above-brigade-level logistics.[80] On its rotation to South Korea, 3rd ABCT, 1st Armored Division deployed its supply support activity (SSA) common authorized stockage list (CASL)[81] as well.[82] The CASL allows the ABCT to draw additional stocks beyond its pipeline of materiel from GCSS-A.[82] The DoD-level Global Combat Support System includes an Army-level tool (GCSS-A), which runs on tablet computers with bar code readers which 92-A specialists use to enter and track materiel requests, as the materiel makes its way through the supply chain to the brigades.[83] This additional information can then be used by GCSS-A to trigger resupply for Army pre-positioned stocks, typically by sea.[83][84]: p.12  The data in GCSS-Army is displayed on the Commander's Dashboard —Army Readiness-Common Operating Picture (AR-COP); this dashboard is also available to the commander at BCT, division, corps, and Army levels.[85]

Battlefield Surveillance Brigade Structure

The former Battlefield Surveillance Brigades,[86] now denoted Military Intelligence Brigades (Expeditionary), will offer additional UAVs and long-term surveillance detachments.[87] Each of the three active duty brigades is attached to an Army Corps.[86]

Maneuver Enhancement Brigade Structure

Security Force Assistance Brigades

Security force assistance brigades (SFABs) are brigades whose mission is to train, advise, and assist (TAA) the armed forces of other states. The SFAB are neither bound by conventional decisive operations nor counter-insurgency operations. Operationally, a 500-soldier SFAB would free-up a 4500-soldier BCT from a TAA mission. On 23 June 2016 General Mark Milley revealed plans for train/advise/assist Brigades, consisting of seasoned officers and NCOs with a full chain of command,[88]: Minute 18:40/1:00:45  but no junior Soldiers. In the event of a national emergency the end-strengths of the SFABs could be augmented with new soldiers from basic training and advanced individual training.[88]

An SFAB was projected to consist of 500 senior officers and NCOs, which, the Army says, could act as a cadre to reform a full BCT in a matter of months.[89] In May 2017, the initial SFAB staffing of 529 soldiers was underway, including 360 officers. The officers will have had previous command experience.[88]: 21:20  Commanders and leaders will have previously led BCTs at the same echelon.[90] The remaining personnel, all senior NCOs, are to be recruited from across the Army.[91][92][93] Promotable E-4s who volunteer for the SFAB are automatically promoted to Sergeant upon completion of the Military Advisor Training Academy.[94] A team of twelve soldiers would include a medic, personnel for intelligence support, and air support,[95] as cited by Keller.[96][97]

These SFABs would be trained in languages, how to work with interpreters,[98] and equipped with the latest equipment[99] such as Integrated Tactical Network (ITN)[100] using T2C2 systems[101][102] including secure, but unclassified, communications[103] and weapons to support coalition partners,[104] as well as unmanned aircraft systems (UASs).[105] The first five SFABs would align with the Combatant Commands (SOUTHCOM, AFRICOM, CENTCOM, EUCOM, and USINDOPACOM, respectively);[57] an SFAB could provide up to 58 teams (possibly with additional Soldiers for force protection).[104]

Funding for the first two SFABs was secured in June 2017.[11] By October 2017, the first of six planned SFABs (the 1st Security Force Assistance Brigade)[106] was established at Fort Moore.[107][88]: minute 50:00  On 16 October 2017, BG Brian Mennes of Force Management in the Army's G3/5/7 announced accelerated deployment of the first two SFABs, possibly by Spring 2018 to Afghanistan and Iraq, if required.[104] This was approved in early July 2017, by the 27th Secretary of Defense and the 39th Chief of Staff of the Army. On 8 February 2018, 1st SFAB held an activation ceremony at Fort Moore, revealing its colors and heraldry for the first time, and then cased its colors for the deployment to Afghanistan.[108] 1st Security Force Assistance Brigade deployed to Afghanistan in spring 2018.[109]

On 8 December 2017, the Army announced the activation of the 2nd Security Force Assistance Brigade,[110] for January 2018, the second of six planned SFABs. The SFAB are to consist of about 800 senior and noncommissioned officers who have served at the same echelon, with proven expertise in advise-and-assist operations with foreign security forces. Fort Liberty was chosen as the station for the second SFAB[111] in anticipation of the time projected to train a Security Force Assistance Brigade.[110] On 17 January 2018 39th Chief of Staff Mark Milley announced the activation of the third SFAB.[96] 2nd SFAB undergoes three months of training beginning October 2018, to be followed by a Joint Readiness Training Center Rotation beginning January 2019, and deployment in spring 2019.[112] The 3rd, 4th, and 5th SFABs are to be stationed at Fort Cavazos, Fort Carson, and Joint Base Lewis-McChord, respectively;[113] the headquarters of the 54th Security Force Assistance Brigade, made up from the Army National Guard, will be in Indiana, one of six states to contribute an element of 54th SFAB.[114] It is likely that these brigades will be seeing service within United States Central Command.[115][116]

The Security Force Assistance Command (SFAC), a one-star division-level command[117] and all six SFABs will be activated by 2020.[31] The Security Force Assistance Directorate, a one-star Directorate for the SFABs, is part of FORSCOM in Fort Liberty. SFAD will be responsible for the Military Advisor Training Academy as well.[118][119] The 1st SFAB commander was promoted to Brigadier General in Gardez, Afghanistan on 18 August 2018.[120] The 2nd SFAB commander was promoted to Brigadier General 7 September 2018.[121] SFAC and 2nd SFAB were activated in a joint ceremony at Fort Liberty on 3 December 2018.[117] 2nd SFAB deployed to Afghanistan in February 2019.[122][123] 3rd SFAB activated at Fort Hood on 16 July 2019;[124] 3rd SFAB will relieve 2nd SFAB in Afghanistan for the Winter 2019 rotation.[125]

Security Assistance is part of The Army Strategy 2018's Line of Effort 4: "Strengthen Alliances and Partnerships".[31] The Security Assistance Command is based at Redstone Arsenal[126] (but the SFAC is based at Fort Liberty).[117]

Army Field Support Brigades

Army Field Support Brigades (AFSBs) have been utilized to field materiel in multiple Combatant Command's Areas of Responsibility (AORs).[127] [84]: p22-27 and p.77–78  Initially 405th AFSB prepositioned stocks for a partial brigade; eventually, the 405th was to field materiel for an ABCT, a Division headquarters, a Fires Brigade, and a Sustainment Brigade in their AOR, which required multinational agreements.[128] Similarly, 401st AFSB configured materiel for an ABCT in their AOR as well. The objective has been combat configuration: maintain their vehicles to support a 96-hour readiness window for a deployed ABCT on demand.[129] In addition, 403rd Army Field Support Brigade maintains prepositioned stocks for their AOR.

Command headquarters

Below the Combatant Commands echelon, Division commands will command and control their combat and support brigades.[130] Divisions will operate as plug-and-play headquarters commands (similar to corps) instead of fixed formations with permanently assigned units. Any combination of brigades may be allocated to a division command for a particular mission, up to a maximum of four combat brigades. For instance, the 3rd Infantry Division headquarters could be assigned two armor brigades and two infantry brigades based on the expected requirements of a given mission. On its next deployment, the same division may have one Stryker brigade and two armor brigades assigned to it. The same modus operandi holds true for support units. The goal of reorganization with regard to logistics is to streamline the logistics command structure[131] so that combat service support can fulfill its support mission more efficiently.[132][133]

The division headquarters itself has also been redesigned as a modular unit that can be assigned an array of units and serve in many different operational environments.[134] The new term for this headquarters is the UEx (or Unit of Employment, X). The headquarters is designed to be able to operate as part of a joint force, command joint forces with augmentation, and command at the operational level of warfare (not just the tactical level). It will include organic security personnel and signal capability plus liaison elements. As of March 2015, nine of the ten regular Army division headquarters, and two national guard division headquarters are committed in support of Combatant Commands.[13]: Executive Summary [135][136]

When not deployed, the division will have responsibility for the training and readiness of a certain number of modular brigades units. For instance, the 3rd Infantry Division headquarters module based at Fort Stewart, GA is responsible for the readiness of its combat brigades and other units of the division (that is, 3rd ID is responsible for administrative control —ADCON of its downtrace units), assuming they have not been deployed separately under a different division.

The re-designed headquarters module comprises around 1,000 soldiers including over 200 officers. It includes:

Divisions will continue to be commanded by major generals, unless coalition requirements require otherwise. Regional army commands (e.g. 3rd Army, 7th Army, 8th Army) will remain in use in the future but with changes to the organization of their headquarters designed to make the commands more integrated and relevant in the structure of the reorganized Army, as the chain of command for a deployed division headquarters now runs directly to an Army service component command (ASCC), or to FORSCOM.[134]

In January 2017, examples of pared-down tactical operations centers, suitable for brigades and divisions, were demonstrated at a command post huddle at Fort Bliss. The huddle of the commanders of FORSCOM, United States Army Reserve Command, First Army, I and III Corps, 9 of the Active Army divisions, and other formations discussed standardized solutions for streamlining command posts.[137] The Army is paring-down the tactical operations centers, and making them more agile,[130][138][139][140] to increase their survivability.[76][141][142] By July 2019 battalion command posts have demonstrated jump times of just over 3 hours, at the combat training centers, repeated 90 to 120 times in a rotation.[143][144][145] The C5ISR center of CCDC ran a series of experiments (Network Modernization Experiment 2020 — NetModX 20) whether using LTE for connecting nodes in a distributed Command post environment was feasible, from July to October 2020.[146][147][148][149][150]

Training and readiness

Under Schoomaker, combat training centers (CTCs) emphasized the contemporary operating environment (such as an urban, ethnically-sensitive city in Iraq) and stress units according to the unit mission and the commanders' assessments, collaborating often to support holistic collective training programs, rather than by exception as was formerly the case.

Schoomaker's plan was to resource units based on the mission they are expected to accomplish (major combat versus SASO, or stability and support operations), regardless of component (active or reserve). Instead of using snapshot readiness reports, the Army now rates units based on the mission they are expected to perform given their position across the three force pools ('reset', 'train/ready', and 'available').[151] The Army now deploys units upon each commanders' signature on the certificate of their unit's assessment (viz., Ready). As of June 2016, only one-third of the Army's brigades were ready to deploy.[152][153]: 5:55  By 2019, two-thirds of the Active Army's brigades[154] and half of the BCTs of the Total Army (both Active and Reserve components) are now at the highest level of readiness.[155] The FY2021 budget request allows two-thirds of the Total Army (1,012,200 Soldiers by 2022) to reach the highest level of readiness by FY2022 —Maj. Gen. Paul Chamberlain.[156][157]

Soldiers need to be ready[g] 100 percent of the time

Robert B. Abrams, FORSCOM commander, June 2, 2016[9]

39th Chief of Staff Mark Milley's readiness objective is that all operational units be at 90 percent of the authorized strength in 2018, at 100 percent by 2021, and at 105 percent by 2023.[158][159] The observer coach/trainers[160] at the combat training centers, recruiters,[161][162] and drill sergeants are to be filled to 100 percent strength by the end of 2018.[158][163] In November 2018, written deployability standards (Army Directive 2018–22) were set by the Secretary and the Chief of Staff of the Army; failure to meet the standard means a soldier has six months to remedy this, or face separation from the Army.[164] The directive does not apply to about 60,000 of the 1,016,000 Soldiers of the Army; 70–80 percent of the 60,000 are non-deployable for medical reasons. Non-deployables have declined from 121,000 in 2017.[164] The Army combat fitness test (ACFT) will test all soldiers;[165] at the minimum, the 3-Repetition Maximum Deadlift, the Sprint-Drag-Carry and an aerobic event will be required of all soldiers, including those with profiles (meaning there is an annotation in their record See: PULHES Factor); the assessment of the alternative aerobic test will be completed by 19 October 2019.[166]

Soldier and Family Readiness Groups

By 2022 surveys of military servicemen, veterans, and spouses and family were indicating that financial and other difficulties were raising questions about the viability of an all-volunteer force.[167][168]

Soldiers and Army spouses belong to Soldier and Family Readiness Groups (SFRGs),[169][170][g] renamed from (FRGs)[173] which mirror the command structure of an Army unit—the spouse of the 40th Chief of Staff of the United States Army has served on the FRG at every echelon of the Army.[174]: Ryan McCarthy, minute 39:33  The name change to SFRG is to be more inclusive of single soldiers, single parents, and also those with nontraditional families.[170] An S/FRG seeks to meet the needs of soldiers and their families, for example during a deployment,[175] or to address privatized housing deficiencies,[176] or to aid spouses find jobs.[177] As a soldier transfers in and out of an installation, the soldier's entire family will typically undergo a permanent change of station (PCS) to the next post. PCS to Europe and Japan is now uniformly for 36 months, regardless of family status[178][179] (formerly 36 months for families). Transfers typically follow the cycle of the school year to minimize disruption in an Army family.[180] By policy, DoD families stationed in Europe and Japan who have school-aged children are served by American school systems— the Department of Defense Dependents Schools.[181] Noncombatant evacuation operations are a contingency which an FRG could publicize and plan for, should the need arise.[84]: p.11  In 2021, a new Exceptional Family Member Program (EFMP) is being tested by 300 families who are undergoing a permanent change of station (PCS).[182]

When a family emergency occurs, the informal support of that unit's S/FRG is available to the soldier.[175][183] (But the Army Emergency Relief fund is available to any soldier with a phone call to their local garrison.[184][185][186] Seventy-five Fisher Houses maintain home-away-from-home suites for families undergoing medical treatment of a loved one. The Army, Navy, and Air Force Medical Treatment Facilities (MTFs) are scheduled to complete their transfer to the Defense Health Agency (DHA) no later than 21 October 2021. This has been a ten-year process. The directors of each home installation's Medical treatment facility (MTF) continue to report to the commanders of their respective installations. This change transfers all civilian employees of each Medical treatment facility (MTF) to the Defense Health Agency (DHA).[187][188]) The name change links Soldier Readiness with Family Readiness.[173] Commanders will retain full responsibility for Soldier sponsorship after a move, especially for first term Soldiers in that move.[189][190]

In response to Army tenant problems with privatized base housing, IMCOM was subordinated to Army Materiel Command (AMC) on 8 March 2019.[191][192][193] By 2020, AMC's commander and the Residential community initiative (RCI) groups had formulated a 50-year plan. The Army's RCI groups, "seven private housing companies, which have 50-year lease agreements" on 98% of Army housing at 44 installations, will work with the Army for long-term housing improvements,[194][195][196] and remediation.[193][197][198]

In 2020 Secretary McCarthy determined that the Sexual Harassment/Assault Response & Prevention (SHARP) program has failed to meet its mandate,[199] particularly for young unmarried Soldiers at Fort Hood and Camp Casey, South Korea.[200] Missing soldiers were previously classified as Absent without leave until enough time has elapsed to be denoted deserters, rather than victims of a crime; the Army has established a new classification for missing Soldiers, to merit police investigation.[201][202][203]

In response to the report of the Fort Hood Independent Review Committee, the Army has established the People first task force (PFTF), an Army-wide task force that is headed by 3 chairs: 1) Lt. Gen. Gary M. Brito, 2) Diane M. Randon, and 3) Sgt. Maj. Julie A.M. Guerra, who are: 1) the deputy chief of staff G-1, 2) the assistant deputy chief of staff G-2, and 3) the assistant deputy chief of staff G-2 Sgt. Maj. respectively.[204] Cohesion assessment teams (CATs), part of the People first task force, work with brigade commanders on their brigade's command climate. The Cohesion assessment team interviews members of that brigade or battalion, to identify any problems. The CAT then works with the unit commanders to address the root causes of those problems.[205] On 13 May 2022 Fort Hood's People First Center opened its doors; the center is to offer immersive experiences for participants over several days, centered on "family advocacy, sexual harassment and assault prevention, equal opportunity, resiliency, substance abuse, suicide [prevention][206] (The Senate Armed Services Committee is requesting that the military track suicides by MOS.),[207] and spiritual readiness ... all housed at the center with training focused on immersion", collocated with subject matter experts.[208][190]

USAR mobilization

See: Soldier Readiness Processing

Plans are being formulated for mobilization of the Army Reserve (42,000 to 45,000 soldiers) very quickly.[209] For example, 'Ready Force X' (RFX) teams have fielded Deployment Assistance Team Command and Control Cells to expedite the associated equipment to the various ports and vessels which is required for the specific Reserve personnel who have been notified that they are deploying.[210] FORSCOM's mobilization and force generation installations (MFGIs) have fluctuated from two primary[211][212] installations (2018) to an envisioned eleven primary and fourteen contingency MFGIs, in preparation for future actions against near-peers.[213][214] [215][32]

National Guard training

The 29th chief of the National Guard Bureau, as director of the Army National Guard, plans to align existing ARNG divisions with subordinate training formations.[216] This plan increases the number of divisions in the Total Army from 10 to 18, and increases the readiness of the National Guard divisions, by aligning their training plans with large-scale combat operations.[216] Additional advantages of the August 2020 plan are increased opportunity for talent management, from the Company to the Division level, and opportunity for leader development unfettered by geographical restriction.[32][217][218]

"Associated units" training program

The Army announced a pilot program, 'associated units', in which a National Guard or Reserve unit would now train with a specific active Army formation. These units would wear the patch of the specific Army division before their deployment to a theater;[219] 36th Infantry Division headquarters deployed to Afghanistan in May 2016 for a train, advise, assist mission.[220]

The Army Reserve, whose headquarters are co-located with FORSCOM, and the National Guard, are testing the associated units program in a three-year pilot program with the active Army. The program will use the First Army training roles at the Army Combat Training Centers at Fort Irwin, Fort Polk, and regional and overseas training facilities.[221]

The pilot program complements FORSCOM's total force partnerships with the National Guard, begun in 2014.[222] Summer 2016 will see the first of these units.

Rifleman training

Soldiers train for weapons handling, and marksmanship first individually, on static firing ranges, and then on simulators such as an Engagement Skills Trainer (EST). More advanced training on squad level simulators (Squad Advanced Marksmanship-Trainer (SAMT)) place a squad in virtual engagements against avatars of various types,[225] using M4 carbine, M249 light machine gun and M9 Beretta pistol simulated weapon systems.[225] Home stations are to receive Synthetic training environments (STEs) for mission training, as an alternative to rotations to the National Combat Training Centers, which operate Brigade-level training against an Opposing force (OPFOR) with near-peer equipment.

Some installations have urban training facilities for infantrymen, in preparation for brigade-level training.[226]

A 2019 marksmanship manual TC 3-20.40, Training and Qualification-Individual Weapons (the "Dot-40") now mandates the use of the simulators, as if the soldier were in combat.[227] The Dot-40 is to be used by the entire Army, from the Cadets at West Point to the Active Army, the Army Reserve, and Army National Guard;[227] the Dot-40 tests how rapidly soldiers can load and reload while standing, kneeling, lying prone, and firing from behind a barrier.[227] The marksmanship tests of a soldier's critical thinking, selecting targets to shoot at, in which order, and the accuracy of each shot are recorded by the simulators.[227]

Stryker training

Up to a platoon-sized unit of a Stryker brigade combat team, and dismounted infantry, can train on Stryker simulators (Stryker Virtual Collective Trainer – SVCT), which are in the process of being installed at eight home stations. The fourth was being completed as of 2019.[228] Forty-five infantrymen (four Stryker shells) or thirty-six scouts (six Stryker shells) can rehearse their battle rhythm on a virtual battlefield, record their lessons learned, give their after-action reports, and repeat, as a team. The Stryker gunner's seat comes directly from a Stryker vehicle and has a Common Remotely Operated Weapon Station (CROWS) and joystick to control a virtual .50 caliber (12.7 mm) heavy machine gun or a virtual 30 mm autocannon and other CROWS configurations are possible.[228][229]

Digital air ground integration ranges (DAGIRs)

Live-fire digital air ground integration ranges (DAGIRs) were first conceptualized in the 1990s, and established in 2012,[230] with follow-on in 2019.[231] The ranges initially included 23 miles of tank trails,[232] targets, battlefield effects simulators, and digital wiring for aerial scorekeeping.[231] These ranges are designed for coordinating air and ground exercises before full-on sessions at the National Training Centers.[231]

Training against OPFORs

Opposing-Forces Surrogate Vehicles (OSVs) undergoing maintenance at Anniston Army Depot

To serve a role as an Opposing force (OPFOR) could be a mission for an Army unit, as temporary duty (TDY), during which they might wear old battle dress uniforms, perhaps inside-out.[233] TRADOC's Mission Command Training Program, as well as Cyber Command designs tactics for these OPFORs. When a brigade trains at Fort Irwin, Fort Polk, Joint Pacific Multinational Readiness Center,[234] or Joint Multinational Training Center (in Hohenfels, Germany) the Army tasks 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment, 1st Battalion, 509th Infantry Regiment (Abn), 196th Infantry Brigade, and 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry Regiment, respectively, with the OPFOR role,[235] and provides the OPFOR with modern equipment (such as the FGM-148 Javelin anti-tank missile) to test that brigade's readiness for deployment. Multiple integrated laser engagement systems serve as proxies for actual fired weapons, and soldiers are lost to the commander from "kills" by laser hits.[236]

Training against cyber

Deceptive data intended to divide deployed forces are making their way into the news feeds, and are falsely implicating actual soldiers who are deployed at the time of the false social media reports, which are mixing fact and fiction.[237][238]

The Army now has its tenth direct-commissioned cyber officer: a Sergeant First Class with a computer engineering degree, and a masters in system engineering was commissioned a major in the National Guard, 91st Cyber Brigade, on 30 July 2020.[239]

Soldier integration facility

PEO Soldier has established a Soldier integration facility (SIF) at Fort Belvoir which allows prototyping and evaluation of combat capabilities for the Army Soldier.[240] CCDC Soldier center in Natick Massachusetts, Night Vision Lab at Fort Belvoir Virginia, and Maneuver Battle Lab at Fort Moore Georgia have prototyped ideas at the SIF.[240]

Applications for Synthetic Training Environment (STE)

The Squad Advanced Marksmanship Training (SAMT) system, developed by the STE Cross-functional team from Futures Command, has an application for 1st SFAB.[241] Bluetooth enabled replicas of M4 rifles and M9 and Glock 19 pistols, with compressed air recoil approximate the form, fit and function of the weapons that the Soldiers are using in close combat. For 1st SFAB, scenarios included virtual reality attacks which felt like engagements in a room. The scenarios can involve the entire SFAB Advisor team, and engagements can be repeated over and over again. Advanced marksmanship skills such as firing with the non-dominant hand, and firing on the move can be practiced.[241]

Nine Army sites are now equipped with the SAMT. Over twenty systems are planned for locations in the United States.[241] The Close combat tactical trainers are in use, for example, to train 3rd Infantry Division headquarters for a gunnery training event (convoy protection role),[242] and 2nd BCT/ 82nd Airborne close combat training.[243]

The concept has been extended to the Live, Virtual, Constructive Integrating Architecture (LVC-IA), to integrate the National Guard, and the Reserves, with Active Army.[244]

Other training environments include MANPADS for SHORAD in the 14P MOS at Fort Sill.[248][249]

I believe that a training environment .. should be a maneuver trainer, and it should be a gunnery trainer

Retired Gen. Peter W. Chiarelli, 32nd vice chief of staff of the Army[250]

Deployment scheme

Further information: Reorganization plan of United States Army § Readiness model

The force generation system, posited in 2006 by General Schoomaker, projected that the U.S. Army would be deployed continuously. The Army would serve as an expeditionary force to fight a protracted campaign against terrorism and stand ready for other potential contingencies across the full-spectrum of operations (from humanitarian and stability operations to major combat operations against a conventional foe).

Under ideal circumstances, Army units would have a minimum "dwell time," a minimum duration of which it would remain at home station before deployment. Active-duty units would be prepared to deploy once every three years. Army Reserve units would be prepared to deploy once every five years. National Guard units would be prepared to deploy once every six years. A total of 71 combat brigades would form the Army's rotation basis, 42 from the active component with the balance from the reserves.

Thus, around 15 active-duty combat brigades would be available for deployment each year under the 2006 force-generation plan. An additional 4 or 5 brigades would be available for deployment from the reserve component. The plan was designed to provide more stability to soldiers and their families. Within the system, a surge capability would exist so that about an additional 18 brigades could be deployed in addition to the 19 or 20 scheduled brigades.

From General Dan McNeil, former Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) Commander: Within the Army Forces Generation (ARFORGEN) model, brigade combat teams (BCTs) would move through a series of three force pools;[151] they would enter the model at its inception, the "reset force pool", upon completion of a deployment cycle. There they would re-equip and reman while executing all individual predeployment training requirements, attaining readiness as quickly as possible. Reset or "R" day, recommended by FORSCOM and approved by Headquarters, Department of the Army, would be marked by BCT changes of command, preceded or followed closely by other key leadership transitions. While in the reset pool, formations would be remanned, reaching 100% of mission required strength by the end of the phase, while also reorganizing and fielding new equipment, if appropriate. In addition, it is there that units would be confirmed against future missions, either as deployment expeditionary forces (DEFs-BCTs trained for known operational requirements), ready expeditionary forces (REFs-BCTs that form the pool of available forces for short-notice missions) or contingency expeditionary forces (CEFs-BCTs earmarked for contingency operations).

Based on their commanders' assessments, units would move to the ready force pool, from which they could deploy should they be needed, and in which the unit training focus would be at the higher collective levels. Units would enter the available force pool when there is approximately one year left in the cycle, after validating their collective mission-essential task list proficiency (either core or theater-specific tasks) via battle-staff and dirt-mission rehearsal exercises. The available phase would be the only phase with a specified time limit: one year. Not unlike the division-ready brigades of past decades, these formations would deploy to fulfill specific requirements or stand ready to fulfill short-notice deployments within 30 days.

The goal was to generate forces 12–18 months in advance of combatant commanders' requirements and to begin preparing every unit for its future mission as early as possible in order to increase its overall proficiency.

Personnel management would also be reorganized as part of the Army transformation. Previously, personnel was managed on an individual basis in which soldiers were rotated without regard for the effect on unit cohesion. This system required unpopular measures such as "stop loss" and "stop move" in order to maintain force levels. In contrast, the new personnel system would operate on a unit basis to the maximum extent possible, with the goal of allowing teams to remain together longer and enabling families to establish ties within their communities.

Abrams 2016 noted that mid-level Army soldiers found they faced an unexpected uptempo in their requirements,[9] while entry-level soldiers in fact welcomed the increased challenge.[9]

Readiness model

ARFORGEN, "a structured progression of increased unit readiness over time, resulting in recurring periods of availability of trained, ready, and cohesive units prepared for operational deployment in support of geographic Combatant Commander requirements" was utilized in the 2010s.[251][131][252] [253] ARFORGEN was replaced by the Sustainable Readiness Model (SRM) in 2017.[254][255][9][35] In 2016 the 39th Chief of Staff of the Army identified the objective of a sustainable readiness process as over 66 percent of the Active Army in combat ready state at any time;[256] in 2019 the readiness objective of the National Guard and Army Reserve units was set to be 33 percent; Total Army readiness for deployment was 40 percent in 2019.[154][g]

Regionally Aligned Readiness and Modernization Model (ReARMM) is a unit lifecycle model which goes into effect in October 2021.[257][258] ReARMM was introduced in October 2020. It is a force generation model which uses the total Army, the Reserve components as well as Active component when planning.[259] Dynamic force employment (DFE) will be used more often.[259] The Operational tempo will decrease, which gives Commanders will more times, 'training windows' during which their units can train, first at the small-unit level, and then at larger-step modernization of their formations.[257] The units can then train at echelon for Large scale combat operations (LSCO) at a more measured pace.[257]

In 2018 39th Chief of Staff Mark Milley's readiness objective is that all operational units be at 90 percent of the authorized strength in 2018, at 100 percent by 2021, and at 105 percent by 2023.[158] The observer coach/trainers at the combat training centers, recruiters, and drill sergeants are to be filled to 100 percent strength by the end of 2018.[158]

The requested strength of the Active Army in FY2020 is increasing by 4,000 additional troops from the current 476,000 soldiers;[260] this request covers the near-term needs for cyber, air & missile defense, and fires (Army modernization).[260][261]

Organic industrial base (OIB)

The Army’s Organic industrial base (OIB) Modernization Implementation Plan got a refresh in 2022, with a review of the "23 depots, arsenals and ammunition plants that manufacture, reset and maintain Army equipment", in light of the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine.[262][263][264]

The Acting CG of FORSCOM, Lt. Gen. Laura Richardson, has noted that the Sustainable Readiness Model uses the Army standard for maintenance readiness, denoted TM 10/20,[35] which makes commanders responsible for maintaining their equipment to the TM 10/20 standard, meaning that "all routine maintenance is executed and all deficiencies are repaired".[265]: p. 79  But Richardson has also spoken out about aviation-related supplier deficiencies hurting readiness both at the combatant commands and at the home stations.[266][267]

Prepositioned stocks

Materiel for 2nd Armored Brigade Combat Team, 1st Infantry Division,[268] arriving in Gdańsk, Poland

United States Army Materiel Command (AMC), which uses Army Field Support Brigades (AFSB) to provision the Combatant Commands, has established Army prepositioned stocks (APS) for supplying entire Brigade Combat Teams (BCTs),[269] at several areas of responsibility (AORs):[127][84]: p.28:Defender Europe 2020 [270]

By 2020 AMC had seven Army prepositioned stocks.[282]

Medical readiness is being tested by the U.S. Army Medical Materiel Agency, a Life Cycle Management Command (LCMC). The LCMCs are stocking three additional locations in the US (APS-1), as well as APS-2 (EUCOM), and Korea, as of 12 February 2019.[283] For example, during Operation Spartan Shield, the LCMC's relevant AFSB effected the hand-off of prepositioned stocks to 155th Armored Brigade Combat Team (ABCT) within 96 hours.[284] In the same Operation, 155th ABCT was issued an entire equipment set for an ABCT, drawn from APS-5 stocks, over 13,000 pieces.[285]

Air Defense Artillery deployments

On 27 March 2018 the 678th Air Defense Artillery Brigade (South Carolina National Guard) deployed to EUCOM, Ansbach Germany for a nine-month rotation, for the first time since the Cold War.[286] 10th AAMDC is the executive agent for EUCOM.

In September 2018, the Wall Street Journal reported that four Patriot systems— Two from Kuwait, and one apiece from Jordan and Bahrain are redeploying back to the U.S. for refurbishment and upgrades, and will not be replaced.[287][288] In June 2021, 8 Patriot batteries and a THAAD battery are being withdrawn from the CENTCOM area to focus on Russia and China.[289] By March 2022 NATO Patriot batteries had begun repositioning to Slovakia, and Poland from the Netherlands, and Germany respectively.[290][291]

Forward-deployed materiel

As the U.S. Army's only forward-deployed Airborne brigade, 173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team, stationed in EUCOM, was supplied with new communications materiel — Integrated Tactical Networks (ITN) in 2018.[292] New ground combat vehicles, the Infantry Carrier Vehicle – Dragoon (M1126 Infantry Carrier Vehicle) are being supplied to 2nd Cavalry Regiment. ICVDs are Strykers with an unmanned turret and 30 mm autocannon (CROWS), and an integrated commander's station, upgraded suspension and larger tires.[292][293][294] The Army brigades of EUCOM have been in position for testing materiel, as its elements engaged in a 2018 road march through Europe, training with 19 ally and partner nations in Poland in 2018.[292]

Bulgaria has expressed interest in Strykers.[295][296][297]

Force size and unit organization

Overall, the Army would end up with 71 brigade combat teams and 212 support brigades, in the pre-2013 design. The Regular Army would move from 33 brigade combat teams in 2003 to 43 brigade combat teams together with 75 modular support brigades, for a total of 118 Regular Army modular brigades. In addition the previously un-designated training brigades such as the Infantry Training Brigade at Fort Moore assumed the lineage & honors of formerly active Regular Army combat brigades. In 2017 there were 31 brigade combat teams in the Active Army. Within the Army National Guard, there were to be 28 brigade combat teams and 78 support brigades. Within the Army Reserve, the objective was 59 support brigades. Chief of Staff Mark Milley credits Creighton Abrams (Chief of Staff 1972-1974), for placing most of the support brigades in the Reserve and National Guard in order to ensure that the nation would use the total army rather than only the active army in an extended war involving the entire nation.[88]: minute 42:30 [298]

The Reserve component will be playing an increased role.[32] In the Total Army, eight Army National Guard divisions are to be trained to increase their readiness for large-scale combat operations,[216][217] making 58 BCTs in the Total Army in 2018,[299] and six SFABs in 2020.

Army commands

Army service component commands

Army direct reporting units

Field armies

Army corps

Divisions and brigades

Note: these formations were subject to change, announced in 2013 reform[301]

In the post-2013 design, the Regular Army was planned to reduce to 32 BCTs after all the BCTs had been announced for inactivation.[302] The 2018 budget was to further reduce 40,000 active-duty soldiers from 490,000 in 2015 to 450,000 by 2018 fiscal year-end. Thirty installations would have been affected; six of these installations would have accounted for over 12,000 of those to be let go. In early 2015, the plan was to cut entire BCTs; by July 2015, a new plan, to downsize a BCT (4,500 soldiers) to a maneuver battalion task force (1,032 soldiers, with the possibility of upsizing if need be) was formulated. In 2015, a plan was instituted to allow further shrinking of the Army, by converting selected brigades to maneuver battalion task forces.[303] A maneuver battalion task force includes about 1,050 Soldiers rather than the 4,000 in a full BCT.[304] This 9 July 2015 plan, however, would preclude rapid deployment of such a unit until it has been reconstituted back to full re-deployable strength. This is being addressed with the § "Associated units" training program from the Reserve and Guard.

In 2017 the National Defense Strategy and National Security Strategy[153]: 4:30  and a § Sustainable Readiness Model (SRM) managed to halt the cuts.[255][9] Funding was allocated for two (out of six planned) Security Force Assistance Brigades (SFABs) in 2016[305] composed of 529 senior officers and senior NCOs (a full chain of command for a BCT).[306] By 2020 all 6 SFABs were activated.

The changes announced so far affect:[307]

Brigade Combat Teams

Active-duty divisions

Active-duty combat brigades: 31 at the end of 2017

See National Guard divisions for the 27 ARNG BCTs

Support brigades

Active-duty Support Brigades (with reserve-component numbers in parentheses: ARNG/USAR)

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b In Force modernization,[59] Deputy Chiefs of Staff G-8 and G-3/5/7 sit on the Army Requirements Oversight Council (AROC), to advise the Chief of Staff of the Army (CSA).[60]: diagram on p.559 [61][62] The commander, AFC is responsible for Force design.[61]
    • The Army's Force management model begins with a projection of the Future operating environment, in terms of resources: political, military, economic, social, information, infrastructure, physical environment, and the time available to bring the Current army to bear on the situation.[62]
    • The AROC serves as a discussion forum of these factors.[61][63]
    • The relevant strategy is provided by the Army's leadership.
    • A DOTMLPF analysis models the factors necessary to change the Current force into a relevant Future force.
    • A JCIDS process identifies the gaps in capability between Current and Future force.
    • A Force design to meet the materiel gaps is underway.
    • An organization with the desired capabilities (manpower, materiel, training) is brought to bear on each gap.[59]
      • AR 5-22(pdf) lists the Force modernization proponent for each Army branch, which can be a CoE or Branch proponent leader.
      • Staff uses a Synchronization meeting[64]: minute 8:29  before seeking approval —HTAR Force Management 3-2b: "Managing change in any large, complex organization requires the synchronization of many interrelated processes".[60]: p2-27 
    • A budget request is submitted to Congress.
    • The resources are "dictated by Congress".[62]
    • Approved requests then await resource deliveries which then become available to the combatant commanders.[65]
  2. ^ 2015 Army Operating Concept (AOC): "Win in a Complex World"[12]: minute 1:15:00/1:22:58 
  3. ^ The capabilities as prioritized by the 39th Chief of Staff, will use subject matter experts in the realms of requirements, acquisition, science and technology, test, resourcing, costing, and sustainment, using Cross Functional Teams (CFTs) for:
    1. Improved long-range precision fires (artillery):—(Fort Sill, Oklahoma) Lead: BG John Rafferty ... PEO Ammunition (AMMO)
    2. Next-generation combat vehicle—(Detroit Arsenal, Warren, Michigan) Lead: BG Ross Coffman ... PEO Ground Combat Systems (GCS)
    3. Vertical lift platforms—(Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama) Lead: BG Wally Rugen ... PEO Aviation (AVN)
    4. Mobile and expeditionary (usable in ground combat) communications network (Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland)
      1. Network Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence— Lead: MG Pete Gallagher ... PEO Command Control Communications Tactical (C3T)
      2. Assured Position Navigation and Timing— (Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama) Lead: William B. Nelson, SES
    5. Air and missile defense—(Fort Sill, Oklahoma) Lead: BG Brian Gibson, ... PEO Missiles and Space (M&S)
    6. Soldier lethality
      1. Soldier Lethality—(Fort Moore, Georgia) Lead: BG David M. Hodne ... PEO Soldier
      2. Synthetic Training Environment —(Orlando, Florida) Lead: MG Maria Gervais ... PEO Simulation, Training, & Instrumentation (STRI)
    • Above, 'dotted line' relationship (i.e., coordination) is denoted by a ' ... '
  4. ^ One consequence of a standardized BCT is that actions performed by one BCT can be made in behalf of a successor BCT. Thus pre-positioned stocks can aid in the rapidity of deployment: Army Prepositioned Stocks site in the Netherlands was established 15 Dec 2016, which will store and service about 1,600 U.S. Army vehicles.
  5. ^ The Army is introducing drones in its combat aviation brigades in order to increase its reconnaissance capability.[68][69]
  6. ^ In the 2013 reform the active duty brigades are deactivating by 2015, leaving only the National Guard's, and the Reserve's, maneuver enhancement brigades.[79]
  7. ^ a b c Readiness means: Be informed; Make A Plan; Build a Kit; and Get Involved[171][172]

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  156. ^ Mark Cancian and Adam Saxton (14 February 2020) 2021 Budget Spells The End of US Force Expansion Reduced topline $740.5 billion; Army remains at 31 BCTs, 5 SFABs, and 11 CABs.
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    • "We are deeply troubled by the recent reports highlighting the deficient conditions in some of our family housing. It is unacceptable for our families who sacrifice so much to have to endure these hardships in their own homes."—23rd Secretary of the Army, Dr. Mark T. Esper and 39th Chief of Staff of the Army, Gen. Mark A. Milley "US Army statement on military housing". U.S. Army. 13 February 2019. Retrieved February 16, 2019.
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  197. ^ Karen Jowers (22 Oct 2021) 50,000 military families in 38 privatized housing communities see new ownership Clark Realty Capital, and Lincoln Military Housing have sold their properties to Michaels Organization, and Liberty Military Housing respectively (except for the former Lincoln housing at Fort Sam Houston, Texas which was transferred to Hunt Military Communities)
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    • Capt. Joselyn Sydnor ″[http:[dead link]//fortblissbugle.com/2019/10/02/30th-abct-mobilization-identifies-challenges-successes-of-expansion/ (October 2, 2019) 30th ABCT mobilization identifies challenges, successes of expansion] 653rd Regional Support Group was mobilized as the Fort Bliss Mobilization Brigade; the mobilization of 30th ABCT was used to test out the mobilization process of the reserve component of the Army.
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  233. ^ Mark Price (27 February 2020) Elaborate unconventional warfare exercise set for undisclosed sites in North Carolina JFK Special Warfare school: acting as guerrilla freedom fighters
  234. ^ Todd South (28 Oct 2022) Major Hawaii-based Army exercise tests brigade in island-hopping fight JPMRC
  235. ^ Mario J. Hoffmann (October 1, 2018) Modernizing the Army's OPFOR program to become a near-peer sparring partner
  236. ^ Jim Smilie (6 Sep 2018) Louisiana Army National Guard gears up for potential deployment in 2020 256th IBCT in XCTC training in 2018 against OPFORs, then JRTC in 2020.
  237. ^ Gina Harkins (16 Aug 2020) Fake News Is Wreaking Havoc on the Battlefield. Here's What the Military's Doing About It
  238. ^ Theresa Hitchens (19 Aug 2020) Air & Space Forces Add Cyber To All-Domain Ops Data Library
  239. ^ Kyle Rempfer (17 Aug 2020) Direct commissions for Army cyber officers finally gaining steam, two-star says
  240. ^ a b Todd South (7 Aug 2020) New Army soldier facility combines tech to sharpen soldier-squad lethality
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  249. ^ Monica Wood (18 October 2021) Cutting-edge, VR-equipped Stinger training facility opens
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  252. ^ Gen. Gustave "Gus" Perna (July 18, 2019) AMC Commander: Battlefield Sustainment Requires Intuition
  253. ^ Sean Kimmons (October 11, 2018) Second phase of Multi-Domain Task Force pilot headed to Europe
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  332. ^ Paul McLeary (31 July 2020) Poland Wraps Deal For Permanent US Troops, Drones, Special Ops In addition,
    • "4,500 members of the Second Cavalry Regiment in Germany will return to the US, and then begin rotations in the Black Sea region"
    • 2000 troops to relocate from Stuttgart to Mons
    • On hold: 2000 Airmen were due to deploy from UK to Germany
    • An F-16 squadron will move from UK to Italy
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