Graphic legend of Army Transformation[a]

The reorganization plan of the United States Army is a modernization (2015–2028) and reorganization (2006–2016) plan of the United States Army implemented (2006–2016) under the direction of Brigade Modernization Command. This effort formally began in 2006 when General Peter Schoomaker (the 35th Army Chief of Staff) was given the support to move the Army from its Cold War divisional orientation to a full-spectrum capability with fully manned, equipped and trained brigades; this effort was completed by the end of 2016.[1] It has been the most comprehensive reorganization since World War II and included modular combat brigades, support brigades, and command headquarters, as well as rebalancing the active and reserve components. The plan was first proposed by the Army's 34th Chief of Staff, Eric Shinseki, in 1999, but was bitterly opposed internally by the Army.[2]

By 2028, in Multi-Domain Operations (MDO)[b]—as part of the Joint force, Army Strategy is to counter a near-peer adversary which is capable of competition in all domains.[c][3][4][5][6][7][8] In 2019, the planning was for Large Scale ground Combat Operations (LSCO) at echelons above the brigade combat team (meaning division-sized units, or larger).[9][10][11] Multi-Domain Task Forces (MDTFs) operate in a combatant commander's theater (area of responsibility). MDTFs are experimental brigade-sized units which are tailored to the theater; they are to operate subordinate to a Theater fires command, or to a corps, or division headquarters, jointly or independently, depending on the mission.[12][4] These MDTFs increase the "capability to connect with national assets" in space and cyber, with "the capacity to penetrate with long range fires, with the ability to integrate all domains".[12][13] —This is integrated deterrence:[14][15] taking existing capabilities, as well as building on new capabilities, which have been deployed in new and networked ways,[c] all tailored to the security landscape of the respective regions, in order to deter the antagonists.[16][17]

In 2020, the Army's 40th Chief of Staff, Gen. James C. McConville, was calling for transformational change, rather than incremental change by the Army.[18]: minute 4:55  In 2021, McConville laid out Aimpoint 2035, a direction for the Army to achieve Corps-level Large-scale combat operations (LSCO) by 2035, with Waypoints from 2021 to 2028.[19][20][21] In the fall of 2018, Army Strategy for the next ten years was articulated listeding four Lines of Effort to be implemented.[22] By 2021, the Army Posture Statement[23] was

  1. People & values[32]
  2. Readiness by 2022
  3. Modernization in the midterm around 2022
  4. Strengthen alliances and partnerships[38]

Origin and initial design

Prior to the appointment of General Schoomaker, the Army was organized around large, mostly mechanized divisions, of around 15,000 soldiers each, with the aim of being able to fight in two major theatres simultaneously. Under the new plan, the Army would be organized around modular brigades of 3,000–4,000 soldiers each, with the aim of being able to deploy continuously in different parts of the world, and effectively organizing the Army closer to the way it fights.[citation needed]

An additional 30,000 soldiers were recruited as a short-term measure to assist in the structural changes, although a permanent end-strength change was not expected because of fears of future funding cuts, forcing the Army to pay for the additional personnel from procurement and readiness accounts. Up to 60% of the defense budget is spent on personnel and an extra 10,000 soldiers would cost US$1.4 billion annually.[citation needed]

"Belfer Center Conference on Military Transformation" was held by the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, co-sponsored by the United States Army War College and the Dwight D. Eisenhower National Security Series, on November 22 and 23, 2002.[39] It brought together present and former defense officials and military commanders to assess the Department of Defense's progress in achieving a "transformation" of U.S. military capabilities.

In 2004, the United States Army Forces Command (FORSCOM), which commands most active and reserve forces based in the Continental United States, was tasked with supervising the modular transformation of its subordinate structure.

In March 2004, a contract was awarded to Anteon Corporation (later a part of General Dynamics) to provide "Modularity Coordination Cells" (MCCs) to each transforming corps, division and brigade within FORSCOM. Each MCC contained a team of functional area specialists who provided direct, ground-level support to the unit. The MCCs were coordinated by the Anteon office in Atlanta, Georgia.

In 2007 a new deployment scheme known as Grow the Army was adopted that enabled the Army to carry out continuous operations.[40] The plan was modified several times including an expansion of troop numbers in 2007 and changes to the number of modular brigades. On 25 June 2013, plans were announced to disband 13 modular brigade combat teams (BCTs) and expand the remaining brigades with an extra maneuver battalion, extra fires batteries, and an engineer battalion.

In 2009 an 'ongoing campaign of learning' was the capstone concept for force commanders, meant to carry the Army from 2016 to 2028.[41][21]

New capabilities

In the summer of 2018, the U.S. Army Futures Command (AFC),[42][43] a new Army command for modernization was activated.[44][45] The modernization effort, coordinated with FORSCOM, US Army Materiel Command (AMC), and US Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC), addresses the long lead times[46] for introducing new materiel and capabilities into the brigades of the Army.[44][47][48][d] This planned Joint capability was demonstrated to the Combatant commanders (who are the "customers" for the capability) and the Joint Chiefs (who advise the government on the importance of this effort) at White Sands Missile Range in September 2020,[49][50] in an ongoing campaign for achieving integrated deterrence. By 2020 Project Convergence, a campaign of learning, was pressed into service at Yuma Proving Ground, in the Army's campaign to modernize,[51] by experimental prototype and demonstration of a networking concept;[44] Project Convergence 2021 (PC21)[52] was then a vehicle for the entire DoD, in its Joint Warfighting Concept (JWC) demonstration of Joint all-domain command and control (JADC2).[53][54] Project Convergence 2022 (PC22) now has a website for candidate entries,[55] even as PC21 was underway in 2021. Analysis is underway in FY2022 to balance modernization and readiness going forward.[56][57][58]

History of "Army Force Generation" (ARFORGEN)

The Secretary of the Army approved implementing "Army Force Generation" (ARFORGEN), a transformational force generation model, in 2006. ARFORGEN process diagram 2010 Army Posture Statement, Addendum F, Army Force Generation (ARFORGEN)[59]

ARFORGEN model concept development began in the summer of 2004 and received its final approval from the Army's senior leadership in early 2006.[60]

FORSCOM, Department of the Army AR 525-29 Military Operations, Army Force Generation, 14 Mar 2011[dead link]

In 2016 the Army force generation process ARFORGEN was sidelined because it relied mostly on the Active Army, in favor of the total force policy, which includes the Reserve and National Guard; in the new model, the total force could have fallen to 980,000 by 2018,[61] subject to DoD's Defense Strategic Guidance to the Joint Staff.[62]: note especially pp.1–3  By 15 June 2017, the Department of the Army approved an increase in the Active Army's end-strength from 475,000 to 476,000. The total Army end-strength increases to 1.018 million.[63]

Planning process, evolution, and transformation

The commander-in-chief directs the planning process, through guidance to the Army by the Secretary of Defense.[62] Every year, Army Posture Statements by the Secretary of the Army and the Chief of Staff of the Army summarize their assessment[e] of the Army's ability to respond to world events,[65][66] and also to transform for the future.[67] In support of transformation for the future, TRADOC, upon the advice of the Army's stakeholders, has assembled 20 warfighting challenges.[68] These challenges are under evaluation during annual Army warfighting assessments, such as AWA 17.1, held in October 2016. AWA 17.1 was an assessment by 5,000 US Soldiers, Special Operations Forces, Airmen, and Marines,[69] as well as by British, Australian, Canadian, Danish, and Italian troops.[70][71][72][73] For example, "reach-back" is among the capabilities being assessed; when under attack in an unexpected location, a Soldier on the move might use Warfighter Information Network-Tactical (WIN-T). At the halt, a light Transportable Tactical Command Communications (T2C2 Lite) system[74]: p.356 [75][76][77][78] could reach back to a mobile command post, to communicate the unexpected situation to higher echelons,[79][80] a building block in multi-domain operations.[81][82][22][83]

Implementation and current status

Grow the Army was a transformation and re-stationing initiative of the United States Army which began in 2007 and was scheduled to be completed by fiscal year 2013. The initiative was designed to grow the army by almost 75,000 soldiers, while realigning a large portion of the force in Europe to the continental United States in compliance with the 2005 Base Realignment and Closure suggestions. This grew the force from 42 Brigade Combat Teams (BCTs) and 75 modular support brigades in 2007 to 45 Brigade Combat Teams and 83 modular support brigades by 2013.

On 25 June 2013, 38th Army Chief of Staff General Raymond T. Odierno announced plans to disband 13 brigade combat teams and reduce troop strengths by 80,000 soldiers. While the number of BCTs will be reduced, the size of remaining BCTs will increase, on average, to about 4,500 soldiers. That will be accomplished, in many cases, by moving existing battalions and other assets from existing BCTs into other brigades. Two brigade combat teams in Germany had already been deactivated and a further 10 brigade combat teams slated for deactivation were announced by General Odierno on 25 June. (An additional brigade combat team was announced for deactivation 6 November 2014.) At the same time the maneuver battalions from the disbanded brigades will be used to augment armored and infantry brigade combat teams with a third maneuver battalion and expanded brigades fires capabilities by adding a third battery to the existing fires battalions. Furthermore, all brigade combat teams—armored, infantry and Stryker—will gain a Brigade Engineer Battalion, with "gap-crossing" and route-clearance capability.[84]

On 6 November 2014, it was reported that the 1st Armored Brigade Combat Team, 2nd Infantry Division, currently stationed in South Korea, was to be deactivated in June 2015 and be replaced by a succession of U.S.-based brigade combat teams, which are to be rotated in and out, at the same nine-month tempo as practiced by the Army from 2001 to 2014.[85]

Eleven brigades were inactivated by 2015. The remaining brigades as of 2015 are listed below. On 16 March 2016, the Deputy Commanding General (DCG) of FORSCOM announced that the brigades would now also train to move their equipment to their new surge location as well as to train for the requirements of their next deployment.[86][87][88][89]

By 2018, 23rd Secretary of the Army Mark Esper noted that even though the large deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan had ceased, at any given time, three of the Armored Brigade Combat Teams are deployed to EUCOM, CENTCOM, and INDOPACOM, respectively, while two Infantry Brigade Combat Teams are deployed to Iraq, and Afghanistan, respectively.[90]

[At any given time,] there are more than 100,000 Soldiers deployed around the world —23rd Secretary of the Army Mark Esper[90]

In 2019 the 23rd Secretary of the Army asserted that the planning efforts, including Futures Command, the SFABs, and the Decisive Action readiness training of the BCTs are preparing the Army for competition with both near-peer and regional powers.[91][92] The Army and Marine Corps have issued "clear explanations and guidance for the 429 articles of the Geneva Conventions".[93][94]

The Budget Control Act could potentially restrict funds by 2020.[106] By 2024–2025, the Fiscal Year Development Plan (FYDP) will have reallocated $10 billion more into development of the top 6 modernization priorities,[d] taking those funds from legacy spending budgets.[107]

Reorganization plans by unit type

The Army has now been organized around modular brigades of 3,000–4,000 soldiers each, with the aim of being able to deploy continuously in different parts of the world, and effectively organizing the Army closer to the way it fights. The fact that this modernization is now in place has been acknowledged by the renaming of the 'Brigade Modernization Command' to the "U.S. Army Joint Modernization Command," on 16 February 2017.[1]

By 2021 the Army of 2030 was envisioned to consist of Brigades for the close fight, Divisions for Large scale combat operations, Corps for enduring, sustained operations, and Theater-scale commands.[19][20][a]

Modular combat brigades

Main article: Brigade combat team

Modular combat brigades are self-contained combined arms formations.[115][116] They are standardized formations across the active and reserve components, meaning an Armored BCT at Fort Cavazos is the same as one at Fort Stewart.[f]

Reconnaissance plays a large role in the new organizational designs. The Army felt the acquisition of the target was the weak link in the chain of finding, fixing, closing with, and destroying the enemy. The Army felt that it had already sufficient lethal platforms to take out the enemy and thus the number of reconnaissance units in each brigade was increased.[g] The brigades sometimes depend on joint fires from the Air Force and Navy to accomplish their mission. As a result, the amount of field artillery has been reduced in the brigade design.

The three types of BCTs are Armored Brigade Combat Teams (ABCTs), Infantry Brigade Combat Teams (IBCTs) (includes Light, Air Assault and Airborne units), and Stryker Brigade Combat Teams (SBCTs).

Armored Brigade structure

Armored Brigade Combat Teams, or ABCTs consist of 4,743 troops. This includes the third maneuver battalion as laid out in 2013. The changes announced by the U.S. army on 25 June 2013,[84] include adding a third maneuver battalion to the brigade, a second engineer company to a new Brigade Engineer Battalion, a third battery to the FA battalion, and reducing the size of each battery from 8 to 6 guns. These changes will also increase the number of troops in the affected battalions and also increase the total troops in the brigade. Since the brigade has more organic units, the command structure includes a deputy commander (in addition to the traditional executive officer) and a larger staff capable of working with civil affairs, special operations, psychological operations, air defense, and aviation units. An Armored BCT consists of:

Infantry Brigade structure

Infantry Brigade Combat Team, or IBCTs, comprised around 3,300 soldiers, in the pre-2013 design, which did not include the 3rd maneuver battalion. The 2013 end-strength is now 4,413 Soldiers:

Stryker Brigade structure

Stryker Brigade Combat Team or SBCTs comprised about 3,900 soldiers, making it the largest of the three combat brigade constructs in the 2006 design, and over 4,500 Soldiers in the 2013 reform. Its design includes:

Modular support brigades

Combat support brigades

Heavy Combat Aviation Brigade Structure
Full Spectrum Combat Aviation Brigade Structure

Similar modularity will exist for support units which fall into five types: Aviation, Fires (artillery), Battlefield Surveillance (intelligence), Maneuver Enhancement (engineers, signal, military police, chemical, and rear-area support), and Sustainment (logistics, medical, transportation, maintenance, etc.). In the past, artillery, combat support, and logistics support only resided at the division level and brigades were assigned those units only on a temporary basis when brigades transformed into "brigade combat teams" for particular deployments.

Combat Aviation Brigades are multi-functional, offering a combination of attack helicopters (i.e., Boeing AH-64 Apache), reconnaissance helicopters (i.e., OH-58 Kiowa), medium-lift helicopters (i.e., UH-60 Black Hawk), heavy-lift helicopters (i.e., CH-47 Chinook), and medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) capability. Aviation will not be organic to combat brigades but will continue to reside at the division-level due to resource constraints.

Heavy divisions (of which there are six) will have 48 Apaches, 38 Blackhawks, 12 Chinooks, and 12 Medevac helicopters in their aviation brigade. These are divided into two aviation attack battalions, an assault lift battalion, a general aviation support battalion. An aviation support battalion will have headquarters, refuelling/resupply, repair/maintenance, and communications companies.[121] Light divisions will have aviation brigades with 60 armed reconnaissance helicopters and no Apaches, with the remaining structure the same. The remaining divisions will have aviation brigades with 30 armed reconnaissance helicopters and 24 Apaches, with the remaining structure the same. Ten Army Apache helicopter units will convert to heavy attack reconnaissance squadrons, with 12 RQ-7B Shadow drones apiece.[118][122] The helicopters to fill out these large, combined-arms division-level aviation brigades comes from aviation units that used to reside at the corps-level.

Fires Brigade Structure

Field Artillery Brigades (known as "Fires Brigades" prior to 2014) provide traditional artillery fire (M109 Paladin self-propelled howitzer]], M270 MLRS and HIMARS rocket artillery) as well as information operations and non-lethal effects capabilities. After the 2013 reform, the expertise formerly embodied in the pre-2007 Division Artillery (DIVARTY) was formally re-instituted in the Division Artillery (DIVARTY) of 2015, with a colonel as commander.[123] The operational Fires battalions will now report to this new formulation of DIVARTY, for training and operational Fires standards, as well as to the BCT.[124][125]

Air Defense: The Army was no longer to provide an organic air defense artillery (ADA) battalion to its divisions as of 2007. Nine of the ten active component (AC) divisional ADA battalions and two of the eight reserve (ARNG) divisional ADA battalions will deactivate. The remaining AC divisional ADA battalion along with six ARNG divisional ADA battalions will be pooled at the Unit of Employment to provide on-call air and missile defense (AMD) protection. The pool of Army AMD resources will address operational requirements in a tailorable and timely manner without stripping assigned AMD capability from other missions. Maneuver short-range air defense (MSHORAD)[126] with laser cannon prototypes fielding by 2020.[127] But by 2015 the Division Artillery was restored.

Maneuver Enhancement Brigades are designed to be self-contained, and will command units such as chemical, military police, civil affairs units, and tactical units such as a maneuver infantry battalion. These formations are designed so that they can operate with coalition, or joint forces such as the Marine Corps, or can span the gap between modular combat brigades and other modular support brigades.[h]

Combat Sustainment Brigade Structure

Sustainment Brigades provide echelon-above-brigade-level logistics.[129] On its rotation to South Korea, 3rd ABCT, 1st Armored Division deployed its supply support activity (SSA) common authorized stockage list (CASL)[130] as well.[131] The CASL allows the ABCT to draw additional stocks beyond its pipeline of materiel from GCSS-A.[131] The DoD-level Global Combat Support System includes an Army-level tool (GCSS-A), which runs on tablet computers with bar code readers which 92-A specialists use to enter and track materiel requests, as the materiel makes its way through the supply chain to the brigades.[132] This additional information can then be used by GCSS-A to trigger resupply for Army pre-positioned stocks, typically by sea.[132][133]: p.12  The data in GCSS-Army is displayed on the Commander's Dashboard —Army Readiness-Common Operating Picture (AR-COP); this dashboard is also available to the commander at BCT, division, corps, and Army levels.[134]

Battlefield Surveillance Brigade Structure

The former Battlefield Surveillance Brigades,[135] now denoted Military Intelligence Brigades (Expeditionary), will offer additional UAVs and long-term surveillance detachments.[136] Each of the three active duty brigades is attached to an Army Corps.[135]

Maneuver Enhancement Brigade Structure

Security Force Assistance Brigades

Security force assistance brigades (SFABs) are brigades whose mission is to train, advise, and assist (TAA) the armed forces of other states. The SFAB are neither bound by conventional decisive operations nor counter-insurgency operations. Operationally, a 500-soldier SFAB would free-up a 4500-soldier BCT from a TAA mission. On 23 June 2016 General Mark Milley revealed plans for train/advise/assist Brigades, consisting of seasoned officers and NCOs with a full chain of command,[137]: Minute 18:40/1:00:45  but no junior Soldiers. In the event of a national emergency the end-strengths of the SFABs could be augmented with new soldiers from basic training and advanced individual training.[137]

An SFAB was projected to consist of 500 senior officers and NCOs, which, the Army says, could act as a cadre to reform a full BCT in a matter of months.[138] In May 2017, the initial SFAB staffing of 529 soldiers was underway, including 360 officers. The officers will have had previous command experience.[137]: 21:20  Commanders and leaders will have previously led BCTs at the same echelon.[139] The remaining personnel, all senior NCOs, are to be recruited from across the Army.[140][141][142] Promotable E-4s who volunteer for the SFAB are automatically promoted to Sergeant upon completion of the Military Advisor Training Academy.[143] A team of twelve soldiers would include a medic, personnel for intelligence support, and air support,[144] as cited by Keller.[145][146]

These SFABs would be trained in languages, how to work with interpreters,[147] and equipped with the latest equipment[148] such as Integrated Tactical Network (ITN)[149] using T2C2 systems[150][151] including secure, but unclassified, communications[152] and weapons to support coalition partners,[153] as well as unmanned aircraft systems (UASs).[154] The first five SFABs would align with the Combatant Commands (SOUTHCOM, AFRICOM, CENTCOM, EUCOM, and USINDOPACOM, respectively);[19] an SFAB could provide up to 58 teams (possibly with additional Soldiers for force protection).[153]

Funding for the first two SFABs was secured in June 2017.[63] By October 2017, the first of six planned SFABs (the 1st Security Force Assistance Brigade)[155] was established at Fort Moore.[156][137]: minute 50:00  On 16 October 2017, BG Brian Mennes of Force Management in the Army's G3/5/7 announced accelerated deployment of the first two SFABs, possibly by Spring 2018 to Afghanistan and Iraq, if required.[153] This was approved in early July 2017, by the 27th Secretary of Defense and the 39th Chief of Staff of the Army. On 8 February 2018, 1st SFAB held an activation ceremony at Fort Moore, revealing its colors and heraldry for the first time, and then cased its colors for the deployment to Afghanistan.[157] 1st Security Force Assistance Brigade deployed to Afghanistan in Spring 2018.[158]

On 8 December 2017, the Army announced the activation of the 2nd Security Force Assistance Brigade,[159] for January 2018, the second of six planned SFABs. The SFAB are to consist of about 800 senior and noncommissioned officers who have served at the same echelon, with proven expertise in advise-and-assist operations with foreign security forces. Fort Liberty was chosen as the station for the second SFAB[160] in anticipation of the time projected to train a Security Force Assistance Brigade.[159] On 17 January 2018 39th Chief of Staff Mark Milley announced the activation of the third SFAB.[145] 2nd SFAB undergoes three months of training beginning October 2018, to be followed by a Joint Readiness Training Center Rotation beginning January 2019, and deployment in spring 2019.[161] The 3rd, 4th, and 5th SFABs are to be stationed at Fort Cavazos, Fort Carson, and Joint Base Lewis-McChord, respectively;[162] the headquarters of the 54th Security Force Assistance Brigade, made up from the Army National Guard, will be in Indiana, one of six states to contribute an element of 54th SFAB.[163] It is likely that these brigades will be seeing service within United States Central Command.[164][165]

The Security Force Assistance Command (SFAC), a one-star division-level command[166] and all six SFABs will be activated by 2020.[22] The Security Force Assistance Directorate, a one-star Directorate for the SFABs, is part of FORSCOM in Fort Liberty. SFAD will be responsible for the Military Advisor Training Academy as well.[167][168] The 1st SFAB commander was promoted to Brigadier General in Gardez, Afghanistan on 18 August 2018.[169] The 2nd SFAB commander was promoted to Brigadier General 7 September 2018.[170] SFAC and 2nd SFAB were activated in a joint ceremony at Fort Liberty on 3 December 2018.[166] 2nd SFAB deployed to Afghanistan in February 2019.[171][172] 3rd SFAB activated at Fort Hood on 16 July 2019;[173] 3rd SFAB will relieve 2nd SFAB in Afghanistan for the Winter 2019 rotation.[174]

Security Assistance is part of The Army Strategy 2018's Line of Effort 4: "Strengthen Alliances and Partnerships".[22] The Security Assistance Command is based at Redstone Arsenal[175] (but the SFAC is based at Fort Liberty).[166]

Army Field Support Brigades

Army Field Support Brigades (AFSBs) have been utilized to field materiel in multiple Combatant Command's Areas of Responsibility (AORs).[176] [133]: p22-27 and p.77–78  Initially 405th AFSB prepositioned stocks for a partial brigade; eventually, the 405th was to field materiel for an ABCT, a Division headquarters, a Fires Brigade, and a Sustainment Brigade in their AOR, which required multinational agreements.[177] Similarly, 401st AFSB configured materiel for an ABCT in their AOR as well. The objective has been combat configuration: maintain their vehicles to support a 96-hour readiness window for a deployed ABCT on demand.[178] In addition, 403rd Army Field Support Brigade maintains prepositioned stocks for their AOR.

Command headquarters

Below the Combatant Commands echelon, Division commands will command and control their combat and support brigades.[179] Divisions will operate as plug-and-play headquarters commands (similar to corps) instead of fixed formations with permanently assigned units. Any combination of brigades may be allocated to a division command for a particular mission, up to a maximum of four combat brigades. For instance, the 3rd Infantry Division headquarters could be assigned two armor brigades and two infantry brigades based on the expected requirements of a given mission. On its next deployment, the same division may have one Stryker brigade and two armor brigades assigned to it. The same modus operandi holds true for support units. The goal of reorganization with regard to logistics is to streamline the logistics command structure[180] so that combat service support can fulfill its support mission more efficiently.[181][182]

The division headquarters itself has also been redesigned as a modular unit that can be assigned an array of units and serve in many different operational environments.[183] The new term for this headquarters is the UEx (or Unit of Employment, X). The headquarters is designed to be able to operate as part of a joint force, command joint forces with augmentation, and command at the operational level of warfare (not just the tactical level). It will include organic security personnel and signal capability plus liaison elements. As of March 2015, nine of the ten regular Army division headquarters, and two national guard division headquarters are committed in support of Combatant Commands.[65]: Executive Summary [184][185]

When not deployed, the division will have responsibility for the training and readiness of a certain number of modular brigades units. For instance, the 3rd Infantry Division headquarters module based at Fort Stewart, GA is responsible for the readiness of its combat brigades and other units of the division (that is, 3rd ID is responsible for administrative control —ADCON of its downtrace units), assuming they have not been deployed separately under a different division.

The re-designed headquarters module comprises around 1,000 soldiers including over 200 officers. It includes:

Divisions will continue to be commanded by major generals, unless coalition requirements require otherwise. Regional army commands (e.g. 3rd Army, 7th Army, 8th Army) will remain in use in the future but with changes to the organization of their headquarters designed to make the commands more integrated and relevant in the structure of the reorganized Army, as the chain of command for a deployed division headquarters now runs directly to an Army service component command (ASCC), or to FORSCOM.[183]

In January 2017, examples of pared-down tactical operations centers, suitable for brigades and divisions, were demonstrated at a command post huddle at Fort Bliss. The huddle of the commanders of FORSCOM, United States Army Reserve Command, First Army, I and III Corps, 9 of the Active Army divisions, and other formations discussed standardized solutions for streamlining command posts.[186] The Army is paring-down the tactical operations centers, and making them more agile,[179][187][188][189] to increase their survivability.[125][190][191] By July 2019 battalion command posts have demonstrated jump times of just over 3 hours, at the combat training centers, repeated 90 to 120 times in a rotation.[192][193][194] The C5ISR center of CCDC ran a series of experiments (Network Modernization Experiment 2020 — NetModX 20) whether using LTE for connecting nodes in a distributed Command post environment was feasible, from July to October 2020.[195][196][197][198][199]

Four Army commands

Main article: United States Army Futures Command

In 2018 Futures Command was slated to be the Army's fourth Army command (ACOM).[200] AFC joined the other Army commands FORSCOM, Army Materiel Command (AMC), and TRADOC as four-star commands. Austin, Texas became the station for the headquarters of Futures Command.[201] Initial operating capability is slated for 2018.[202][203] United States Army Futures Command (AFC), grew from 12 people at headquarters in 2018[204][202] to 24,000 in 25 states and 15 countries in 2019.[205] Although the Army has enjoyed overmatch for the past seventy years,[46] more rapid modernization for conflict with near-peers is the reason for AFC, which will be focused on achieving clear overmatch[206] in six areas — long-range precision fires,[207][208] next-generation combat vehicle, future vertical lift platforms, a mobile & expeditionary Army network,[209][210] air & missile defense capabilities,[211] and soldier lethality[212] (i.e. artillery, armor, aviation, signal, air defense artillery, and infantry respectively see: Futures).[d]

In a reform-oriented break with Army custom, leaders of AFC headquarters were to locate in a downtown property of the University of Texas System, while project-driven soldiers and Army civilians were to co-locate with entrepreneurs/innovators in tech hubs, in the vision of Under Secretary of the Army Ryan D. McCarthy.[213][214][43] The official activation ceremony of AFC was on 24 August 2018, in Austin, Texas;[215] in a press conference on that day featuring Army Chief of Staff Milley, Secretary Esper, Mayor Adler, and AFC commander Murray,[216] Chief Milley noted that AFC was to actively reach out into the community in order to learn, and that Senator John McCain's frank criticism of the acquisition process was instrumental for modernization reform at Futures command.[216]: minute 7:30 [217] In fact, AFC soldiers were to blend into Austin by not wearing their uniforms [to work side by side with civilians in the tech hubs], Milley noted in the 24 August 2018 press conference.[216]: minute 6:20  Secretary Esper said he expected failures during the process of learning how to reform the acquisition and modernization process.[216]: minute 18:20 

The organizational design of AFC was informed by the cancellation of the Army's Future Combat Systems project. Under Secretary of the Army Ryan D. McCarthy reviewed the reasons for that cancellation.[43]: Minute 19:40  Thus "unity of command and purpose"[43]: Minutes 12:22, 23:01  was a criterion for the design by unifying previous modernization efforts in a single command; the sub-goals would be met in do-able chunks.[218][219] The ratio of uniformed personnel to Army civilian employees is expected to be a talent-based, task-based issue for the AFC commander.[43]: Minute 32:40 The expectation is that these reforms will enable cultural change across the entire Army, as a part of attaining full operational capability.[43]: Minute 27:14 [220] The Program Executive Offices (PEOs) of ASA (ALT) will have a dotted-line relationship with Futures Command.[221][d]

In order to separate Army modernization from today's requirement for readiness,[221] eight cross-functional teams (CFTs)[d][45][218][211] were transferred from the other three major commands to Futures Command.[221] United States Army Research, Development and Engineering Command and the United States Army Capabilities Integration Center[222] will report to the new command.[223] ATEC retains its direct reporting relationship to the Chief of Staff of the Army.

The first tranche of transfers into AFC included: Capabilities Integration Center (ARCIC), Capability Development and Integration Directorates (CDIDs), and TRADOC Analysis Center (TRAC) from TRADOC, and RDECOM (including the six research, development and engineering centers (RDECs), and the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL)[224]), and Army Materiel Systems Analysis Activity (AMSAA), from AMC, as announced by Secretary Esper on 4 June 2018.[225] TRADOC's new role is amended accordingly.[225] The Principal Military Deputy to the ASA(ALT) was also to become deputy commanding general for Combat Systems, Army Futures Command, while leading the PEOs; he has directed each PEO who does not have a CFT to coordinate with, to immediately form one, at least informally.[226] General Murray has announced that AFC intends to be a global command, in its search for disruptive technologies.[227] 39th Army Chief of Staff Milley was looking for AFC to attain full operational capability (FOC) by August 2019,[216] a goal since met.

As this modernized materiel is fielded to the brigades, the scheme is to equip the units with the highest levels of readiness for deployment with upgraded equipment earliest, while continuing to train the remaining units to attain their full mission capability.[228] Note that expertise, in say psychological operations, is not necessarily confined to the Active Army brigades; if some operation were to require the expertise of a National Guard unit for example, an echelon above brigade might require that a unit with the most modern materiel be formed, to utilize that expertise.[83] The 10 Active Army divisions each have a deployable 3D printer for immediate operational requirements (to replace damaged materiel, subject to Army directives).[229][230][231]

By 2020, in the Fiscal Year 2021 budget request to Congress, the Army Acquisition Executive (AAE) was able to report progress in the partnership between Army Futures Command (viz. its CFTs) and his PEOs in ASA(ALT) —the office of Assistant Secretary of the Army (Acquisition, Logistics & Technology).[232][d]

Multi-domain operations (MDO)

See also: CJADC2, Artillery § Precision-guidance, and United States Army Futures Command § IBCS

Conflict continuum: competition short of conflict, conflict itself, and the return to competition,[233]: p.10  possibly via deterrence —Gen. David G. Perkins

In 2017, the concept of multi-domain battle (MDB)[233] had emerged from TRADOC,[234] for which the Army sought joint approval from the other services; instead, the Air Force recommended multi-domain operations (MDO)[b] as the operating concept.[235][3][236]

Multi-domain operations cover integrated operation of cyberspace, space (meaning satellite operations, from the Army's perspective), land, maritime, and air.[237] A multi-domain task force was stood up in 2018 in I Corps for the Pacific,[233] built around 17th Field Artillery Brigade. MDO in the Pacific has to involve maritime operations; MDO is planned for EUCOM in 2020.[3][238] Multi-domain battalions, first stood up in 2019, comprise a single unit for air, land, space, and cyber domains[239] to ensure integration of cyber/EW, space, and information operations in more levels of command.

To me, ARCIC's [MDO] analysis means the Army's got to be able to sink ships, neutralize satellites, shoot down missiles, and deny the enemy the ability to command and control its forces.

 By 2020 the Army's programs for modernization were now framed as a decades-long process of cooperation with allies and partners,[241][242][243] for competition with potential adversaries who historically have blurred the distinction between peace and war,[244][245] and who have been operating within the continuum (the gray zone) between peace, cooperation, competition, crisis, and conflict instead. When meeting a crisis, the Army's preference is deterrence.[246][i] The need for deterrence against ballistic missiles is shifting to the need to deter or defend against attack by hypersonic weapons.


In a conflict, friendly forces (denoted in black)[4] work as an integrated force against adversaries (denoted in red). The force operates in Multi-domains (gray, yellow, light gray, dark gray, and dark blue) —Space, Cyber, Air, Land, and Maritime respectively— severally and simultaneously cooperating across domains.[248][j] These operations will disrupt the adversaries, and present them multiple simultaneous dilemmas. The operations are designed to encourage adversaries to learn the advantages of a return to competition, rather than continuing a conflict.[249]

If you want to rapidly integrate all domains in order to take advantage of opportunities on a very lethal battlefield, you need a different type of C2 [command and control] structure. —Lt. Gen. Eric J. Wesley[250][3][251][252]


In the decade from 2009 to 2019 the Army was transitioning its brigade-based counterinsurgency effort to modernization of the echelons above brigade; by 2021 integrated deterrence (a campaign operating across domains, by a single commander to meet the objective of the Joint and Allied Force —the concept is scalable, assigning one objective per task force commander) against possible adversaries was underway, as part of the Joint force's campaign of learning.[253]

JWA 19, Yakima Training Center, Wash., May 6, 2019. Soldiers of 1st Battalion, 17th Infantry Regiment, 2nd Stryker Brigade Combat Team, 2nd Infantry Division heading toward their mission objective.

TRADOC designed exercises for Joint warfighter assessments —JWA 19,[254][255][256] at Fort Lewis, to clarify the jumps for Command Posts, to ensure their survivability during future operations. In 2019, there was a new focus on planning for large-scale ground combat operations (LSCO),[257][258][259][260][261] "that will require echelons above brigade, all of which will solve unique and distinct problems that a given BCT can't solve by itself."— LTG Eric Wesley.[6] [83] Computer simulations (DOTMLPF), of the survivability rates for the units, were then compared with the interaction strategies, tactics and operations of JWA 19, a highly contested environment.[254] JWA 19 occurred at multiple operational speeds, in multiple domains served by multiple services (cyber: operating in milliseconds; air: operations at 500 miles per hour; maritime: 30 knots; and ground: 2 miles per hour). JWA 19 involved the militaries of the US, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Canada, France, Australia and Singapore.[256][c][k][l]

The first CG of Futures Command (AFC) has noted that MDO will tie together the initiatives of AFC; but failures are to be expected in the AFC initiatives, and the institutional response of the Army, which is traditionally risk-averse, will test how committed the nation is to Army reforms.[5]

Mesh networking is in play for the Mobile, Expeditionary Network: In Fiscal Year 2019, the network CFT, PEO 3CT, and PEO Soldier leveraged Network Integration Evaluation 18.2[264] for experiments with brigade level scalability.[265][266][267][268][269] Among the takeaways was to avoid overspecifying the requirements (in ITN[148][270] Information Systems Initial Capabilities Document) to meet operational needs,[265] such as interoperability with other networks.[271][272]: minute 26:40 [273] ITN —Integrated Tactical Network is being fielded to four brigades in 2021.[274] Up through 2028, every two years the Army will insert new capability sets for ITN (Capability sets '21, '23, '25, etc.).[275][276][268]

On 25 September 2020 Army Chief of Staff Gen. James C. McConville discussed the combination of Multi-domain operations (MDO) and Joint All-Domain Command and Control (JADC2) with Air Force Chief of Staff Gen. Charles Q. Brown.[277] On 2 October 2020 the Chief of Staff of the Army and the Chief of Staff of the Air Force signed a Memorandum of understanding (MOU) on Combined Joint All-Domain Command and Control (CJADC2) of the two services, a two-year agreement. Their staffs met again after 60 days to show their progress on connecting the Army's Project Convergence and the Air Force's ABMS into a data fabric in 2021.[278][279][280][281][58][253][282]


"The competition phase is about deterring war". —Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr.[283]

In September and November 2019 the Department of Defense (DoD) "scheduled a series of globally integrated exercises with participation from across the US government interagency to refine our plans" —19th Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Joseph Dunford.[250] This exercise was designed to help 27th Secretary of Defense Mark Esper develop new plans, in the face of a change in chairmanship of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.[250] Specifically what was missing in 2019 was a joint concept[251] shared at the appropriate operational speed between the several domains, among the respective services, when fighting a peer adversary. —LTG Eric Wesley[c][284][285][286] Note the referenced LRHW graphic depicting a 2019 scenario[287][288] [289] This is a return to the use of echelons above brigade (Divisions, Corps, and Field Armies),[m] with specific tasks to force current adversaries to return to competition, rather than continue conflict;[291][250][292] kill chains were formed within seconds, by live-fire demonstration, as of September 2020.[49][c]

In the Army of 2030 a division would be the Unit of Action, rather than a brigade.[293][294][295] Artillery, engineer, and intelligence units would mass at the division echelon;[293] brigades would become smaller to become more maneuverable.[294] A corps would sustain the brigades' endurance for the longer fight;[293][294] the higher echelons (field army, corps, and division) would gain the resources they would need for the duration of an operation.[296]

By 2021 the Department of Defense could train for crises using capabilities it had developed jointly among its military departments, using concepts it had settled upon experimentally, beginning in 2019:

Multi-domain operations (MDO)[b] span multiple domains: cislunar space, land, air, maritime, cyber, and populations.[297]: minute 17:45 [298] Echelons above brigade (division, corps, and theater army) engage in a continuum of conflict.[n] —This illustration is from The MDO Concept, TRADOC pamphlet 525-3-1.

Note: the following training scenario, to gain relative advantage, is only one of the possible paths suggested by following the 5 red numbered bullet points in the illustration.

  1. Competition— No overt hostilities are yet detected. Blue bar (force projection) is in standoff against red bar (threat).
  2. Strategic Support area— National assets (blue) detect breaching of standoff by adversary (in red).
  3. Close area support— blue assets hand-off to the combatant commands, who are to create effects visible to the adversary (in red).
  4. Deep maneuver— blue combatant actions dis-integrate adversary efforts (per TRADOC pamphlet 525-3-1: "militarily compete, penetrate, dis-integrate, and exploit" the adversary); —Operational and Strategic deep fires create effects on the adversary. Adversary is further subject to defeat in detail, until adversaries perceive they are overmatched (no more red assets to expend).
  5. Adversary retreats to standoff. The populations perceive that the adversary is defeated, for now. (Compare to Perkins' cycle, 'return to competition', in which deterrence has succeeded in avoiding a total war, in favor of pushing an adversary back to standoff (the red threat bar). Blue force projection still has overmatched red threat.)

In 2019 the 27th Secretary of Defense ordered the four services and the Joint staff to create a new joint warfighting concept for All-domain operations (ADO), operating simultaneously in the air, land, sea, space, cyber, and the electromagnetic spectrum (EMS).[n] In 2021 the 28th Secretary of Defense approved the Joint warfighting concept (JWC), which remains classified.[299][b]

The 20th Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff has allocated roles to each of the services in concept development for Joint All-Domain Operations (JADO);[301]

In late December 2019, the Air Force, Army, and Navy ran a Joint all-domain command and control (JADC2)[344][266] connection exercise of Advanced Battle Management System (ABMS)[345] for the first time. This exercise is denoted ABMS Onramp, and will occur at four month intervals.[345] JADC2 is a joint multi-domain operation (MDO);[318] the exercise will involve the Army's Long range fires, ground-based troops, and Sentinel radar. The Air Force contributes F-22s and F-35s, while the Navy is bringing F-35Cs and a destroyer to ABMS Onramp.[346][347] The December 2019 exercise used a NORTHCOM scenario.[348]

An M109A7 self-propelled howitzer at Yuma Proving Ground

The April 2020 test of ABMS was delayed by the COVID-19 pandemic.[349] The test was to have spanned bases from Eglin AFB to Nellis AFB; from Yuma Proving Ground to White Sands Missile Range— in this test, a simulated attack was to take place on 3 geographic commands: on Space Command, on Northern Command, and on Strategic Command's nuclear command, control, and communications.

JADC2 is to ensure continuity of commander's intent[350]— JADC2 was to be exercised in late August or early September 2020.[349][351][352] Integrated Air and Missile Defense Battle Command System (IBCS) is undergoing a Limited user test in August–September 2020 in preparation for a Milestone C acquisition decision.[353] IBCS is a critical building block for JADC2;[353] the ABMS test is a separate project.[354] Thirty-three different hardware platforms, some using 5G, 70 industry teams, and 65 government teams[q]: minute 9:30  participated in this ABMS Onramp, the first week in September 2020.[q][355][302] By 13 May 2021 the 28th Secretary of Defense had approved the JADC2 strategy.[356][357] On 11 August 2021 JROC had identified a 5th functional capability (IAMD) in addition to the 4 functional battles, or competitive advantages already identified.[341][358]

In August 2020 a Large force test event (LFTE) was completed at Nellis AFB; the test event demonstrated the ability of F-35s to orchestrate SEAD (Suppression of Enemy Air Defense) using F-22s, F-15Es, E/A-18Gs, B-2s, and RQ-170s.[359] In addition the ability of F-35s to direct Multi-Domain Operations (MDO) was demonstrated during the 2020 Orange Flag event at Edwards AFB (Orange Flag showed the ability of an F-35A to collect targeting data, relay that data to an airborne communications node, as well as to a simulated IBCS station).[359]

Project Convergence (PC20)

In Fall 2020, Futures Command is testing the data links between the Army's AI task force and its helicopters —Future Vertical Lift (FVL), its long-range missile launchers —Long range precision fires (LRPF), and its combat vehicles —(NGCV);[354][51][360] in Fall 2021 and going forward, the links between ABMS and Multi-domain operations are invited when the Army's Air and Missile Defense capabilities (AMD's IBCS and MSHORAD —Maneuver short-range air defense) have undergone further testing.[354][361]

In September 2020, an ABMS Demonstration at WSMR (White Sands Missile Range) shot down cruise missile surrogates with hypervelocity (speeds of Mach 5) projectiles jointly developed by the Army and Navy. The Army interceptor stems from an XM109 Paladin howitzer;[362] the Navy interceptor stems from a deck gun.[49][363][364] The data feeds used both 4G and 5G, as well as cloud-based AI feeds, to form the kill chains.[49] The kill chains directing the intercepts were developed from 60 data feeds, and took seconds to develop, as opposed to the minutes which previous processes took. Other 'sensor-to-shooter' kill chains included AIM-9 missiles launched from F-16s and MQ-9s, as well as a ground-launched AIM-9 missile (which was designed to be an air-to-air munition). Four National Test Ranges were involved in the demonstration,[49] as well as five combatant commands.[362][363][365] In October 2020 the DoD Acquisition chief completed an extensive redesign of the Adaptive acquisition framework (AAF) including software acquisition, middle-tier acquisition, defense business systems, acquisition of services, urgent capability acquisition and major capability acquisition. AAF now adheres to the updated DoD 5000.01 policy approved in September 2020 by her lead, the Deputy Defense Secretary.[336]

See PC22

In March 2021, XVIII Airborne Corps hosted a Project Maven (DoD AI-based) live-fire experiment which shares targeting data among F-35s, A-10s, HIMARS, and satellites.[366][367][368]

In June 2021 the 28th secretary of defense issued a classified memorandum directing the Services to engage in more joint experimentation and prototyping, in support of the All-domain operations (JADO) concept (the Joint warfighting concept).[369][299] In Fall 2021,[370][371] a Joint Force (Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Special Operations) used Project Convergence 2021 (PC21) to simulate the distances in the First island chain of the Pacific Ocean,[372][j] which Army Long-Range Precision Fires (LRPF) are to cover.[374][375] A Multi-domain task force (MDTF), and Special Forces took the lead during the Competition phase of the exercise.[r] In June 2021 the 35th Deputy secretary of defense announced

  1. the RDER (Rapid defense experimentation reserve, "Raider") to fund those defense organizations which successfully institutionalize experiments to exercise joint warfighting capability.[379][s]
    • One example might be, say an end-to-end flow of data, say in a kill chain from an intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance detection of an enemy hypersonic weapons launch, to interdiction of the threat, to battle damage assessment.
    • Note that exercises to deepen a service silo have a disadvantage in a competition for RDER funding.[379]
  2. an AI and data acceleration initiative[t] to help the 11 combatant commands apply their new capabilities; teams of specialists are to assist the combatant commanders to automate the data flows[381] of what are currently manual exercises in the respective command posts.[382][383][332] The most effective processes are to be left in place after the exercises.[u][386]
  3. § The DoD is seeking AI technology to gain a relative advantage in § competition.[387]

Integrated Air and Missile Defense Battle Command System (IBCS), an IAMD Battle Command System, is an Army project to unify its disparate anti-missile systems (such as the THAAD, and MIM-104 Patriot missiles) and their radars/sensors (such as THAAD's AN/TPY-2 radar, AN/MPQ-64 Sentinel, and Patriot AN/MPQ-65 radars). IBCS is being exercised in Fall 2021 (Project Convergence 2021) to experiment with its connection to JADC2 and ABMS.[388] JROC is appending IAMD capability (IAMD interoperability) to the JWC (Joint warfighting concept)[341] (Monte Carlo simulations of hundreds of thousands of IBCS missile data tracks were generated by an Army Air Defense Artillery battalion exercising IBCS in 2020;[389] The test created terabytes of data to be queried.[390][391] i.e., "connect any sensor to any shooter and any command and control node" —Eric Wesley)[c]

In a review of Project Convergence 2021 (PC2021) the director of the Network Cross-functional team (CFT) was able to state 5 takeaways for the Integrated Tactical Network:[392]

  1. "the importance of a data fabric"— [392]
  2. "a significant improvement in coverage from resilient wide-band satellite communications"— [392]
  3. "the importance of an aerial tier to the network to improve the resiliency and range"[392]
  4. extending edge mesh networking[392][393]
  5. "the need for a joint operational common picture"– [392] ("provide commanders with a single pane of glass [on a computer screen]")[394]

In August 2023 the Navy's § Live, Virtual, and Constructive environment simulated joint operation across multiple domains. This involved 22 global time zones, and simulated Joint Staff, civilian leaders, and non-navy personnel.[395]


By September 2020 the joint modernization efforts to retain overmatch in a crisis were visible in the press reports covering the joint level (DoD and the military departments).[49]

In the view of John Hyten, 11th Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs, in a crisis, each force is to have both a self-defense capability, and a deep strike capability,[235][396] operating under a unified command and control structure,[397][398] simultaneously across the domains, against the enemy.[49][4][n][13] The potential capability exposed by the use of AI in September 2020 posed a choice for the combatant commanders, who needed to select their top priority, by answering "What do you want and how do we do it?" in November 2020.[50] Hyten then had an opportunity to shape the operation of the Joint requirements oversight council, by providing a common operational picture to the combatant commanders and their forces in the respective domains,[50] to get to a position of relative advantage very quickly (faster than the enemy's OODA loop).[318][399]

In FY2021, TITAN (Tactical Intelligence Targeting Access Node)[v] was to undergo an Analysis of Alternatives (AOA).[a][w] TITAN is part of the network to integrate sensors and shooters in Multi-domain operations (MDO), in seconds. By FY2022 TITAN was meant to be a Program of Record, for CJADC2;[405] additional Soldier touchpoints will assess capabilities of two prototype satellite ground stations for downselect in 14 months by FY2023, and follow-on phases III and IV.[x]

Return to competition

By 2020 the Joint all-domain concept[n] was converging on the need for the allies and partners to convince the adversary that it is in everyone's interest to return to competition,[233][291] [350][414][283] well short of conflict between near-peer adversaries.[49][398] In 2021 the 40th Chief of Staff of the Army described the Army's role in the Continuum of military competition, a Joint concept.[20]

Great power competition does not mean great power conflict. —40th Army Chief of Staff James C. McConville[415][416]

Alliances and partnerships

A 2K12 Kub surface-to-air missile system fired during the multinational live-fire training exercise which included 10th Army Air and Missile Defense Command U.S. Army Europe, in Bulgaria June 2019

An ongoing series of programs to strengthen relationships between the Army and its allies and partners is being implemented.[417][418][419][420][421] These programs include demonstrations of cooperation, interoperability, and preparedness of its partners.[422][289][423][424][425][426][19] For example, in 2019 the Army uses DoD's State Partnership Program, to link 22 National Guard Bilateral Affairs Officers (BAOs) with 22 allies or partners in the 54 countries in European Command's area to facilitate common defense interests with the US.[427][428] In all, 89 partnerships now exist.[429][430][431] See: Foreign Area Officer (FAO)

DoD's Joint Artificial Intelligence Center (JAIC) has convened 100 online participants from 13 countries to discuss how to use AI in a way that is consonant with their national ethical principles, termed the 'AI Partnership for Defense' in 2020.[417][432][433][434][321] For example, the US has a policy of human permission needed in order to trigger the automatic kill chains.[435] In 2021 the 28th Secretary of defense committed to the department's ethical use of AI capabilities in a "responsible, equitable, traceable, reliable, and governable" way.[y]

In 2019 the 27th Secretary of Defense Mark Esper identified the Indo-Pacific Theater as the priority theater for the United States.[438] A multi-domain task force for the Indo-Pacific Theater is planned for a Defender exercise.[439][440][441][245] However, in light of the DoD 60-day travel ban due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of CONUS-based troops participating in Defender Europe 2020 was reduced to those troops already in Europe.[z]

COVID-19 has been a 'wake up call to DoD' —Matthew Donovan[446]

In 2020 the Army lost 3 NTC training rotations to COVID-19.[447][448]

JWA 20 was intended to exercise Multi-domain operations, and multinational forces, in EUCOM for 2020.[c][aa] See: Vostok 2018. EUCOM's Multi-domain task force is to be smaller than the Pacific's task force.[451][452][ab] It is expected that the task forces are to be employed in the Defender exercises in both EUCOM[453] and the Pacific.[451][289] Defender Europe 2020 was to test the ability to deploy 20,000 Soldiers across Europe, for a 37,000-member exercise.[ac]

Defender Europe 2020, a division-sized exercise was cancelled during the COVID-19 pandemic.

See Defender Europe 2022

In April 2019 Germany's 1st Panzer Division took the role of exercise High Command (HICON) at Hohenfels Training Area, primarily for German 21st Armored Brigade, the Lithuanian Iron Wolf Brigade, and their subordinate units; 5,630 participants from 15 nations took part in this Joint multinational exercise, which rotates the lead among the coalition partners. The German division already had Dutch, British and Polish officers within its ranks.[479] The Army's 2nd Battalion, 34th Armored Regiment, took part in the exercise.[480][481] Six engineering advisor teams from 1st Security Force Assistance Brigade provided hands-on experience and testing of secure communications between NATO allies and partners.[482][73][483][484]

A reciprocal exchange of general officers between France and the US is taking place in 2019, under the U.S. Army Military Personnel Exchange Program (MPEP).[485][486] Such programs with the UK, Australia, and Canada have already existed with the US.[485] A reciprocal pact for US and UK capabilities in Future Vertical Lift aircraft and Long Range Precision Fires artillery was signed in July 2020.[487] The UK and Australia are planning to participate in the US Army's Project Convergence 2022.[488]

Multi-domain task forces (MDTFs)
Multi-domain task force (MDTF), a brigade-sized formation.[4][12][489][490] Five MDTFs are planned:[19][ab] 3 for INDOPACOM,[491] 1 for EUCOM, 1 formerly for the Arctic (but now the 3rd MDTF in INDOPACOM),[492] and 1 for global response, each tailored for the needs of the Joint force commander.[ah] An MDTF can simultaneously operate across multiple stages of the conflict continuum,[494]: minute 32:45  and engage antagonists at thousands of miles,[495] for sustained periods.[ab][496]

In April 2021, the Army announced that EUCOM's Multi-domain task force (MDTF),[497][ab] and a Theater Fires Command[498][499] to control it, are to deploy to the European Theater, and are based in Wiesbaden, Germany. The Fires command is a headquarters to coordinate Long range fires (for ranges from 300 miles to thousands of miles) for the European theater.[500]

In April 2021, 3000 headquarters-level troops, including UK 3rd Division and French 3rd Division, came to Fort Cavazos to exercise Corps-level and Division-level staffs on Large-scale combat operations (LSCO).[501][502] The Mission Command Center of Excellence (MCCoE) provided Opposing forces (OPFOR) and multiple dilemmas for the Warfighters to train on. III Armored Corps commander Pat White stated "the key goal of the exercise, to build international partnerships and increase interoperability, was realized".[501] British and French commanders noted the need to further develop electronic warfare and signals intelligence capabilities.[503]

In May 2021, 7th Army Training Command led Dynamic Front 21 (DF21), a USAEUR-AF exercise in integrating joint fires for artillery units from 15 nations. The exercise was meant to increase the readiness, lethality, and interoperability for nearly 1800 artillery troops from the 15 nations at Camp Aachen, Germany. Later locations for DF21 included Vilseck Army Air Field, Germany, Grafenwoehr Training Area, Germany, and Torun, Poland.[504]

V Corps FOC

In October 2021 V Corps attained Full operational capability (FOC) by completing Warfighter exercise 22-1 (WFX 22-1),[505] in a series of command post exercises in Large scale combat operations (LSCO).[506] The operations involved a combatant command, Active Army, Reserve and National Guard components, a Theater training command, and a sustainment command,[505] as well as multi-national partners.[504][475] V Corps was slated to lead the Defender Europe 22, as of October 2021.[507]

In 2020 the Secretary of the Army announced 5-month extended rotations to United States Indo-Pacific Command countries such as Thailand, the Philippines, and Papua New Guinea.[508] Multi-Domain Operations (MDO) task forces in the region have already been engaging in MDO-like exercises in concert with the armed forces of Japan, Thailand, and Singapore.[508]

Two Multi-domain task forces are being requested for Indo-Pacom for 2021.[509][510][401][400][ab][489][511] 5th Security Force Assistance Brigade is regionally aligned with USINDOPACOM,[512] and plans to keep one-third of the brigade's advisor teams there at all times, while the other teams train at home station (JBLM), for their assignments in the region.[513] The third[514][515] and fourth[516] ABMS Onramp exercises of Joint all-domain command and control (JADC2) are being planned in 2020, and 2021 for INDOPACOM, and EUCOM respectively.[ai] This is meant to bring key US allies into the planning for the Joint All-Domain Operations Concept,[235][49][514] thereby enabling their "participation in planning, execution and then debrief" after a coalition exercise[516] in overmatching the adversary,[398] and maintaining a Common operational picture (COP),[311][321] to review measured responses, both kinetic and nonkinetic.[283][335] The COVID-19 pandemic actually provided the impetus for rapid fielding of a DoD technology for separating Top secret, Secret, and Unclassified messaging, a necessary function for the Intelligence community.[aj] The JSIL connection of experimental networks with Army battle labs is a way to determine the bandwidth needed for these vignettes, to prepare Project Convergence 2021 for Joint All-Domain Command and Control (JADC2).[488][520]

Defender Pacific 2021 focuses on the southwest Pacific region.[521] The Army was to draw from a pre-positioned stock for its units, exercise its watercraft and an MDTF's long range precision fires.[521] In 2021 the 28th Secretary of Defense, Lloyd Austin, stated he expected to "review our posture in the Pacific from all aspects including presence, capabilities, logistics, exercises, infrastructure, and capacity building and cooperation with allies and partners" during his questioning by the Senate Armed Services Committee.[ak] Integrated deterrence is the objective of the 28th Secretary of defense, in joint exercises in Australian waters,[525] with HMS Queen Elizabeth (R08) in the South China Sea,[526] and by US Special Forces soldiers (Green Berets) with Japan's Self-defense force (JGSDF) parachuting onto Guam.[527][341] On 15 September 2021 the ministers of defense, and foreign affairs, and the secretaries of defense, and state for Australia, and the US, respectively, namely Peter Dutton, Marise Payne, Lloyd Austin, and Antony Blinken signed statements of intent to jointly build nuclear submarines, and share National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) data, as well as a space framework.[528] See AUKUS. On 24 September 2021 the heads of state of Australia, India, Japan, and the US (the Quadrilateral Security Dialog) met face-to-face to discuss cybersecurity, and fix supply chain vulnerabilities, such as electronic chip, and 5G technology.[529] FY2021 marks the end of the Army's manpower expansion, in its effort to modernize.[530][531]

Arctic strategy

In January 2021 the Army announced its arctic strategy, for arctic, extreme cold, and mountainous environments, which affect the NORTHCOM, EUCOM, and INDOPACOM combatant commands.[532][533] A two-star multi-domain-enabled operational headquarters will be established for the Arctic.[534] Soldiers will be receiving extra support for adapting to the Alaskan Arctic,[535][536] beginning in 2022 and going forward.[537][538] The BCTs of US Army Alaska are reflagging as of 6 June 2022 from 1st SBCT/25th ID, and 4th IBCT/25th ID, to 1st IBCT/11th ID (Airborne), and 2nd IBCT/11th ID (Airborne) respectively; US Army Alaska is now 11th Infantry Division (Airborne) as of 6 June 2022.[539] The Bundeswehr is thinking of training in Alaska.[540] An Arctic Multi-domain task force (MDTF) was planned,[492][ah] to balance the interests of the 8 partners of the Arctic Council, which include Russia, and China as an observer nation.[al] See Cold Response

Defender Europe 2022

Defender Europe 2022 started 3 May 2022, under the command and control of V Corps, which has had a forward-deployed Headquarters in Europe since 2021. The exercises will involve 11 allied and partner nations, including Denmark, Estonia, Germany, France, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia, Sweden, and Great Britain. Defender Europe 2022 had been previously planned, on a longer timescale than the wartime events of 2022, such as the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine.[am] For example, a float ribbon bridge was erected by troops from Fort Hood, Texas who are deploying to Europe.[548] The bridge came from pre-positioned stocks drawn from APS-2, located in Europe.[549][550]


Australia, New Zealand, the UK, Canada, and other allies and partners (such as universities)[55][551][552] expect they will bring experiments or prototype capabilities to Project Convergence 2022.[367] PC22 will require connection of the allies and partners; the connections were exercised during COMMEX 1B in June.[553] Global defender 2022 (GD22) will culminate with Project Convergence 2022 (PC22).[554][555] In the week of 6 Jun 2022 planning for PC22 at Fort Bliss was finalized. The UK and Australian planners were added to the PC22 experiment; their concepts join the 100 technologies incorporated by USAF, Navy, Marines, and Space Force planners. The commander of AFC's Futures and Concepts Lieutenant Gen. Scott McKean, and peers for the services and allies took this opportunity to mutually review their plans for the FY2022 event.[556][557][558][559][560][561][562]

The Synthetic Training Environment's One World Terrain (OWT) data sets are beginning to be used as operational planning tools, for example by V corps, and at PC20, and at PC21. As virtual maps, rather than paper maps, they can project scenarios which will also be used at PC22 in October and November 2022.[563]

In October 2022, the experiments from the previous Project Convergence were scaled up, from just Army in PC21 to joint and international exercises in PC22.[564] AI was utilized not just for autonomous flight, but also for predicting where logistics would be needed in contested environments.[564] PC22 experimented with some 300 technologies.[565][566] Scenarios during PC22 included Tomahawk, SM-6, and LRHW missiles.[564][a][325] 82nd Airborne participated in the PC22 experiments, using newly developed equipment.[567][568][569][570][571]

In November 2022, at PC22, the use of an uncrewed Black Hawk helicopter under autonomous control was demonstrated in a contested logistics exercise.[572]

Defender 2023

In April 2023 Defender 2023, a logistics exercise of US Army Europe and Africa[573] was transported to Naval Station Rota, Spain. Spain was the host nation for 5-159th GSAB (5th Battalion, a general support aviation battalion of the 159th Aviation Regiment). 5th Battalion is an Army Reserve unit out of Fort Eustis, Virginia. The aviation materiel included CH-47s, Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawks, and supporting equipment.[573]


Project Convergence co-locates from WSMR and YPG (the hub), to allies and partners.[574][575][576] PC24 could occur by spring 2024.[577][578][58]

Training and readiness

Under Schoomaker, combat training centers (CTCs) emphasized the contemporary operating environment (such as an urban, ethnically-sensitive city in Iraq) and stress units according to the unit mission and the commanders' assessments, collaborating often to support holistic collective training programs, rather than by exception as was formerly the case.

Schoomaker's plan was to resource units based on the mission they are expected to accomplish (major combat versus SASO, or stability and support operations), regardless of component (active or reserve). Instead of using snapshot readiness reports, the Army now rates units based on the mission they are expected to perform given their position across the three force pools ('reset', 'train/ready', and 'available').[579] The Army now deploys units upon each commanders' signature on the certificate of their unit's assessment (viz., Ready). As of June 2016, only one-third of the Army's brigades were ready to deploy.[580][581]: 5:55  By 2019, two-thirds of the Active Army's brigades[228] and half of the BCTs of the Total Army (both Active and Reserve components) are now at the highest level of readiness.[582] The FY2021 budget request allows two-thirds of the Total Army (1,012,200 Soldiers by 2022) to reach the highest level of readiness by FY2022 —Maj. Gen. Paul Chamberlain.[530][583]

Soldiers need to be ready[an] 100 percent of the time

Robert B. Abrams, FORSCOM commander, June 2, 2016[61]

39th Chief of Staff Mark Milley's readiness objective is that all operational units be at 90 percent of the authorized strength in 2018, at 100 percent by 2021, and at 105 percent by 2023.[586][587] The observer coach/trainers[588] at the combat training centers, recruiters,[589][590] and drill sergeants are to be filled to 100 percent strength by the end of 2018.[586][591] In November 2018, written deployability standards (Army Directive 2018–22) were set by the Secretary and the Chief of Staff of the Army; failure to meet the standard means a soldier has six months to remedy this, or face separation from the Army.[592] The directive does not apply to about 60,000 of the 1,016,000 Soldiers of the Army; 70–80 percent of the 60,000 are non-deployable for medical reasons. Non-deployables have declined from 121,000 in 2017.[592] The Army combat fitness test (ACFT) will test all soldiers;[593] at the minimum, the 3-Repetition Maximum Deadlift, the Sprint-Drag-Carry and an aerobic event will be required of all soldiers, including those with profiles (meaning there is an annotation in their record See: PULHES Factor); the assessment of the alternative aerobic test will be completed by 19 October 2019.[594]

Soldier and Family Readiness Groups

By 2022 surveys of military servicemen, veterans, and spouses and family were indicating that financial and other difficulties were raising questions about the viability of an all-volunteer force.[595][596]

Soldiers and Army spouses belong to Soldier and Family Readiness Groups (SFRGs),[597][598][an] renamed from (FRGs)[599] which mirror the command structure of an Army unit—the spouse of the 40th Chief of Staff of the United States Army has served on the FRG at every echelon of the Army.[600]: Ryan McCarthy, minute 39:33  The name change to SFRG is to be more inclusive of single soldiers, single parents, and also those with nontraditional families.[598] An S/FRG seeks to meet the needs of soldiers and their families, for example during a deployment,[601] or to address privatized housing deficiencies,[602] or to aid spouses find jobs.[603] As a soldier transfers in and out of an installation, the soldier's entire family will typically undergo a permanent change of station (PCS) to the next post. PCS to Europe and Japan is now uniformly for 36 months, regardless of family status[604][605] (formerly 36 months for families). Transfers typically follow the cycle of the school year to minimize disruption in an Army family.[606] By policy, DoD families stationed in Europe and Japan who have school-aged children are served by American school systems— the Department of Defense Dependents Schools.[607] Noncombatant evacuation operations are a contingency which an FRG could publicize and plan for, should the need arise.[133]: p.11  In 2021, a new Exceptional Family Member Program (EFMP) is being tested by 300 families who are undergoing a permanent change of station (PCS).[608]

When a family emergency occurs, the informal support of that unit's S/FRG is available to the soldier.[601][609] (But the Army Emergency Relief fund is available to any soldier with a phone call to their local garrison.[610][611][612] Seventy-five Fisher Houses maintain home-away-from-home suites for families undergoing medical treatment of a loved one. The Army, Navy, and Air Force Medical Treatment Facilities (MTFs) are scheduled to complete their transfer to the Defense Health Agency (DHA) no later than 21 October 2021. This has been a ten-year process. The directors of each home installation's Medical treatment facility (MTF) continue to report to the commanders of their respective installations. This change transfers all civilian employees of each Medical treatment facility (MTF) to the Defense Health Agency (DHA).[613][614]) The name change links Soldier Readiness with Family Readiness.[599] Commanders will retain full responsibility for Soldier sponsorship after a move, especially for first term Soldiers in that move.[615][616]

In response to Army tenant problems with privatized base housing, IMCOM was subordinated to Army Materiel Command (AMC) on 8 March 2019.[617][618][619] By 2020, AMC's commander and the Residential community initiative (RCI) groups had formulated a 50-year plan. The Army's RCI groups, "seven private housing companies, which have 50-year lease agreements" on 98% of Army housing at 44 installations, will work with the Army for long-term housing improvements,[620][621][622] and remediation.[619][623][624]

In 2020 Secretary McCarthy determined that the Sexual Harassment/Assault Response & Prevention (SHARP) program has failed to meet its mandate,[625] particularly for young unmarried Soldiers at Fort Hood and Camp Casey, South Korea.[626] Missing soldiers were previously classified as Absent without leave until enough time has elapsed to be denoted deserters, rather than victims of a crime; the Army has established a new classification for missing Soldiers, to merit police investigation.[627][628][629]

In response to the report of the Fort Hood Independent Review Committee, the Army has established the People first task force (PFTF), an Army-wide task force that is headed by 3 chairs: 1) Lt. Gen. Gary M. Brito, 2) Diane M. Randon, and 3) Sgt. Maj. Julie A.M. Guerra, who are: 1) the deputy chief of staff G-1, 2) the assistant deputy chief of staff G-2, and 3) the assistant deputy chief of staff G-2 Sgt. Maj. respectively.[630] Cohesion assessment teams (CATs), part of the People first task force, work with brigade commanders on their brigade's command climate. The Cohesion assessment team interviews members of that brigade or battalion, to identify any problems. The CAT then works with the unit commanders to address the root causes of those problems.[631] On 13 May 2022 Fort Hood's People First Center opened its doors; the center is to offer immersive experiences for participants over several days, centered on "family advocacy, sexual harassment and assault prevention, equal opportunity, resiliency, substance abuse, suicide [prevention][632] (The Senate Armed Services Committee is requesting that the military track suicides by MOS.),[633] and spiritual readiness ... all housed at the center with training focused on immersion", collocated with subject matter experts.[634][616]

USAR mobilization

See: Soldier Readiness Processing

Plans are being formulated for mobilization of the Army Reserve (42,000 to 45,000 soldiers) very quickly.[635] For example, 'Ready Force X' (RFX) teams have fielded Deployment Assistance Team Command and Control Cells to expedite the associated equipment to the various ports and vessels which is required for the specific Reserve personnel who have been notified that they are deploying.[636] FORSCOM's mobilization and force generation installations (MFGIs) have fluctuated from two primary[637][638] installations (2018) to an envisioned eleven primary and fourteen contingency MFGIs, in preparation for future actions against near-peers.[639][640] [641][83]

National Guard training

The 29th chief of the National Guard Bureau, as director of the Army National Guard, plans to align existing ARNG divisions with subordinate training formations.[642] This plan increases the number of divisions in the Total Army from 10 to 18, and increases the readiness of the National Guard divisions, by aligning their training plans with large-scale combat operations.[642] Additional advantages of the August 2020 plan are increased opportunity for talent management, from the Company to the Division level, and opportunity for leader development unfettered by geographical restriction.[83][461]

"Associated units" training program

The Army announced a pilot program, 'associated units', in which a National Guard or Reserve unit would now train with a specific active Army formation. These units would wear the patch of the specific Army division before their deployment to a theater;[643] 36th Infantry Division headquarters deployed to Afghanistan in May 2016 for a train, advise, assist mission.[644]

The Army Reserve, whose headquarters are co-located with FORSCOM, and the National Guard, are testing the associated units program in a three-year pilot program with the active Army. The program will use the First Army training roles at the Army Combat Training Centers at Fort Irwin, Fort Polk, and regional and overseas training facilities.[645]

The pilot program complements FORSCOM's total force partnerships with the National Guard, begun in 2014.[646] Summer 2016 will see the first of these units.

Rifleman training

Soldiers train for weapons handling, and marksmanship first individually, on static firing ranges, and then on simulators such as an Engagement Skills Trainer (EST). More advanced training on squad level simulators (Squad Advanced Marksmanship-Trainer (SAMT)) place a squad in virtual engagements against avatars of various types,[649] using M4 carbine, M249 light machine gun and M9 Beretta pistol simulated weapon systems.[649] Home stations are to receive Synthetic training environments (STEs) for mission training, as an alternative to rotations to the National Combat Training Centers, which operate Brigade-level training against an Opposing force (OPFOR) with near-peer equipment.

Some installations have urban training facilities for infantrymen, in preparation for brigade-level training.[650]

A 2019 marksmanship manual TC 3-20.40, Training and Qualification-Individual Weapons (the "Dot-40") now mandates the use of the simulators, as if the soldier were in combat.[651] The Dot-40 is to be used by the entire Army, from the Cadets at West Point to the Active Army, the Army Reserve, and Army National Guard;[651] the Dot-40 tests how rapidly soldiers can load and reload while standing, kneeling, lying prone, and firing from behind a barrier.[651] The marksmanship tests of a soldier's critical thinking, selecting targets to shoot at, in which order, and the accuracy of each shot are recorded by the simulators.[651]

Stryker training

Up to a platoon-sized unit of a Stryker brigade combat team, and dismounted infantry, can train on Stryker simulators (Stryker Virtual Collective Trainer – SVCT), which are in the process of being installed at eight home stations. The fourth was being completed as of 2019.[652] Forty-five infantrymen (four Stryker shells) or thirty-six scouts (six Stryker shells) can rehearse their battle rhythm on a virtual battlefield, record their lessons learned, give their after-action reports, and repeat, as a team. The Stryker gunner's seat comes directly from a Stryker vehicle and has a Common Remotely Operated Weapon Station (CROWS) and joystick to control a virtual .50 caliber (12.7 mm) heavy machine gun or a virtual 30 mm autocannon and other CROWS configurations are possible.[652][653]

Digital air ground integration ranges (DAGIRs)

Live-fire digital air ground integration ranges (DAGIRs) were first conceptualized in the 1990s, and established in 2012,[654] with follow-on in 2019.[655] The ranges initially included 23 miles of tank trails,[656] targets, battlefield effects simulators, and digital wiring for aerial scorekeeping.[655] These ranges are designed for coordinating air and ground exercises before full-on sessions at the National Training Centers.[655]

Training against OPFORs

Opposing-Forces Surrogate Vehicles (OSVs) undergoing maintenance at Anniston Army Depot

To serve a role as an Opposing force (OPFOR) could be a mission for an Army unit, as temporary duty (TDY), during which they might wear old battle dress uniforms, perhaps inside-out.[657] TRADOC's Mission Command Training Program, as well as Cyber Command designs tactics for these OPFORs. When a brigade trains at Fort Irwin, Fort Polk, Joint Pacific Multinational Readiness Center,[658] or Joint Multinational Training Center (in Hohenfels, Germany) the Army tasks 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment, 1st Battalion, 509th Infantry Regiment (Abn), 196th Infantry Brigade, and 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry Regiment, respectively, with the OPFOR role,[659] and provides the OPFOR with modern equipment (such as the FGM-148 Javelin anti-tank missile) to test that brigade's readiness for deployment. Multiple integrated laser engagement systems serve as proxies for actual fired weapons, and soldiers are lost to the commander from "kills" by laser hits.[660]

Training against cyber

Deceptive data intended to divide deployed forces are making their way into the news feeds, and are falsely implicating actual soldiers who are deployed at the time of the false social media reports, which are mixing fact and fiction.[661][13]

The Army now has its tenth direct-commissioned cyber officer: a Sergeant First Class with a computer engineering degree, and a masters in system engineering was commissioned a major in the National Guard, 91st Cyber Brigade, on 30 July 2020.[662]

Soldier integration facility

PEO Soldier has established a Soldier integration facility (SIF) at Fort Belvoir which allows prototyping and evaluation of combat capabilities for the Army Soldier.[663] CCDC Soldier center in Natick Massachusetts, Night Vision Lab at Fort Belvoir Virginia, and Maneuver Battle Lab at Fort Moore Georgia have prototyped ideas at the SIF.[663]

Applications for Synthetic Training Environment (STE)

The Squad Advanced Marksmanship Training (SAMT) system, developed by the STE Cross-functional team from Futures Command, has an application for 1st SFAB.[664] Bluetooth enabled replicas of M4 rifles and M9 and Glock 19 pistols, with compressed air recoil approximate the form, fit and function of the weapons that the Soldiers are using in close combat. For 1st SFAB, scenarios included virtual reality attacks which felt like engagements in a room. The scenarios can involve the entire SFAB Advisor team, and engagements can be repeated over and over again. Advanced marksmanship skills such as firing with the non-dominant hand, and firing on the move can be practiced.[664]

Nine Army sites are now equipped with the SAMT. Over twenty systems are planned for locations in the United States.[664] The Close combat tactical trainers are in use, for example, to train 3rd Infantry Division headquarters for a gunnery training event (convoy protection role),[665] and 2nd BCT/ 82nd Airborne close combat training.[666]

The concept has been extended to the Live, Virtual, Constructive Integrating Architecture (LVC-IA), to integrate the National Guard, and the Reserves, with Active Army.[667]

Other training environments include MANPADS for SHORAD in the 14P MOS at Fort Sill.[671][672]

I believe that a training environment .. should be a maneuver trainer, and it should be a gunnery trainer

Retired Gen. Peter W. Chiarelli, 32nd vice chief of staff of the Army[673]

Deployment scheme

Further information: Reorganization plan of United States Army § Readiness model

The force generation system, posited in 2006 by General Schoomaker, projected that the U.S. Army would be deployed continuously. The Army would serve as an expeditionary force to fight a protracted campaign against terrorism and stand ready for other potential contingencies across the full-spectrum of operations (from humanitarian and stability operations to major combat operations against a conventional foe).

Under ideal circumstances, Army units would have a minimum "dwell time," a minimum duration of which it would remain at home station before deployment. Active-duty units would be prepared to deploy once every three years. Army Reserve units would be prepared to deploy once every five years. National Guard units would be prepared to deploy once every six years. A total of 71 combat brigades would form the Army's rotation basis, 42 from the active component with the balance from the reserves.

Thus, around 15 active-duty combat brigades would be available for deployment each year under the 2006 force-generation plan. An additional 4 or 5 brigades would be available for deployment from the reserve component. The plan was designed to provide more stability to soldiers and their families. Within the system, a surge capability would exist so that about an additional 18 brigades could be deployed in addition to the 19 or 20 scheduled brigades.

From General Dan McNeil, former Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) Commander: Within the Army Forces Generation (ARFORGEN) model, brigade combat teams (BCTs) would move through a series of three force pools;[579] they would enter the model at its inception, the "reset force pool", upon completion of a deployment cycle. There they would re-equip and reman while executing all individual predeployment training requirements, attaining readiness as quickly as possible. Reset or "R" day, recommended by FORSCOM and approved by Headquarters, Department of the Army, would be marked by BCT changes of command, preceded or followed closely by other key leadership transitions. While in the reset pool, formations would be remanned, reaching 100% of mission required strength by the end of the phase, while also reorganizing and fielding new equipment, if appropriate. In addition, it is there that units would be confirmed against future missions, either as deployment expeditionary forces (DEFs-BCTs trained for known operational requirements), ready expeditionary forces (REFs-BCTs that form the pool of available forces for short-notice missions) or contingency expeditionary forces (CEFs-BCTs earmarked for contingency operations).

Based on their commanders' assessments, units would move to the ready force pool, from which they could deploy should they be needed, and in which the unit training focus would be at the higher collective levels. Units would enter the available force pool when there is approximately one year left in the cycle, after validating their collective mission-essential task list proficiency (either core or theater-specific tasks) via battle-staff and dirt-mission rehearsal exercises. The available phase would be the only phase with a specified time limit: one year. Not unlike the division-ready brigades of past decades, these formations would deploy to fulfill specific requirements or stand ready to fulfill short-notice deployments within 30 days.

The goal was to generate forces 12–18 months in advance of combatant commanders' requirements and to begin preparing every unit for its future mission as early as possible in order to increase its overall proficiency.

Personnel management would also be reorganized as part of the Army transformation. Previously, personnel was managed on an individual basis in which soldiers were rotated without regard for the effect on unit cohesion. This system required unpopular measures such as "stop loss" and "stop move" in order to maintain force levels. In contrast, the new personnel system would operate on a unit basis to the maximum extent possible, with the goal of allowing teams to remain together longer and enabling families to establish ties within their communities.

Abrams 2016 noted that mid-level Army soldiers found they faced an unexpected uptempo in their requirements,[61] while entry-level soldiers in fact welcomed the increased challenge.[61]

Readiness model

ARFORGEN, "a structured progression of increased unit readiness over time, resulting in recurring periods of availability of trained, ready, and cohesive units prepared for operational deployment in support of geographic Combatant Commander requirements" was utilized in the 2010s.[674][180][259][675] ARFORGEN was replaced by the Sustainable Readiness Model (SRM) in 2017.[676][677][61][86] In 2016 the 39th Chief of Staff of the Army identified the objective of a sustainable readiness process as over 66 percent of the Active Army in combat ready state at any time;[678] in 2019 the readiness objective of the National Guard and Army Reserve units was set to be 33 percent; Total Army readiness for deployment was 40 percent in 2019.[228][an]

Regionally Aligned Readiness and Modernization Model (ReARMM) is a unit lifecycle model which goes into effect in October 2021.[679][680] ReARMM was introduced in October 2020. It is a force generation model which uses the total Army, the Reserve components as well as Active component when planning.[681] Dynamic force employment (DFE) will be used more often.[681] The Operational tempo will decrease, which gives Commanders will more times, 'training windows' during which their units can train, first at the small-unit level, and then at larger-step modernization of their formations.[679] The units can then train at echelon for Large scale combat operations (LSCO) at a more measured pace.[679]

In 2018 39th Chief of Staff Mark Milley's readiness objective is that all operational units be at 90 percent of the authorized strength in 2018, at 100 percent by 2021, and at 105 percent by 2023.[586] The observer coach/trainers at the combat training centers, recruiters, and drill sergeants are to be filled to 100 percent strength by the end of 2018.[586]

The requested strength of the Active Army in FY2020 is increasing by 4,000 additional troops from the current 476,000 soldiers;[11] this request covers the near-term needs for cyber, air & missile defense, and fires (Army modernization).[11][682]

Organic industrial base (OIB)

The Army’s Organic industrial base (OIB) Modernization Implementation Plan got a refresh in 2022, with a review of the "23 depots, arsenals and ammunition plants that manufacture, reset and maintain Army equipment", in light of the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine.[683][684][685]

The Acting CG of FORSCOM, Lt. Gen. Laura Richardson, has noted that the Sustainable Readiness Model uses the Army standard for maintenance readiness, denoted TM 10/20,[86] which makes commanders responsible for maintaining their equipment to the TM 10/20 standard, meaning that "all routine maintenance is executed and all deficiencies are repaired".[686]: p. 79  But Richardson has also spoken out about aviation-related supplier deficiencies hurting readiness both at the combatant commands and at the home stations.[687][688]

Prepositioned stocks

Materiel for 2nd Armored Brigade Combat Team, 1st Infantry Division,[689] arriving in Gdańsk, Poland

United States Army Materiel Command (AMC), which uses Army Field Support Brigades (AFSB) to provision the Combatant Commands, has established Army prepositioned stocks (APS) for supplying entire Brigade Combat Teams (BCTs),[690] at several areas of responsibility (AORs):[176][133]: p.28:Defender Europe 2020 [283]

By 2020 AMC had seven Army prepositioned stocks.[231]

Medical readiness is being tested by the U.S. Army Medical Materiel Agency, a Life Cycle Management Command (LCMC). The LCMCs are stocking three additional locations in the US (APS-1), as well as APS-2 (EUCOM), and Korea, as of 12 February 2019.[698] For example, during Operation Spartan Shield, the LCMC's relevant AFSB effected the hand-off of prepositioned stocks to 155th Armored Brigade Combat Team (ABCT) within 96 hours.[699] In the same Operation, 155th ABCT was issued an entire equipment set for an ABCT, drawn from APS-5 stocks, over 13,000 pieces.[700]

Air Defense Artillery deployments

On 27 March 2018 the 678th Air Defense Artillery Brigade (South Carolina National Guard) deployed to EUCOM, Ansbach Germany for a nine-month rotation, for the first time since the Cold War.[701] 10th AAMDC is the executive agent for EUCOM.

In September 2018, the Wall Street Journal reported that four Patriot systems— Two from Kuwait, and one apiece from Jordan and Bahrain are redeploying back to the U.S. for refurbishment and upgrades, and will not be replaced.[702][703] In June 2021, 8 Patriot batteries and a THAAD battery are being withdrawn from the CENTCOM area to focus on Russia and China.[704] By March 2022 NATO Patriot batteries had begun repositioning to Slovakia, and Poland from the Netherlands, and Germany respectively.[705][706]

Forward-deployed materiel

As the U.S. Army's only forward-deployed Airborne brigade, 173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team, stationed in EUCOM, was supplied with new communications materiel — Integrated Tactical Networks (ITN) in 2018.[707] New ground combat vehicles, the Infantry Carrier Vehicle – Dragoon (M1126 Infantry Carrier Vehicle) are being supplied to 2nd Cavalry Regiment. ICVDs are Strykers with an unmanned turret and 30 mm autocannon (CROWS), and an integrated commander's station, upgraded suspension and larger tires.[707][708][709] The Army brigades of EUCOM have been in position for testing materiel, as its elements engaged in a 2018 road march through Europe, training with 19 ally and partner nations in Poland in 2018.[707]

Dynamic force employment

2nd Armored Brigade Combat Team (ABCT), 1st Armored Division (2/1AD) element in a snap deployment from Fort Bliss to Drawsko Pomorskie training area, Poland, 29 March 2019

This initiative, designed by then-DoD-Secretary James Mattis, exercises the ability of selected BCTs to rapidly surge combat-ready forces into a theater,[83] such as EUCOM, on short notice.[710][711] In several such cases, at the direction of the Secretary of Defense in March 2019, troops were rapidly alerted, recalled and deployed to a forward position, under (simulated) emergency conditions, to prove a capability (such as an ABCT, and a THAAD battery)[712][713][714] against near-peers.[715] The ABCT element next participated in a joint live-fire exercise with Polish troops of the 12th Mechanized Brigade, 12th Mechanised Division (Poland) in Drawsko Pomorskie Training Area, Poland.[716] (A Mission Command element of TRADOC served in the role of echelon-above-brigade for the maneuver and interoperability of the joint multi-national armored brigades.)[716] In September 2018, the 278th Armored Cavalry Regiment had already assumed a forward deployment in Poland.[717][718] Poland and the US are planning for regular rotations going forward.[719][720][721][722][723]

Similar initiatives are planned for other alliances.[35]

In August 2020 Poland agreed to pay almost all costs associated with US presence in the country;[724] [425] a forward command post for V Corps in Poland has been codified in an Enhanced Defense Cooperation Agreement between the US and Poland.[725][726] [727][728][729][730] Poland is buying 250 M1A2 Abrams tanks as of 14 July 2021.[731][732][733] Poland ordered an additional 116 used M1A1 Abrams tanks, with faster delivery dates on 15 July 2022.[734] The first 14 of an expected 42 M1A1 Abrams tanks arrived in Poland on 28 June 2023; the 42 will comprise one tank battalion; the 42 tanks are to be the 2023 tranche of 116 M1A1 tanks for Poland.[735][734][736][737] Poland is buying 96 AH-64E Apaches (to equip six squadrons).[738] A Combat Aviation Brigade element, an Armored Combat Brigade element, and a Division Headquarters element will rotate in.[726]

FORSCOM exercised its Emergency deployment readiness exercises (EDREs) in 2019 by sending 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division to the Joint Readiness Training Center in Fort Polk, Louisiana, by sealift, simultaneously exercising the logistics planners at Fort Drum, the seaports in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Port Arthur, Texas, as well as 2nd BCT.[86] Through the EDRE program, 20 of the ports have been exercised to ready them for sealift deployments.[86] A division-sized move of 20,000 pieces of equipment from the US to Europe began a month-long process in January 2020.[457][462][425] In 2020 the pre-COVID-19 plan was "wide-spanning maneuvers will focus on the Baltic States, Poland, and Georgia" (at the time) which would have involved 36,000 troops from 11 countries ranging from the Baltic to the Black Seas,[460] a number still in flux.[442] A number of the Defender-2020 objectives were met in 2020, despite a 60-day travel ban by DoD.

By 2020 the 27th Secretary of Defense signaled that ABMS, its Internet of Military Things, and JADC2 were important parts for Dynamic force employment (DFE) in the Joint All-domain Operations Concept.[739] The Combatant commanders at Eucom, and at IndoPacom sought the AGM-183A (ARRW) hypersonic weapon on the bomber fleet for Dynamic force employment.[740]

In light of the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, thousands more troops have posted or rotated to Europe.[741] As of February 2023 the US is planning a HIMARS training center in Poland.[742][743][744] In order to get 31 Abrams tanks to Ukraine, the Army is weighing options with the fastest delivery times, none of which are sooner than year-end 2023.[745][ao][746]

Force size and unit organization

Overall, the Army would end up with 71 brigade combat teams and 212 support brigades, in the pre-2013 design. The Regular Army would move from 33 brigade combat teams in 2003 to 43 brigade combat teams together with 75 modular support brigades, for a total of 118 Regular Army modular brigades. In addition the previously un-designated training brigades such as the Infantry Training Brigade at Fort Moore assumed the lineage & honors of formerly active Regular Army combat brigades. In 2017 there were 31 brigade combat teams in the Active Army. Within the Army National Guard, there were to be 28 brigade combat teams and 78 support brigades. Within the Army Reserve, the objective was 59 support brigades. Chief of Staff Mark Milley credits Creighton Abrams (Chief of Staff 1972-1974), for placing most of the support brigades in the Reserve and National Guard in order to ensure that the nation would use the total army rather than only the active army in an extended war involving the entire nation.[137]: minute 42:30 [747]

The Reserve component will be playing an increased role.[83] In the Total Army, eight Army National Guard divisions are to be trained to increase their readiness for large-scale combat operations,[642][461] making 58 BCTs in the Total Army in 2018,[748] and six SFABs in 2020.

Army commands

Army service component commands

Army direct reporting units

Field armies

Army corps

Divisions and brigades

Note: these formations were subject to change, announced in 2013 reform[749]

In the post-2013 design, the Regular Army was planned to reduce to 32 BCTs after all the BCTs had been announced for inactivation.[750] The 2018 budget was to further reduce 40,000 active-duty soldiers from 490,000 in 2015 to 450,000 by 2018 fiscal year-end. Thirty installations would have been affected; six of these installations would have accounted for over 12,000 of those to be let go. In early 2015, the plan was to cut entire BCTs; by July 2015, a new plan, to downsize a BCT (4,500 soldiers) to a maneuver battalion task force (1,032 soldiers, with the possibility of upsizing if need be) was formulated. In 2015, a plan was instituted to allow further shrinking of the Army, by converting selected brigades to maneuver battalion task forces.[751] A maneuver battalion task force includes about 1,050 Soldiers rather than the 4,000 in a full BCT.[752] This 9 July 2015 plan, however, would preclude rapid deployment of such a unit until it has been reconstituted back to full re-deployable strength. This is being addressed with the § "Associated units" training program from the Reserve and Guard.

In 2017 the National Defense Strategy and National Security Strategy[581]: 4:30  and a § Sustainable Readiness Model (SRM) managed to halt the cuts.[677][61] Funding was allocated for two (out of six planned) Security Force Assistance Brigades (SFABs) in 2016[753] composed of 529 senior officers and senior NCOs (a full chain of command for a BCT).[754] By 2020 all 6 SFABs were activated.

The changes announced so far affect:[755]

Brigade Combat Teams

Active-duty divisions

Active-duty combat brigades: 31 at the end of 2017

See National Guard divisions for the 27 ARNG BCTs

Support brigades

Active-duty Support Brigades (with reserve-component numbers in parenthesis: ARNG/USAR)

See also


  1. ^ a b c d In Force modernization,[108] Deputy Chiefs of Staff G-8 and G-3/5/7 sit on the Army Requirements Oversight Council (AROC), to advise the Chief of Staff of the Army (CSA).[109]: diagram on p.559 [110][111] The commander, AFC is responsible for Force design.[110]
    • The Army's Force management model begins with a projection of the Future operating environment, in terms of resources: political, military, economic, social, information, infrastructure, physical environment, and the time available to bring the Current army to bear on the situation.[111]
    • The AROC serves as a discussion forum of these factors.[110][112]
    • The relevant strategy is provided by the Army's leadership.
    • A DOTMLPF analysis models the factors necessary to change the Current force into a relevant Future force.
    • A JCIDS process identifies the gaps in capability between Current and Future force.
    • A Force design to meet the materiel gaps is underway.
    • An organization with the desired capabilities (manpower, materiel, training) is brought to bear on each gap.[108]
      • AR 5-22(pdf) lists the Force modernization proponent for each Army branch, which can be a CoE or Branch proponent leader.
      • Staff uses a Synchronization meeting[113]: minute 8:29  before seeking approval —HTAR Force Management 3-2b: "Managing change in any large, complex organization requires the synchronization of many interrelated processes".[109]: p2-27 
    • A budget request is submitted to Congress.
    • The resources are "dictated by Congress".[111]
    • Approved requests then await resource deliveries which then become available to the combatant commanders.[114]
  2. ^ a b c d e The Army's unclassified Multi-Domain Operations (MDO) concept is "the combined arms employment of capabilities from all domains that create and exploit relative advantages to defeat enemy forces, achieve objectives and consolidate gains during competition, crisis, and armed conflict".[300]
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h See Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (November 22, 2019) SecArmy's Multi-Domain Kill Chain: Space-Cloud-AI Army Multi-Domain Operations Concept, December 2018 slide from TRADOC pamphlet 525-3-1 (Dec 2018).
    Multi-domain operations (MDO)[b] span multiple domains: cislunar space, land, air, maritime, cyber, and populations.
    • In September 2020 an ABMS Onramp demonstrated a § specific scenario, which can be illustrated by the 5 red numbered bullet points from the slide in TRADOC pamphlet 525-3-1:
    1. Competition— No overt hostilities are yet detected. Blue bar (force projection) is in standoff against red bar (threat).
    2. Strategic Support area— National assets (blue) detect breaching of standoff by adversary (in red).
    3. Close area support— blue assets hand-off to the combatant commands, who are to create effects visible to the adversary (in red).
    4. Deep maneuver— blue combatant actions dis-integrate adversary efforts (per TRADOC pamphlet 525-3-1: "militarily compete, penetrate, dis-integrate, and exploit" the adversary); —Operational and Strategic deep fires create effects on the adversary. Adversary is further subject to defeat in detail, until adversaries perceive they are overmatched (no more red assets to expend).
    5. Adversary retreats to standoff. The populations perceive that the adversary is defeated, for now. (Compare to Perkins' cycle, 'return to competition', in which deterrence has succeeded in avoiding a total war, in favor of pushing an adversary back to standoff (the red threat bar). Blue force projection still has overmatched red threat.
  4. ^ a b c d e f The capabilities as prioritized by the 39th Chief of Staff, will use subject matter experts in the realms of requirements, acquisition, science and technology, test, resourcing, costing, and sustainment, using Cross Functional Teams (CFTs) for:
    1. Improved long-range precision fires (artillery):—(Fort Sill, Oklahoma) Lead: BG John Rafferty ... PEO Ammunition (AMMO)
    2. Next-generation combat vehicle—(Detroit Arsenal, Warren, Michigan) Lead: BG Ross Coffman ... PEO Ground Combat Systems (GCS)
    3. Vertical lift platforms—(Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama) Lead: BG Wally Rugen ... PEO Aviation (AVN)
    4. Mobile and expeditionary (usable in ground combat) communications network (Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland)
      1. Network Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence— Lead: MG Pete Gallagher ... PEO Command Control Communications Tactical (C3T)
      2. Assured Position Navigation and Timing— (Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama) Lead: William B. Nelson, SES
    5. Air and missile defense—(Fort Sill, Oklahoma) Lead: BG Brian Gibson, ... PEO Missiles and Space (M&S)
    6. Soldier lethality
      1. Soldier Lethality—(Fort Moore, Georgia) Lead: BG David M. Hodne ... PEO Soldier
      2. Synthetic Training Environment —(Orlando, Florida) Lead: MG Maria Gervais ... PEO Simulation, Training, & Instrumentation (STRI)
    • Above, 'dotted line' relationship (i.e., coordination) is denoted by a ' ... '
  5. ^ 2015 Army Operating Concept (AOC): "Win in a Complex World"[64]: minute 1:15:00/1:22:58 
  6. ^ One consequence of a standardized BCT is that actions performed by one BCT can be made in behalf of a successor BCT. Thus pre-positioned stocks can aid in the rapidity of deployment: Army Prepositioned Stocks site in the Netherlands was established 15 Dec 2016, which will store and service about 1,600 U.S. Army vehicles.
  7. ^ The Army is introducing drones in its combat aviation brigades in order to increase its reconnaissance capability.[117][118]
  8. ^ In the 2013 reform the active duty brigades are deactivating by 2015, leaving only the National Guard's, and the Reserve's, maneuver enhancement brigades.[128] ]
  9. ^ (22 Mar 2022) See, for example the ongoing thread of Prof. Paul Poast[247]
  10. ^ a b On 5 June 2023 Army Capabilities Development Command Ground Vehicle Systems Center awarded contracts to close down the autonomous vehicle leader-follower program[248] in favor of a competitive commercial autonomy package.[373]
  11. ^ Michael Lundy (Sep 2018) The U.S. Army Concept for Multi-Domain Combined Arms Operations at Echelons Above Brigade 2025–2040 Echelons Above Brigade (EAB), as cited by Scott McKean[58]
  12. ^ In 2018 new cyber authorities were granted under National Security Presidential Memorandum (NSPM) 13;[262] persistent cyber engagements at Cyber command are the new norm for cyber operations.[263]
  13. ^ "The Maneuver Captains Career Course (MCCC) at Fort Moore, Georgia" is preparing exercises in which the division is the Unit of Action, rather than the brigade.[290]
  14. ^ a b c d Colin Clark (18 Feb 2020) Gen. Hyten On The New American Way of War: All-Domain Operations (ADO)
    • "A computer-coordinated fight": in the air, land, sea, space, cyber, and the electromagnetic spectrum (EMS)
      • "forces from satellites to foot soldiers to submarines sharing battle data at machine-to-machine speed"
    • "it's the ability to integrate and effectively command and control all domains in a conflict or in a crisis seamlessly"—Gen. Hyten, Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs
      • All-Domain Operations (ADO) use global capabilities: "space, cyber, deterrent [the nuclear triad (for mutually assured destruction in the Cold War, an evolving concept in itself)], transportation, electromagnetic spectrum operations, missile defense"
  15. ^ Blue force tracking—The Army now has technology to keep track of its warfighters, down to the squad level position, or even individual soldier position.
  16. ^ In 2023 a new cross-functional team (CFT) was stood up for Contested Logistics.[313] [315][316][317][301][230][229][133][318][134][319][320][321][322][323][324][325][326][327]
  17. ^ a b Theresa Hitchens (25 August 2020) More Ambitious ABMS Demo Uses 5G: Roper
    • AFWERX (25 August 2020) Dr. Will Roper ABMS 'Ask Me Anything' 1:30:33 ABMS (Advanced battle management system) requires Internet of Military Things.
      • 5:00 Foundational IoT: Containerized software systems, forming the connective tissue between domains, devices, platforms, populations.
      • 16:15 There is not going to be one machine-to-machine system in the future force, but rather a set of machine-to-machine data-exchanges (in publishable, understandable, communicable, discoverable formats).
      • 22:50 A new kind of requirements process (horizontal (modernize seamlessly over time) rather than vertical, top-down processes for hardware). If a standard exists, such as 5G, or APIs, use it.
      • 27:50 A culture change, elevating data in importance, over bullets, will be required to win wars. Simplification of the ABMS user interface will be necessary, in order to present the relevant mission-dependent data to the Soldier, or Combatant commander.
      • 31:30 There will be so much happening, that phone calls will be seen as the obstacle they are, during ABMS Onramp, just like the COVID-19 data needs.
      • 35:00 deviceONE operates on SIPRNET tablets today. Portions of ABMS are operational today (25 August 2020).
      • 39:50 a devOps mentality will be required; X as a Service (XaaS) is needed for Developer's adaptability and agility in the face of uncertain threats --an OODA loop with 4-month cycles. Agility and adaptability are needed for the Onramps. A set of Use cases are the targets to be sought during the development process.
      • 49:20 70 industry team offerings are welcome, include 50%-solutions as well.
      • 52:00 There is no way the Acquisition process can have a lead Systems Integrator to serve as Prime Contractor for a program— Replace this with a tool, a common infrastructure (tech stack) with full authorities (IRAD, Design Reviews, -- DoD has to be good at IT).
      • 56:10 for the Army, ABMS means National-level situation awareness, that is tuned, relevant to the mission— from the Soldier on the ground, or to the Combatant Commander.
      • 1:00:00 Use robotic agents (drones as wingmen or battle-buddies) to absorb threats at the tip of the spear; 1:06:00 pull people back from the tip of the spear, in favor of robots. Have people make the calls/commands to direct the strikes; this will not replace the warfighter.
      • 1:14:00 ABMS scale-up — If we fail, this won't be tried again for years.
  18. ^ [372][376][377][378]
  19. ^ RDER will fund the Combatant Commander's experiments in Joint Warfighting Concepts: °advanced fires, °command and control, °information advantage, and °contested logistics; the Concepts' exercise coordination and execution cell will be funded from RDER.[380][381]
  20. ^ $76.79 million is requested for FY23.[380]
  21. ^ [382][384][385][58][322]
  22. ^ Tactical Intelligence Targeting Access Node (TITAN)[400] is a ground station for integrating the data feed between "sensors and shooters".[401]
  23. ^ [400][402][403] [404]
  24. ^ [406][407][408][409][410][411][412][413]
  25. ^ [436][437]
  26. ^ [442][443][444][445]
  27. ^ [449][7][450]
  28. ^ a b c d e When used in multi-domain operations, I2CEWS denotes Intelligence, Information, Cyber, Electronic Warfare, and Space. See: ISR, or Intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance, and National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
  29. ^ [450][425][454][455][456][457][458][459][460]
  30. ^ [453][465][268]
  31. ^ 82nd Airborne (with 18,000 troops) has an 18-hour readiness status (after the first phone call)[466][463]
  32. ^ [467][468][469]
  33. ^ DEFENDER Europe 21 was a large-scale U.S. Army-led, multinational, joint exercise designed to build readiness and interoperability between U.S., NATO and partner militaries. DEFENDER Europe 21 included a greater number of NATO ally and partner nations conducting activities over a wider area than what was planned for in 2020, which was severely restricted due to the COVID-19 pandemic. More than 28,000 multinational forces from 26 nations conducted near-simultaneous operations across more than 30 training areas in a dozen countries. DEFENDER Europe 21 also included significant involvement of the U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy. The exercise utilized key ground and maritime routes bridging Europe, Asia and Africa. The exercise incorporated new or high-end capabilities including air and missile defense assets, as well as assets from the U.S. Army Security Force Assistance Brigades and the recently reactivated V Corps. Defender Europe 21 was one of the largest U.S.-Army, NATO-led military exercises in Europe in decades. The exercise began in mid-March and lasted until June 2021. It included "nearly simultaneous operations across more than 30 training areas" in Estonia, Bulgaria, Romania, Kosovo and other countries.[476][477] Gen. Christopher G. Cavoli, commanding general of the United States Army Europe and Africa, said that "While we are closely monitoring the COVID situation, we’ve proven we have the capability to train safely despite the pandemic."[476] Russian Defense Minister Sergey Shoigu said that Russia has deployed troops to its western borders for "combat training exercises" in response to NATO "military activities that threaten Russia."[478] See Defender Europe 2022
  34. ^ a b The Army (21 Jun 2022) has released a "programmatic environmental assessment (PEA) and draft finding of no significant impact (FONSI) regarding the stationing of a multi-domain task force (MDTF)".[493] Two configurations were considered: 1) a full MDTF of 3,000 troops, and 2) a base MDTF of 400 with headquarters.
  35. ^ [514][281][517] [516][518]
  36. ^ [514][363][519] In 2021 an MDTF exercised its sensor-to-shooter capabilities in operational vignettes at Joint Systems Integration Lab (JSIL, Aberdeen MD).[488]
  37. ^ [522][523][524]
  38. ^ [541][542][543][544][545][546][547]
  39. ^ As part of the Warfighter exercises 22-1, which completed in October 2021, V Corps attained Full operational capability. The Army alternates its annual Defender exercises between the Pacific and Europe. Thus V Corps was preparing for the Eucom exercises of 2022 in 2021. The COVID pandemic disrupted the 2020 European exercises, however.[507]
  40. ^ a b c Readiness means: Be informed; Make A Plan; Build a Kit; and Get Involved[584][585]
  41. ^ Poland, Australia, Egypt, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Morocco, and Taiwan are M1 Abrams customers.


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  1. ^ a b [http:[dead link]/ BMC redesignated JMC, New Name Better Reflects Evolving Organizational Mission] accessdate=2017-02-16
  2. ^ Eric Shinseki (10 June 2003) End of Tour Memorandum
  3. ^ a b c d TRADOC TRADOC Pamphlet 525-3-1 (6 December 2018) The U.S. Army in Multi-Domain Operations 2028, "describes how US Army forces, as part of the Joint Force, will militarily compete, penetrate, dis-integrate, and exploit our adversaries in the future." Link moved here
  4. ^ a b c d e US Army (2020) AMERICA’S ARMY: READY NOW,INVESTING IN THE FUTURE FY19-21 accomplishments and investment plan
  5. ^ a b Todd South, Military Times (8 May 2019) 4 things the general in charge of the Army's newest command says are needed to win the wars of the future
  6. ^ a b Anthony Small, U.S. Army Futures Command (March 13, 2019) Futures Command highlights changes, new structure at SXSW: "Synchronizing or creating convergence allows the joint force to create overmatch" —Eric Wesley
  7. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (28 May 2019) Beyond INF: An Affordable Arsenal Of Long-Range Missiles? INF Treaty likely to expire in August 2019
  8. ^ William B King (AMC) (18 February 2020) Conference focuses on Army modernization, equipping Soldiers Equipping Enterprise (AMC) + Modernization Enterprise (AFC)
  9. ^ Jim Garamone, (August 9, 2019) Milley discusses Army changes as he passes authority
  10. ^ a b "Army announces activation of additional corps headquarters". US Army. Washington, DC. 11 February 2020. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
  11. ^ a b c d 23rd Secretary Mark Esper and 39th Chief of Staff Mark Milley (MARCH 26, 2019) ON THE POSTURE OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY
  12. ^ a b c Sydney Freedberg, Jr. (27 April 2020) Army Rebuilds Artillery Arm For Large-Scale War
  13. ^ a b c Theresa Hitchens (19 Aug 2020) Air & Space Forces Add Cyber To All-Domain Ops Data Library
  14. ^ C Todd Lopez (21 Apr 2022) Austin to Host Meeting in Germany to Discuss Ukraine's Long-Term Defense Needs integrate with allies and partners
  15. ^ Jim Garamone (5 Aug 2022) Austin Launches New Round of Discussions With Hemispheric Partners
  16. ^ —Sec. Def. Lloyd Austin— Gen Charles Flynn (12 Oct 2021) AUSA 2021 Warriors Corner – New Approaches, New Dilemmas and New Opportunities: U.S. Army Multi-Domain Land Power in the Indo-Pacific video clip,minute 3:06. See, sense, understand Indo-Pacom
  17. ^ Davis Winkie (28 Jun 2023) Exclusive: Army secretary talks force structure cuts, SOF 'reform' in favor of MDTFs, IFPC (indirect fires protection capability), DE-MSHORAD (directed energy mobile short-range air defense using high-energy lasers); and maintaining the Immediate response force
  18. ^ Martin, Jeff (24 January 2020), "Video: Can the Army achieve 'transformational change'?",, Army Chief of Staff: "We need transformational change", rather than incremental change.
  19. ^ a b c d e Chief of Staff Paper #1 (16 Mar 2021) Army Multi-Domain Transformation: Ready to Win in Competition and Conflict
  20. ^ a b c Chief of Staff Paper #2 (1 March 2021) The Army in Military Competition
  21. ^ a b U.S. Army Combined Arms Center/ U.S. Army Training and Doctrine (August 6, 2021). "Waypoint 2028-2029". Stand-To!. US Army. Retrieved 2023-04-16.
  22. ^ a b c d The Army Strategy 2018
  23. ^ Office of the Director of the Army Staff (6 May 2021) Army Posture Statement 2021
  24. ^ Army News Release (May 24, 2019) Gen McConville confirmed as next chief of staff, 'people' to be his top priority
  25. ^ US Army Office of the Chief of Public Affairs (26 Mar 2021) People First
  26. ^ Thomas Brading, Army News Service (18 September 2020) People Strategy aims to improve diversity with tangible changes
  27. ^ IPPS-A News (August 19, 2016) Army Talent Management Task Force Integrated Personnel and Pay System - Army
  28. ^ Joe Lacdan (September 12, 2019) Former Army ranger testifies at confirmation hearing for Army secretary People and values
  29. ^ Thomas Brading, Army News Service (October 16, 2019) People are centerpiece of the Army, not 'interchangeable parts,' says CSA IPPS-A, ATAP October 16, 2019: In the next two years the Army plans to field a new mobile short-range air defense system, an integrated visual augmentation system, the next generation squad weapon, precision strike missile, extended-range cannon, and the first hypersonic weapon battery"—Gen McConville
  30. ^ Thomas Brading (26 Oct 2021) Army civilians, Soldiers must modernize together, senior Army official says civilian implementation plan (CIP)
  31. ^ Ashley Rocque (2 May 2023) Army 'night court' returns amid recruiting crisis, looking to trim excess soldier positions
  32. ^ [24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31]
  33. ^ Joe Lacdan, Army News Service (20 February 2020) CSA: Strong partnerships serve as deterrent to armed conflict
  34. ^ C. Todd Lopez, (July 16, 2019) Milley talks modernization at confirmation hearing: —Milley's priorities: "provide the best military advice, to maintain steady continuity of military leadership, implement the National Defense Strategy with emphasis on increasing the readiness and modernization of the joint force, maintain and grow our network of allies and partners, sustain great power peace in an era of great power competition and provide unwavering support, care and leadership to our troops and their Families."
  35. ^ a b Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (June 4, 2019) Pacific Pathways 2.0 to bolster presence in the theater
  36. ^ Paul McCleary (April 23, 2019) Build A ‘Five Eyes’ For Military Tech Sharing: Greenwalt proposes to expand Five Eyes to share intelligence
  37. ^ Joe Lacdan, Army News Service (August 19, 2019) CSA: Prioritizing personnel starts with equal opportunity 40th CSA
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  39. ^ White, John P.; Deutch, John (March 2003). "Security Transformation: Report of the Belfer Center Conference on Military Transformation" (citation). Strategic Studies Institute, United States Army War College. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24.
  40. ^ "Statement by General Peter Schoomaker, Chief of Staff United States Army, before the Commission on National Guard and Reserves". 14 December 2006. Archived from the original on 21 December 2006. Retrieved 14 November 2013.
  41. ^ TRADOC (21 Dec 2009) The Army Capstone Concept TRADOC Pam 525-3-0
  42. ^ David Vergun, Army News Service (December 8, 2017) US Army Futures Command to reform modernization, says secretary of the Army
  43. ^ a b c d e f AFC AFC announcement, Friday (13 July 2018) Army Officials Announce New Army Command video 34 minutes, 27 seconds
  44. ^ a b c US Army Modernization turnaround worth the effort, says acting SecArmy McCarthy
  45. ^ a b Army Times Army's modernization command taking shape under freshly picked leaders[permanent dead link]
  46. ^ a b Col. Richard Hough (4 January 2018) Opinion: "Army's Basic Illusions Gone; Time For Futures Command" Breaking
  47. ^ Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (April 8, 2019) Acquisition reform requires culture shift, officials say
  48. ^ Michael A. Grinston, James C. McConville, and Ryan McCarthy (October 2019) 2019 Army Modernization Strategy as cited by Sydney Freedberg, Jr. (October 16, 2019) Army Launches 16-Year Plan To Tackle Russia, China Summary
  49. ^ a b c d e f g h i Theresa Hitchens (3 Sep 2020) ABMS Demo Proves AI Chops For C2 The ABMS demo had four phases, under computer control. The kill chains were formed in seconds rather than minutes.
    1. Early detection, identification, and warning
      • Scanning —Humans no longer need to dedicate their attention to a single, boring task. Replace the problem of stovepiped sensors / functions with more salient events. Let sensors perform direct machine-to-machine data exchanges in an Internet of Military Things and detect events which are salient to the mission.
      • This allows concentration of effort by the Intelligence Community. Let machines follow the leads under Human direction
    2. Red force tracking
      • Use AI feeds to form the kill chains (plan the series of steps needed to kill a Red threat)
      • Let machines follow Red trajectories to estimate the time needed to intercept a Red threat
    3. Engaging red force threats
      • Select an appropriate Blue interceptor (fast enough to engage Red threat, close enough to get past standoff distance)
      • In two cases, hypervelocity (moving at Mach 5) munitions were launched from cannons (one Army, one Navy) to kill cruise missile surrogates.
      • Other 'sensor-to-shooter' kill chains included AIM-9 missiles launched from F-16s and MQ-9s, as well as a ground-launched AIM-9 missile (which was designed to be an air-to-air munition).
    4. Blue force tracking
      • Develop dedicated Clouds- strategic cloud for the Commander, and tactical cloud for the individual Soldier
  50. ^ a b c Theresa Hitchens (23 September 2020) Picking 1st ABMS Capabilities A Top Issue At Air Force Corona in Nov 2020 at Air Force Academy
  51. ^ a b c Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (14 August 2020) Can Army Intel Data Feed The Kill Chain? Quickly pooling data will take AI and cloud—"Project Convergence"
  52. ^ Gen Mike Murray (12 Oct 2021) AUSA 2021: CMF #3 – Project Convergence 2021: 7 capstone cases
  53. ^ Patrick Tucker (10 Nov 2021) What Worked, What Didn't at Army’s Second Connect-Everything Experiment PC21
  54. ^ Andrew Eversden (22 Nov 2021) Robotic vehicles, drones coordinate recon at Army’s Project Convergence 21 ISR relay
  55. ^ a b Sarantinos, Argie (17 September 2021) Project Convergence 2022 web portal links industry, academia to Army DEVCOM Public Affairs
  56. ^ Andrew Eversden (11 Oct 2021) Army Kicks Off Analysis Effort To Inform Future Investments
  57. ^ Andrew Eversden (11 Oct 2021) Murray: Army’s Modernization Push Requires Persistence To Be Successful
  58. ^ a b c d e Scott McKean (14 Jul 2021) AFC Pamphlet 71-20-9 Army Futures Command Concept for Command and Control – Pursuing decision dominance AFCC-C2 14 Jul 2021 see FUTURES AND CONCEPTS CENTER resources
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  60. ^ Henry S. Kenyon (June 2006) U.S. Army Reforges Training and Readiness.
  61. ^ a b c d e f Soldiers need to be ready 100 percent of time, says FORSCOM commander,, accessdate=2016-06-05
  62. ^ a b Robert M. Gates (5 Jan 2012) "Defense Strategic Guidance" Archived 7 June 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  63. ^ a b Department of the Army announces force structure decisions for fiscal year 2017 accessdate=2017-06-25
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  65. ^ a b HQDA McHugh & Odierno, A STATEMENT ON THE POSTURE OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY 2015 Archived 2016-06-10 at the Wayback Machine,, accessdate=2016-06-05
  66. ^ DoD 2017 DoD Posture Defense Statement
  67. ^,Mission of the U.S. Army accessdate=2016-09-11
  68. ^ ARCIC Army Warfighting Challenges (AWFCs) Archived 2016-10-25 at the Wayback Machine accessdate=2016-10-25
  69. ^ TRADOC News THE EVOLUTION OF THE ARMY WARFIGHTING ASSESSMENT Archived 2016-11-06 at the Wayback Machine
  70. ^ US Army Army tests new warfighting tech at Army Warfighting Assessment accessdate=2016-10-23
  71. ^ US Army Special Operations Forces integrate into AWA 17.1 accessdate=2016-10-28
  72. ^ US Army AWA 17.1: Increasing the pace of battle in a coalition environment accessdate=2016-10-29
  73. ^ a b A RIC-U might be used by a coalition partner to encrypt their individual networks, when interoperating with a US Army voice network.
  74. ^ ASA(ALT) Weapon System Handbook (2018) Transportable Tactical Command Communications (T2C2)
  75. ^ Spc. Matthew Marcellus, 1st Armored Division. Communications in Motion: (15 May 2019) Iron Soldiers train on inflatable satellite communications system T2C2[dead link] Archived 2019-08-12 at the Wayback Machine[dead link]
  76. ^ Mark Pomerleau (March 23, 2018) The Army's newest satellite antenna is remarkably simple
  77. ^ Mr. Joe Welch, Lt. Col. Jack "Shane" Taylor and Mr. Michael Beery (July 12, 2016) Network Marketplace: Open for Business and Growing
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  88. ^ Michelle Tan Big BCT changes mapped out for 2015 February 9, 2015, Army Times.
  89. ^ DoD News (July 9, 2015) Army Announces Force Structure, Stationing Decisions
  90. ^ a b US Army (23 April 2018) Army Secretary Esper, senior NCO Dailey discuss modernization, recruiting, retention
  91. ^ Sydney J Freedberg Jr (May 20, 2019) Army Can Manage Both Mideast & Great Powers: Sec. Esper
  92. ^ Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (May 28, 2019) South Korean exercises being revised amid peace talks Abrams USFK assessment
  93. ^ Joseph Lacdan (22 January 2020) Army updates Law of Land Warfare doctrine to increase guidance, clarity
  94. ^ US Army FM 6-27, C1 (20 September 2019) THE COMMANDER'S HANDBOOK ON THE LAW OF LAND WARFARE 208 page handbook. The Department of Defense Law of War Manual (June 2015, updated December 2016) remains the authoritative statement
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  96. ^ Jeff Martin (15 October 2018) How did the Army find $25 billion for new equipment? video
  97. ^ Daniel Goure (October 18, 2018) Can Trump Rebuild The Military As Deficits Balloon?
  98. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (October 26, 2018) Joint Experiments Will Pick Budget Winners & Losers: Dunford Task is to cut $33 Billion from 2020 budget
  99. ^ CovertCabal YouTube: What will $716 Billion Buy You? US Defense Budget 2019 Weapons
  100. ^ Michael J. Meese, NDU Press (23 Dec 2016) Chapter 4 : The American Defense Budget 2017–2020 Note Fed chart 1970–2026
  101. ^ Paul McLeary (October 26, 2018) Trump Orders DoD To Take Surprise $33B Budget Cut 2020 DoD budget cut from $733 billion to $700 billion
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  103. ^ Wesley Morgan (09 December 2018) Trump reverses course, tells Pentagon to boost budget request to $750 billion
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  184. ^ The 29th Division (National Guard) headquarters is deployed as Intermediate Command for ARCENT in Kuwait
  185. ^ Two National Guard division headquarters are deployed simultaneously for the first time since the Korean war
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  191. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (17 Oct 2022) Army 2030: Disperse or die, network and live
  192. ^ Todd South (June 4, 2019) How changes to mission command will mean soldiers taking risks and taking charge on complex battlefields
  193. ^ Command Sgt. Maj. Vincent Simonetti and Sgt. Maj. Aaron Forry (18 June 2018) HQ on the Move: Battalion Develops a More Nimble Command Post
  194. ^ John Cogbill and Eli Myers (5 August 2020) Decentralizing the Fight: Re-imagining the Brigade Combat Team's Headquarters Using 3rd BCT, 101st Airborne Division "Rakkasans" Headquarters March 2019 at JRTC, "maintained a dual-capable satellite/4G LTE GRRIP system at each location for redundancy, and a SMART-T at the rear and main command posts" for 99% uptime
  195. ^ Stew Magnuson (22 Oct 2020) WEB EXCLUSIVE: Army Looks to Disperse Command Posts to Boost Survivability
  196. ^ Immersive Ops (15 Nov 2021) Immersive Wisdom briefs Secretary of the Army at Project Convergence '21 on future of Army operations centers 3D Virtual Operations Center software platform
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  199. ^ Colin Demarest (19 Oct 2022) Palantir wins contract to help Army quickly process battlefield data
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  231. ^ a b Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (10 February 2020) AMC evaluating power-projection capabilities in Defender-Europe 2020 Defender Pacific 2021 is in planning stage. To support readiness, 3-D printing rights are under negotiation.
  232. ^ Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (10 March 2020) Soldier-centered approach helping lead ground modernization efforts FY2021 planning in the top six priorities for modernization
    • $9 billion was realigned using the "night court review" of items in the Army's budget over the next 5 fiscal years; $63 billion is now allocated for modernization in that 5 year period
    • For Soldier lethality:
      • Enhanced Night Vision Goggle-Binocular was defined and fielded in 18 months
      • Similarly, a software system for mission command, the Command Post Computing Environment has now been fielded
    • In Long range precision fires, successful tests have occurred in:
      • ERCA (Extended range cannon artillery) has demonstrated accurate hits (within 1 meter) at over 40 miles range
      • PrSM (Precision strike missile) has demonstrated 150 mile range within its expected accuracy and instrumentation in an overhead detonation
  233. ^ a b c d Gen. David G. Perkins, U.S. Army (November-December 2017) Military Review III "Multi-Domain Battle The Advent of Twenty-First Century War"
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  240. ^ PACOM Adm. Harry B. Harris Jr., U.S. Pacific Command (May 25, 2016) LANPAC Symposium 2016: “Role of Land Forces In Ensuring Access To Shared Domains”
  241. ^ a b DVIDS DEFENDER-EUROPE 20 videos, images and stories
  242. ^ Matthew Dalton (29 February 2020) Unmanning a Twenty-Second Century Navy "America's principal national defense strategy: deterrence in peacetime"
  243. ^ Lt. Col. Travis Dettmer (9 February 2020) U.S. Army Futures and Concepts Center teaches Multi-Domain Operations to NATO Allied Land Command MDO
  244. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (January 13, 2020) Infinite Games & War By Other Means: Ryan McCarthy: "We must be engaged in constant competition, versus an episodic engagement strategy" —Secretary Ryan McCarthy
  245. ^ a b Kyle Mizokami (8 Mar 2020) The Air Force's New Weapon Is...Shipping Containers? "Drone maker Kratos Defense is proposing inserting its new XQ-58A Valkyrie drone in a modified shipping container" into selected Indo-Pacific locations as pre-positioned stock for quick armed response to threats. Hundreds of containers could be deployed but not all need be occupied with Valkyries.
  246. ^ Joseph Lacdan, Army News Service (17 June 2021) AFC chief: ‘Preference is deterrence’ in regards to new capabilities for joint force
  247. ^ Paul Poast thread (22 Mar 2022) This picture offers a key lesson on how wars end, as was laid out in the 1945 Potsdam conference
  248. ^ a b US Army AvMC (16 Jun 2021) Video: Autonomous missile launcher destroys enemy threats AvMC ADO concept video —autonomous multi-domain launcher (AML): Jen Judson (16 Jun 2021) US Army fires autonomous launcher in Pacific-focused demo AML demo at Fort Sill utilized a HIMARS launcher and the AML, in a leader-follower configuration, to launch a PrSM and an extended- range PrSM from an island in the First island chain. One PrSM takes out a ship, while the extended-range PrSM takes out an air-defense system on an enemy occupied island. Fighter jets engage during the window of opportunity after the enemy standoff has been dis-integrated. In 1.25 hours, the HIMARS platoon, of the 18th Field Artillery Brigade, Fort Liberty, fired 7 rockets and engaged 3 islands, in concert with Air Force transports, and DEVCOM's AvMC soldier touchpoint.
  249. ^ Andrew Smith (9 Apr 2020) Convergence within SOCOM – A Bottom-Up Approach to Multi Domain Operations
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  252. ^ Theresa Hitchens (10 Aug 2020) Spacepower Is ‘Catastrophically Decisive’ In War: New Space Force Doctrine —Gen. Jay Raymond,
    1. "Orbital Warfare,
    2. Space Electromagnetic Warfare,
    3. Space Battle Management,
    4. Space Access and Sustainment,
    5. Military Intelligence,
    6. Cyber Operations, and
    7. Engineering/Acquisitions".
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  254. ^ a b Amy Walker and Justin Eimers, PEO C3T Public Affairs (April 8, 2019) Multinational exercises aim to improve coalition data sharing
  255. ^ Shawn Nesaw (March 20, 2019) Latest sensor upgrades boost recon vehicle capabilities NBCRV
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  257. ^ Maj. Gen. Rodney D. Fogg, Brig. Gen. Douglas M. McBride Jr., and Maj. Graham Davidson (July 18, 2019) Focus:Sustaining the Future Fight LSCO compared to Patton's 3rd Army
  258. ^ a b Capt. Matthew Miller (July 18, 2019) Multi-Domain Intelligence Support for Sustainment Risks of non delivery
  259. ^ a b Gen. Gustave "Gus" Perna (July 18, 2019) AMC Commander: Battlefield Sustainment Requires Intuition
  260. ^ Lt. Gen. Michael Lundy, Col. Richard Creed, and Lt. Col. Scott Pence (July 18, 2019) Feeding the Forge: Sustaining Large-Scale Ground Combat Operations
  261. ^ Kyle Rempfer (September 20, 2019) Army's new chief looks to prep the force for large-scale combat 40th CSA mulls deployments for Large-Scale Combat Operations — LSCO
  262. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (17 September 2018) Trump Eases Cyber Ops, But Safeguards Remain: Joint Staff
  263. ^ Mark Pomerleau (8 May 2019) New authorities mean lots of new missions at Cyber Command
  264. ^ PEO C3T May 30, 2018
  265. ^ a b Justin Eimers, PEO C3T (October 3, 2018) Network Cross-Functional Team, acquisition partners experimenting to modernize tactical network
  266. ^ a b Theresa Hitchens (November 14, 2019) OSD & Joint Staff Grapple With Joint All-Domain Command Joint Chiefs of Staff#Joint Staff buy-in
  267. ^ Theresa Hitchens (December 02, 2019) Hey SDA, AFRL Boosts Space-Based Internet Tests
  268. ^ a b c Amy Walker, PM Tactical Network, PEO C3T public affairs (December 4, 2019) Global network design unifies Army modernization efforts GAIT will be used in Defender 2020
  269. ^ Nathan Strout (1 Jul 2021) The Space Development Agency now has demo satellites on orbit. Here's what they'll do. Transporter-2: Mandrake 2, the Laser Interconnect and Networking Communications System (LINCS), and the Prototype On-orbit Experimental Testbed (POET). Yam-3 for data fusion. Pitboss for Autonomous mission management.
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  271. ^ Joe Lacdan, Army News Service (October 25, 2018) Interoperability a key focus in building the Army's future network
  272. ^ US DoD (May 16, 2018) Army Officials Testify on FY 2019 Budget Request
  273. ^ Mark Pomerleau (April 1, 2019) How the Army will sustain its tactical network of the future ITN to take advantage of Tobyhanna depot
  274. ^ Mark Pomerleau (21 Jan 2020) What a deployment to the Middle East means for testing a new Army network An operational deployment begun 1 Jan 2020, which won't be instrumented, will provide some Soldier feedback, but instrumented testing is deferred until after redeployment.
  275. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (3 April 2019) Multi-Domain Networks: The Army, The Allies & AI: Incremental ITN Capability sets '21, '23, '25
  276. ^ Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (June 21, 2019) New tech, accessibility to improve Army tactical networks
  277. ^ Joseph Lacdan, Army News Service (25 September 2020) Army to build on results from first Project Convergence exercise
  278. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. and Theresa Hitchens (9 October 2020) Army, Air Force Get Serious On JADC2: Joint Exercises In 2021
  279. ^ Gen. David Goldfein and Gen. Jay Raymond (28 Feb 2020) America's future battle network is key to multidomain defense JADC2: " We cannot yet share data in a seamless and simultaneous way between the Army, Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps or the Space Force"
  280. ^ Joseph Lacdan (17 Apr 2021) Service leaders prioritize integration in joint effort to achieve overmatch JSIL, Aberdeen: Preparation of data fabric. for Project Convergence, ABMS JADC2, and Project Overmatch: Army – Air Force – Navy
  281. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (14 Oct 2020) Army Seeks Open Architecture For All Air & Ground Systems: Jette In the spirit of MOSA, JADC2, & Project convergence:
    • Army Common Operating Environment (COE)
    • C5ISR/EW Modular Open Suite of Standards (CMOSS)
    • Future Air-Borne Capability Environment (FACE)
    • Integrated Sensor Architecture (ISA)
    • Sensor Open Systems Architecture (SOSA)
    • Vehicle Integration for C4ISR/EW Interoperability (VICTORY)
  282. ^ Jaspreet Gill (17 May 2023) Return of CJADC2: DoD officially moves ahead with 'combined' JADC2 in a rebrand focusing on partners
  283. ^ a b c d Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (21 April 2020) COVID-19: Army Futures Command Takes Wargames Online "The competition phase is about deterring war"—Sydney J. Freedberg Jr.
  284. ^ Dan Gouré (May 24, 2019) A New Joint Doctrine for an Era of Multi-Domain Operations MDO- MDC2- Distributed Maritime Operations- Marine Corps Operating Concept- "distributed lethality to connect ships, submarines, aircraft and satellites in networks for sensing, commanding and shooting"
  285. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (September 12, 2019) Army Multi-Domain Wargame Reveals C2 Shortfalls MDC2 software improvements needed
  286. ^ Lt. Gen. David Perkins (June 18, 2013) Understanding Mission command. Mission command is beyond C2.
  287. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (28 Feb 2020) Army Ramps Up Funding For Laser Shield, Hypersonic Sword In FY2021 HELs funding is up 209 percent; LRHW funding is up 86 percent. RCCTO spending is $1 billion in 2021.
  288. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (17 Sep 2019) Target, Kaliningrad: Air Force Puts Putin On Notice
  289. ^ a b c Joe Lacdan (September 25, 2019) More joint efforts likely as the Army prepares for multi-domain operations Combined Resolve XII; 10th Mountain Div for Atlantic Resolve; 2/1CD & Cab/3ID to Eucom; AR to : Immediate Response (hosted by Croatia and Slovenia), Saber Guardian (in Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania), and Swift Response; Operation Cobra Gold (hosted by Thailand). A speedup in tempo by CFTs is needed.
  290. ^ John Dolan (7 Jul 2022) The Army is getting leaders ready for a war unlike any the US has ever seen
  291. ^ a b CRS Insight (IN11019) (January 17, 2019) The U.S. Army and Multi-Domain Operations
  292. ^ Todd South (13 September 2019) Massive simulation shows the need for speed in multi-domain ops "400 participants working with 55 formations, 64 concepts and 150 capabilities"
  293. ^ a b c Caitlin Kenny (10 Oct 2022) Divisions, Corps to Replace Brigades As Army’s Wartime Formation Of Choice "Brigades that operated largely independently in Iraq and Afghanistan will fight as part of larger units in future conflicts, officials said".
  294. ^ a b c US Army Public Affairs (10 Oct 2022) AUSA Contemporary Military Forum: Army 2030 - Preparing Today for Tomorrow’s Fight Gen. McConville, Gen.(Ret) Perkins, DepUnderSec Diaz, Gen. Rainey, LTG Beagle, Prof. Greer (SAMS)
  295. ^ Army University Press (Dec 2021) WayPoint in 2028 – Multidomain Operations 14:00 Lt Gen Theodore Martin, Commander of the Combined Arms Center at Fort Leavenworth, KS
  296. ^ Christine Wormuth, 25th Secretary of the Army (10 Oct 2022) AUSA 2022 Opening Ceremony hour 0:37:50 to 1:05:41
  297. ^ a b Office of the Chief of Public Affairs, US Army (10.16.2019) 2019 AUSA Warriors Corner – TacticalSpace: Delivering Future Force Space Capabilities The Army is the largest user of Space
      1. Assured Positioning, Navigation and Timing
      2. Tactical Space: SDA is structuring a multi-layer satellite system:
        1. Backbone layer for data transport downward to the long-range precision fires
        2. Custody layer for missiles' trajectories, whether friendly or threat
        3. Tracking layer for hypersonic glide vehicles which represent threats to the multi-layer satellite system
        4. Space situational awareness for cis-lunar trajectories,
      3. NavWar
  298. ^ Lt. Gen. Eric J. Wesley, U.S. Army; Chief Warrant Officer 5 Jon Bates, U.S. Army (May-Jun 2020) To Change an Army—Winning Tomorrow The MDO concept —TRADOC pamphlet 525-3-1
  299. ^ a b Theresa Hitchens (16 Jun 2021) SecDef OKs Joint Warfighting Concept; Joint Requirements Due Soon
  300. ^ Jen Judson (23 Mar 2022) Multidomain operations concept will become doctrine this summer
  301. ^ a b c d Theresa Hitchens and Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (22 July 2020) Milley Assigns Service Roles In All-Domain Ops Concept
  302. ^ a b John R. Hoehn (updated 27 Sep 2021) Advanced Battle Management System (ABMS) Archived 25 October 2021 at the Wayback Machine CRS IF11866, updated from work by Katherine Leahy
  303. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (22 Jan 2020) ABMS Can't Be ‘Sole Solution’ For Joint C2, Army Tells Air Force — Exclusive Scaling sensors, shooters, land-based C2, and JADC2
  304. ^ Christopher M. Dougherty (20 May 2021) The Pentagon needs a plan to get punched in the mouth paraphrase of Mike Tyson: another approach to JADC2
  305. ^ David Larter and Carl Pinze (September 15, 2019) Armed with a new missile, the LCS comes of age
  306. ^ Paul McLeary (28 August 2020) If It Floats, It Fights:’ Navy's New Small Ship Strategy
  307. ^ Paul Birch, Ray Reeves and Brad DeWees (19 February 2020) How To Build JADC2 To Make It Truly Joint "Any sensor should be able to link to any shooter and any command and control node"
  308. ^ Joseph Lacdan, Army News Service (October 21, 2019) AFC deputy: Combined capabilities make military might more lethal
  309. ^ a b Loren Thompson (4 February 2020) Pentagon Aims To Build Vast Space Sensor Layer
  310. ^ Paul McLeary (18 Dec 2019) MDA Kickstarts New Way To Kill Hypersonic Missiles HBTSS is 'Space sensor layer'
  311. ^ a b Jay Koester (23 April 2020) JADC2 ‘Experiment 2’ provides looking glass into future experimentation Army's Joint Modernization Command (JMC) JADC2 Experiments 1 and 2
  312. ^ Frank Wolfe (6 Oct 2020) Joint Warfighting Concept Assumes 'Contested Logistics'
  313. ^ a b Jen Judson (29 Mar 2023) US Army has a 'gigantic problem' with logistics in the Indo-Pacific AMC is lead, AFC sets requirements
  314. ^ Marcus Weisgerber (17 Oct 2022) Commercial Planes, Ships Would Play Large Role in Pacific War, TRANSCOM Head Says
  315. ^ Marcus Weisgerber (26 April 2022) It Will Be Years Before Raytheon Can Build New Stinger Missiles:"The U.S. has been sending its Stingers to Ukrainian forces battling Russia." Aid was being sent by February 2022, at the latest.
  316. ^ Dan Grazier (27 Apr 2022) Let a Stinger be a Stinger. A new design isn’t needed.
  317. ^ Ashley Roque ( Stinger replacement included in Army’s FY24 budget request, service official says refurbish 1200 Stingers
  318. ^ a b c "Finding and engaging high-value relocatable ground systems within rapid timelines" is the Air Force's operational objective in this JADC2 exercise —Eliahu Norwood, Greg Grant, and Tyler Lewis (December 2019) A new battle command architecture for multi-domain operations: countering peer adversary power projection Tie-in to MDC2, MDO
  319. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (13 October 2020) Army Ammo Plants At ‘The End Of The Rope’: Jette AMMO JPEO-- Program objective memorandum needed for a 15-year plan to modernize the production of ammunition. The current 10-year plan is inadequate.
  320. ^ Jen Judson (28 March 2023) Army eyes six-fold production boost of 155mm shells used in Ukraine Army is spending $1.45 billion on capacity in 2023 to increase production from 14,000 per month, to 24,000 per month in 2023, to 85,000 155mm howitzer shells per month by 2028.
  321. ^ a b c d Kelsey Atherton (8 October 2020) New Pentagon Strategy To Share Data Like Ammunition
    • David Norquist (30 September 2020) DoD Data Strategy DDDS This strategy describes the problem and establishes the vision, guiding principles, essential capabilities, goals, and objectives for DoD, relative to data. Executive Summary: 3 clusters
      • 8 Guiding Principles
      • 4 Essential Capabilities
      • 7 Goals (aka, VAULTIS)
  322. ^ a b David Roza (14 June 2022) The Pentagon’s new data chief waited days just for an ID card
  323. ^ Eric Berger (4 Jun 2021) Yes, the military is serious about rocketing supplies around the planet
  324. ^ Brad Williams (7 September 2021)DoD Forms New Task Force To Shore Up Supply Chain
  325. ^ a b Joe Lacdan, Army News Service (24 Oct 2022) Army of 2030: Collaboration key to Army modernization
  326. ^ ELIZABETH HOWE (17 November 2022) Army Preps for 'Contested Logistics', Works to Boost Arms Production "Logistics win wars—but not if new enemy capabilities can disrupt supply lines".
  327. ^ Matthew Wheaton, Joint Munitions Command, Public and Congressional Affairs (2 May 2023) JMC, USTRANSCOM partnership provides ammo in record time to Ukraine Joint Munitions Command, United States Transportation Command
  328. ^ The corresponding Army terminology (2021) to OODA is: Sense & understand, Decide, and Act; (Assess underlies the other verbs), from Scott McKean (14 Jul 2021) AFC Pamphlet 71-20-9 Pursuing decision dominance AFCC-C2, as cited by Sydney J Freedberg Jr Army's New Aim Is ‘Decision Dominance’
  329. ^ David L. Goldfein All-Domain Operations Doctrine--CSAF signed.pdf (5 Mar 2020) USAF role in All-Domain Operations[permanent dead link] (JADO) David L. Goldfein: "JADC2 is the C2 of JADO". "Initial stovepiping of a joint operation can delay integration". Therefore, when a Joint force commander can communicate the commander's intent to all forces, and can allow forces from all domains to continuously re-integrate their actions, then a Joint force can flexibly respond to the changing situation in a mission.
  330. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (4 Nov 2020) Military AI Is Bigger Than Just The Kill Chain: JAIC Chief
  331. ^ Theresa Hitchens (16 September 2020) JROC Struggles To Build ‘Information Advantage’ Requirement
  332. ^ a b Theresa Hitchens (29 July 2021) Beyond ABMS: Air Force Pushes Experimental Tech For AI, IT, Data
  333. ^ Royal United Services Institute (19 June 2019) – Session Six: Securing Information Advantage 39:07 minutes, 3 speakers 1. Disinformation and trust 2:00, 2. Information warfare 15:40, and 3. Kremlin messaging (as viewed by an observer based in Vilnius, Lithuania) 26:35. Summary 37:30
  334. ^ Development, Concepts and Doctrine Centre (February 2018), Joint Concept Note 2/18 Information Advantage (PDF), Ministry of Defence
  335. ^ a b Lyle J. Morris, Michael J. Mazarr, Jeffrey W. Hornung, Stephanie Pezard, Anika Binnendijk, Marta Kepe (27 July 2019) Gaining Competitive Advantage in the Gray Zone: Response Options for Coercive Aggression Below the Threshold of Major War
    • The authors provide "Overarching strategic concept for responding to gray zone threats" 36 suggestions for responses to micro-aggressions by Russia and China.
  336. ^ a b Mandy Mayfield (7 October 2020) JUST IN: Pentagon to Streamline Software Development AAF (Adaptive acquisition framework) now adheres to the updated DoD 5000.01 policy approved in September 2020 by Ellen Lord's lead, the Deputy Defense Secretary David Norquist
  337. ^ The Economist (7 October 2021) The promise of open-source intelligence
  338. ^ Brandi Vincent (14 Sep 2021) The Marines Are Copying the Air Force's Efforts to Counter Online Disinformation: Meanwhile, the Army is trying to get inside perpetrators' OODA loops.
  339. ^ Mark Pomerleau (14 Oct 2021) The next tool the Army needs for information advantage Find the influencers; use a new G39, and public affairs units to reach the influencers
  340. ^ [332][333][334][321][335][336][337][338][339]
  341. ^ a b c d Theresa Hitchens (11 Aug 2021) JROC's Next Target: ‘Integrated Air & Missile Defense’ IAMD
  342. ^ Office of the Secretary of defense (2019) 2019 Missle Defense Review
  343. ^ Jen Judson (11 Aug 2021) Pentagon readies to identify integrated air and missile defense capability gaps
  344. ^ Justin Lee (November 21, 2019) MILCOM 2019 Highlights Urgent Need for Joint All-Domain Command and Control
  345. ^ a b Lauren C. Williams (NOV 13, 2019) Air Force gears up for first 'connect-a-thon' Archived December 9, 2019, at the Wayback Machine
  346. ^ Theresa Hitchens (6 Dec 2019, updated 5:21pm) First Multi Domain C2 Exercise Planned: ABMS Onramp
  347. ^ Theresa Hitchens (21 Jan 2020) ABMS Demos Speed New Capabilities To Warfighters connections: C130 to LEO Starlink; F22 to F35;
  348. ^ >Theresa Hitchens (December 23, 2019) OSD, Services Get First Look At Air Force Multi-Domain Chops
  349. ^ a b Theresa Hitchens (5 May 2020) The Key To All-Domain Warfare Is ‘Predictive Analysis:’ Gen. O’Shaughnessy
  350. ^ a b Theresa Hitchens (3 March 2020) Attack On US Satellites Focus Of Next ABMS Test: Goldfein Joint Chiefs will attend the next ABMS test, which will span bases from Eglin AFB to Nellis AFB; Yuma Proving Ground to White Sands Missile Range. All the joint chiefs plan to be there
  351. ^ Theresa Hitchens (14 May 2020) MDA: All-Domain C2 Key To Countering Hypersonic Missiles
  352. ^ Theresa Hitchens (10 June 2020) CQ Brown Brings Pacific Focus; Keen Interest In Joint Ops Air Force Chief of Staff Gen. Charles Brown
  353. ^ a b Theresa Hitchens (4 Aug 2020) Army IBCS Critical To JADC2: STRATCOM's Adm. Richard
  354. ^ a b c Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (28 May 2020) Army Invites Air Force ABMS To Big Network Test: Project Convergence
  355. ^ Loren Thompson (28 Aug 2020) Air Force's ‘Skyborg’ Robotic Wingman Will Revolutionize How Air Warfare Is Waged—And How Weapons Are Bought
  356. ^ Colin Clark (4 Jun 2021) SecDef OKs JADC2 Strategy: Now OSD Has ‘Teeth’ Approved 13 May 2021
  357. ^ Jaspreet Gill (28 Apr 2022) Learning from Ukraine conflict, info security agency pushes ahead on JADC2 DISA planning JADC2 for "denied and disconnected low bandwidth situations"
  358. ^ Colin Clark (28 Oct 2021) 'Hundreds' Of China Hypersonic Tests Vs. 9 US; Hyten Says US Moves Too Slowly
  359. ^ a b Theresa Hitchens (6 August 2020) AF Tests F-35, Stealth Fleet For Integrated Electronic Warfare
  360. ^ Joseph Lacdan, Army News Service (11 September 2020) Project Convergence aims to accelerate change in modernization efforts At Yuma Proving Ground, success means to complete the demo in less than 20 seconds.
  361. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (10 September 2020) Target Gone In 20 Seconds: Army Sensor-Shooter Test
  362. ^ a b Valerie Insinna (4 Sep 2020) Behind the scenes of the US Air Force's second test of its game-changing battle management system A hypervelocity projectile descended from a Paladin munition knocked down a cruise missile surrogate on 3 September 2020 at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR)
    • An ABMS Onramp Two vendor provided sensor towers and AI to track the cruise missile surrogates.
    • ABMS provided common picture to combatant commanders
  363. ^ a b c Patrick Tucker (11 September 2020) The Air Force's ‘Connect Everything’ Project Just Had a Big Success The ABMS Onramp 2 demo occurred on 2 September 2020. Commanders were shown they had the same access to a Common Operational Picture, displayed on their tablets at the flight line, as they had on their screens earlier in the command center.
  364. ^ Colin Clark (19 Nov 2020) Preston Dunlap: ‘A Thousand Kill Chains In Your Pocket’ links to video
  365. ^ Valerie Insinna (15 Sep 2020) The US Air Force has built and flown a mysterious full-scale prototype of its future fighter jet via "digital engineering, agile software development and open architecture". —Will Roper
  366. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (23 Feb 2021) Army AI Gets Live Fire Test Next Week
  367. ^ a b Andrew Feickert, Congressional research service (CRS) IF11654 (updated 27 Sep 2021) The Army’s Project Convergence Archived 28 September 2021 at the Wayback Machine PC20, PC21, PC22
  368. ^ Nathan Strout (27 Apr 2022) Intelligence agency takes over Project Maven, the Pentagon’s signature AI scheme NGA (National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency)
  369. ^ Colin Clark (9 Jun 2021) SecDef Austin Takes Personal Charge of DoD China Policy With Classified Directive
  370. ^ More precisely, 12 Oct-10 Nov 2021, according to Jen Judson (11 Aug 2021) US Army's critical missile defense system will play role at Project Convergence IBCS battalion will be part of 6000-7000 personnel, including 900 for data collection
  371. ^ Mark Schauer (3 November 2021) Yuma Proving Ground supports cutting-edge technology testing during PC 21
  372. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (5 Apr 2021) Joint Force Vs. China: Project Convergence 21
  373. ^ Ashley Rocque (5 June 2023) Army closing down 'leader-follower' robotic truck development, eyeing commercial solutions
  374. ^ Andrew Eversden (13 May 2022) Lawmakers worry Army doesn’t have basing agreements for long-range fires
  375. ^ Dustin Walker (1 May 2023) Is America postured for a fight in the Indo-Pacific?
  376. ^ Colin Clark (11 Oct 2021) Army Puts Leidos Special Mission Plane Through Paces At Project Convergence ARTEMIS 2.0 special mission aircraft, akin to EC-37B (but not electronic warfare)
  377. ^ Stavros Atlamazoglou (16 Aug 2021) How The U.S. Navy SEALs Are Getting Ready For War Against Russia Or China
  378. ^ Holmes Liao (8 Oct 2021) China’s Development of Hypersonic Missiles and Thought on Hypersonic Defense Publication: China Brief Volume: 21 Issue: 19 Critique of JF-12 hypersonic wind tunnel, as well as the newer JF-22 detonation-driven ultra-high-speed and high-enthalpy shock tunnel (used for XingKong). "PLA strategists fear that the U.S. may deploy hypersonic weapons on the first island chain and/or the second island chain, directly threatening China."
  379. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (21 Jun 2021) Hicks Seeks To Unify Service Experiments With New ‘Raider’ Fund
  380. ^ a b Jaspreet Gill (3 May 2022) Pentagon ramps up FY23 funding request in push to address capability gaps, AI RDER funding request $70 million for FY23 going forward. The AI and Data Accelerator (AIDA) requests $76.79 million for FY23, with an estimated minimum of $377 million for the first 5 years for the RDER and AIDA experiments.
  381. ^ a b Brandi Vincent (9 Feb 2022) New Operating System Aims to Speed AI to the Battlefield
  382. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (22 Jun 2021) Hicks Will Send AI/Data Experts To Combatant Commanders
  383. ^ Courtney Albon (8 Dec 2022) US Central Command’s new hub seeks to quickly push battlefield tech Schuyler Moore CENTCOM CTO watch
  384. ^ Gen. Glen D VanHerck (6 Jul 2021) NEW TOOLS TO CREATE TIME AND INFORMATION: "BUILDING THE BIKE WHILE WE RIDE IT" "global information dominance", 3rd in a series of exercises for all 11 combatant commands. See United States Joint Forces Command#Organization disestablished 2011
  385. ^ Patrick Tucker (29 Jul 2021) AI Gives ‘Days of Advanced’ Warning in Recent NORTHCOM Networked Warfare Experiment
  386. ^ Jaspreet Gill (16 Mar 2023) DoD kickstarts tight-lipped RDER experiments this year: Official
  387. ^ Courtney Albon (13 Apr 2023) Pentagon's Shyu gives 'sneak peek' of tech strategy focused on teaming National Defense Science and Technology Strategy
  388. ^ Colin Clark (10 Aug 2021) Army's IBCS Starts Operational Testing Next Month: SMDC's Karbler
  389. ^ Todd South (20 Aug 2020) Army missile defenders defeat cruise and ballistic missiles nearly simultaneously
  390. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (21 August 2020) IBCS Defeats 2 Missiles in Flight – But 100s In Simulation
  391. ^ Andrew Eversden (20 August 2020) US Army buys new supercomputers to meet data analytics demand
  392. ^ a b c d e f Mark Pomerleau (8 Dec 2021) Five things the Army learned about its network at Project Convergence 21 PC21
  393. ^ Andrew Eversden (17 Nov 2021) At Project Convergence, Army ‘struggling’ to see joint battlefield as it heeds ‘hard’ lessons
  394. ^ Amy Walker, Project Manager Tactical Network, PEO C3T Public Affairs (14 Jun 2022) Space provides key to Joint All Domain Command and Control JADC2
  395. ^ Justin Katz (24 Jul 2023) Coping with 'tension': Navy's global exercise to pit commanders with joint force pressures
  396. ^ Aaron Mehta (14 Aug 2020) ‘No lines on the battlefield’: Pentagon's new war-fighting concept takes shape
  397. ^ Morgan Dwyer (10 July 2020) Making the most of the Air Force's investment in Joint All Domain Command and Control
  398. ^ a b c Theresa Hitchens (24 August 2020) ‘Bold Quest’ To Demo Allied Connectivity For All-Domain Ops " '.. incorporate and demonstrate' elements of Joint All-Domain Command and Control (JADC2) — the capability to link sensors to shooters across air, land, sea, space and cyberspace — into Bold Quest" — need a joint experimental C2 environment for allies to connect to.
  399. ^ Scott Lee (19 Aug 2021) A Vision for Better, Faster C2 Decision-Making Across All Domains
  400. ^ a b c d Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (24 October 2019) TITAN system being developed to tie 'deep sensing' to long-range fires For use in I2CEWS battalion of a Multi-domain task force
  401. ^ a b c Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (7 February 2020) 37th Vice chief of staff: Speed of modernization no longer at 'glacial pace'
  402. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (23 September 2020) Pushing Data ‘From Space To Mud’: Project Convergence
  403. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (28 Apr 2021) Army Artillery’s AI Gets Live-Fire Exercises In Europe, Pacific APNT: Timing for TITAN terminal prototype in 2022
  404. ^ Theresa Hitchens and Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (7 August 2019) Army Seeks Small Satellites To Support Ground Troops 3 programs: Gunsmoke, Lonestar and Polaris.
  405. ^ PEO news (27 Sep 2021) TITAN Brings Together Systems For Next Generation Intelligence Capabilities "[I]n Multi Domain Operations (MDO) and Joint All Domain Operations (JADO), TITAN will be the first Intelligence ground station enabled by Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning (AI/ML) " --Palantir project
  406. ^ Courtney Albon (31 Mar 2022) US Army on track to award TITAN competitive prototyping contracts in the coming months "selection of a single provider for TITAN will occur at the end of the program’s second phase, which will last about 14 months"
  407. ^ Andrew Eversden (28 Jun 2022) Army moves ahead with Palantir and Raytheon for next phase of TITAN
  408. ^ Courtney Albon (28 Jun 2022) US Army awards $72 million for new phase in next-gen ground system effort DIU and Northrop will field a prototype TITAN in the interim
  409. ^ Carlos Munoz, Janes (24 May 2021) US Army preps for TITAN ground station experimentation
  410. ^ Nathan Strout (29 Apr 2022) Army Futures Command learning from Russia’s invasion of Ukraine Satellite "sensors also need to be better integrated with Army systems, to the point that satellite data can be downlinked directly to the battlefield".—Willie Nelson, Deputy Asst Sec Army
  411. ^ Courtney Albon (10 Nov 2022) Army showcases space-enabled targeting system at Project Convergence TITAN mobile, semi-autonomous pre-prototype at PC22
  412. ^ Jaspreet Gill (26 Apr 2023) Army to test TITAN prototypes this summer as it moves toward downselect
  413. ^ David Appel, Raytheon (22 Mar 2022) Activity-based intel speeds decisions "The extraction process matches all point locations – this could be a few hundred or millions – from a stack of 2D images, bringing them into alignment to compute 3D locations for each point. When predicted accuracies meet targeting requirements, the data can be referred to as a 'targetable surface'" to reconstruct 3D Point Cloud: Other Transaction number W15QKN-17-9-5555
  414. ^ Sydney J Freedberg Jr (13 Mar 2020) ‘No Timeout’ In Future Wars: Army Gen. Murray EXCLUSIVE
  415. ^ Devon Suits, Army News Service (September 14, 2020) Chief of staff asks force to fight against harmful behaviors
  416. ^ Stephen Losey (9 Mar 2023) Air Force chief wants to take 'wrecking ball' to service's bureaucracy "Accelerate Change or Lose"
  417. ^ a b Headquarters DCS, G3-5-7 (July 23, 2018) U.S. Army Allies and Partners: 9 lines of effort
  418. ^ Maureena Thompson, Army Futures Command (8 Nov 2022) AFC engages with international partners to prepare for the future Eight Allies & Partners At PC22
  419. ^ An example exercise —Spc. Joseph Knoch, 5th Public Affairs Detachment (July 11, 2019) Guard units join US Army and Hungarian forces in exercise: 3rd 197th Artillery Battalion from the Ohio and New Hampshire National Guards working alongside Hungarian Defense Forces (HDF)
  420. ^ Joe Lacdan, Army News Service (July 12, 2019) Relationship with allies key to maintaining competitive edge, says SF commander From the perspective of Special Forces
  421. ^ "Interoperability is huge for our Army; we fight as a coalition..."—Lt. Gen. Jim Richardson Joe Lacdan, Army News Service (April 4, 2019) Allies to join Army Futures Command
  422. ^ a b c Lt. Col. Edward A. Fraser and Command Sgt. Maj. Robert V. Abernethy (April 1, 2019) Strong Europe: A continental-scale combat sustainment laboratory includes Euler diagram of European alliances, partners, competitors
  423. ^ Sgt. LaShic Patterson (August 6, 2019) 2/2CR unloads vehicles at the Poti port for AS19 Agile Spirit 19: Vaziani Military Base, Tbilisi, Georgia
  424. ^ Maj. Kevin Sandell, U.S. Army Central Public Affairs (June 26, 2019) U.S. physician teaches Steppe Eagle 19 medical participants to 'race the Reaper'
  425. ^ a b c d Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (June 13, 2019) Poland Deal Lays Groundwork For Division-Strength Deployment: A division-scale exercise next year in Europe, Defender 2020, will be the largest in a quarter-century. Establishes 7 major elements going forward beyond 2020.
  426. ^ Wendover Productions (27 August 2019) The US' Overseas Military Base Strategy Estimates 800 current DoD bases, but some of them are transitory. Video clip.
  427. ^ Eric Schmitt The New York Times (14 July 2019) "Rehearsing for a Shadow War Against a Foe Embraced by Trump" pp. A1, A10.
  428. ^ "Minister says Britain must reduce military dependence on U.S.: report". Reuters. 11 Jan 2020.
  429. ^ National Guard Bureau (January 2019) State Partnership Program.
  430. ^ Bradley Bowman and Thomas Pledger (10 August 2020) Modernize The National Guard's State Partnership Program
  431. ^ James P. Micciche (21 September 2020) U.S. Below War Threshold Options Against China The opinion of a strategist and Civil affairs officer
  432. ^ Col. Christopher Holshek, USA Ret. (19 August 2020) Expanding Multi-Domain Operations to Win Moral Competition A recommendation —"integrate military-civilian physical and informational power"
  433. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (24 February 2020) DoD Adopts AI Ethics Principles — But How Will They Be Enforced?
  434. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (16 Sep 2020) Military AI Coalition Of 13 Countries Meets On Ethics
  435. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (23 Apr 2021) Artificial Intelligence, Lawyers And Laws Of War
  436. ^ Colin Clark (13 Jul 2021) SecDef Austin Commits US To ‘Responsible AI’ 28th SecDef
  437. ^ Valerie Insinna and Aaron Mehta (26 May 2022) Updated autonomous weapons rules coming for the Pentagon: Exclusive details DoD directive 3000.09
  438. ^ Aaron Mehta 'The Indo-Pacific Theater is "our priority theater"—Mark Esper.' (27 August 2019) Esper calls for new basing investments in the Pacific Sites to be determined
  439. ^ Todd South (10 Jan 2020) The Pacific must mean more than Korea rotations for the Army to counter China —Secretary McCarthy
  440. ^ Todd South (May 8, 2019) The Pacific push: New rotation, thousands more soldiers heading to the region as the Army readies for a new kind of fight
  441. ^ a b Jen Judson (4 February 2020) US Army wants to expand pre-positioned stock in Pacific APS Preparation for 2021: Test of the 24-hour/7-days a week operations center, and Army sealift capability in Pacific, just as Defender 2020 is a "test of the rails and roads in Europe"
  442. ^ a b c Headquarters, United States European Command (11 March 2020) Exercise Defender Europe 20 update Troop reduction
  443. ^ Theresa Hitchens (13 March 2020) COVID-19: WH Relocates Space Council Meet; Space Symposium Postponed
  444. ^ U.S. Army (16 March 2020) DEFENDER Europe 20 modified in size and scope
  445. ^ Kevin Baron (17 March 2020) Attacks on DOD Networks Soar As Telework Inflicts ‘Unprecedented’ Loads
  446. ^ Connie Lee (14 Sep 2020) Emphasizing Large Warfighting Exercises (UPDATED)
  447. ^ Colin Clark (13 Oct 2020) Army Lost 3 NTC Training Rotations To COVID; FORSCOM Curbs Pace Next Year Too
  449. ^ Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (October 11, 2018) Second phase of Multi-Domain Task Force pilot headed to Europe
  450. ^ a b Paul McLeary (16 December 2019) From The Baltic To Black Seas, Defender Exercise Goes Big, With Hefty Price Tag
  451. ^ a b Jen Judson (8 September 2019) US Army's multidomain force emerges in Europe
  452. ^ Training Support Activity Europe (16 September 2021) 2nd Multi-Domain Task Force Activation Ceremony live stream. I2CEWS is a detachment.
  453. ^ a b Jacob Kriss, CECOM Public Affairs (October 16, 2019) CECOM Empowering Strategic Support Area Readiness: Strategic Power Projection Pre-positioned stocks "with enough equipment for an entire brigade or division, up to 15,000"
  454. ^ U.S. Army Public Affairs (October 7, 2019) Army exercise largest in 25 years Test the ability to deploy 20,000 Soldiers to Europe
  455. ^ Lt. Gen. Stephen Twitty (October 1, 2019) Logistics Important to Shaping the European Theater
  456. ^ Major Bradley Cooper, U.S. Army (September 2019) Precision Logistics: Sustainment for Multi-Domain Operations LSCO
  457. ^ a b U.S. Army Public Affairs (21 January 2020) Army begins movement for Defender-Europe 20 exercise
  458. ^ Sgt. 1st Class Kelvin Ringold (16 January 2020) 'Wolfpack' prepares for DEFENDER mission 13th Expeditionary Sustainment Command (ESC)
  459. ^ Christopher Woody (Oct 16, 2019) The US Army is worried about a potential showdown with Russia, and it's practicing a new way to get to a fight in Europe
  460. ^ a b Roger N. McDermott (03 February 2020) Moscow Reacts Warily to NATO's Largest Military Exercise in 25 Years "The wide-spanning maneuvers are to focus on the Baltic States, Poland and Georgia, involving more than 36,000 personnel from 11 countries (, January 26, 2020)"
  461. ^ a b c US Army (October 15, 2019) Army Guard improves readiness, supports National Defense Strategy "is in the process of realigning eight full National Guard divisions for the Army"
  462. ^ a b Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (October 15, 2019) Defender exercise to deploy 20,000 Soldiers to project power in Europe
  463. ^ a b JOHN VANDIVER (January 6, 2020) Middle East crisis could mean adjustments to Europe's largest military exercise in decades "The Army will adapt as needed, USAREUR officials said."
  464. ^ Aaron Mehta (15 Mar 2020) Estonia's top military officer on putting aside national interests for regional defense
  465. ^ a b Spc. Elliott Page (3 February 2020) Coleman Barracks Army Prepositioned Stock Site DEFENDER-Europe 20 Movement
  466. ^ Steve DeVane and Rachael Riley (Jan. 4, 2020) Fort Bragg community in North Carolina on edge as soldiers head to Middle East 82nd Airborne (with 18,000 troops) has an 18-hour readiness status (after the first phone call).—27th Secretary of Defense Mark Esper
  467. ^ BREAKING DEFENSE STAFF (17 October 2019) Mind the Gap: The Army Looks to a New Assault Bridge for Heavy Armor Maneuvers in Europe
  468. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (06 February 2020) OMFV: The Army's Polish Bridge Problem Optionally manned fighting vehicle (OMFV) is a modernization project. The 11-meter Joint Assault Bridge is short for a major European river. Abrams tanks are heavier than typical Eastern European bridges' weight limits.
  469. ^ Office of the Chief of Public Affairs (10.16.2019) 2019 AUSA Warriors Corner – The Art, Science, and Challenges of River Crossing (USACE)
  470. ^ ART Conduct Forward Passage of Lines
  471. ^ EUCOM (2020) DEFENDER Europe Trifold
  472. ^ Defense News (5/22/2021) Video: American forces in Europe, and multidomain operations | Defense News Weekly Full Episode, 5.22.21 26:19
  473. ^ Defense News Todd South (15 Mar 2021) Massive, Army-led NATO exercise Defender Europe kicks off Defender Europe 2021
  474. ^ Cameron Porter, 405th AFSB Public Affairs Officer (4 May 2021) Equipment, vehicles issued to units in Estonia for DEFENDER Europe 21 drawn from APS-2
  475. ^ a b Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (10 February 2021) V Corps to be put through its paces before reaching full operational capability this fall
  476. ^ a b Army Times "Massive, Army-led NATO exercise Defender Europe kicks off". Army Times. 15 March 2021.
  477. ^ "NATO, US to stage large-scale military exercises around Serbia until summer". Euractiv. 22 March 2021.
  478. ^ "Germany Says Russia Seeking To 'Provoke' With Troop Buildup At Ukraine's Border". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 14 April 2021.
  479. ^ Christopher Stewart Sgt. (April 8, 2019) Germany's 1st Armored Division Spearheads Allied Spirit X[permanent dead link]
  480. ^ Spc. Yon Henderson (April 17, 2019) Exercise brings American firepower to European partners
  481. ^ Sgt. Thomas Mort (April 23, 2019) 2-34 Intel team proves invaluable during Allied Spirit X
  482. ^ Capt. Jay Beeman, 5th Battalion, 1st Security Force Assistance Brigade (April 30, 2019) Combat advisor teams sharpen skills in multinational exercise
  483. ^ Sgt. Sean Harding (25 February 2020) 3rd SFAB and Kurdish Peshmerga work side by side to defeat threats; Peshmerga refers to the Iraqi Kurdish Army.
  484. ^ Davis Winkie (6 Aug 2021) Army won't give up German, Belgian bases scheduled for closure, it says after review
  485. ^ a b Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (July 19, 2019) Building relationships, interoperability through exchange program
  486. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (25 Nov 2020) Budget Up, French Army Preps For Major Wargames With US Wargames are all-out stress tests for command posts, but simulate troop levels. Planned for Warfighter 21-04.
  487. ^ Paul McLeary and Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (15 July 2020) US & UK Ink Pact On Next-Gen Aircraft, Long-Range Missiles
  488. ^ a b c Thomas Brading, Army News Service (12 February 2021) Army scales up joint capabilities as Project Convergence grows
  489. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (23 Mar 2021) ‘Land Forces Are Hard To Kill’: Army Chief Unveils Pacific Strategy
  490. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (10 May 2021) Army Plans To Grow Artillery EXCLUSIVE Five MDTFs are planned.
  491. ^ Andrew Eversden (23 Sep 2022) Army formally activating its second Multi-Domain Task Force focused on the Pacific
  492. ^ a b Jen Judson (15 Mar 2023) US Army chief wants three multidomain task force units in the Pacific MDTFs are agile, relocatable. 4th MDTF loc is TBD.
  493. ^ Cathy Kropp (USAEC) (21 Jun 2022) Army seeks public feedback on proposed stationing of multi-domain task force
  494. ^ Sec. Army Christine E. Wormuth OCPA (10.11.20) AUSA 2021: Opening Ceremony
  495. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (12 May 2021) Army Discloses Hypersonic LRHW Range Of 1,725 Miles; Watch Out China Ranges for: ERCA, GMLR-ER, PRSM, MRC, LRHW
  496. ^ Andrew Feickert, Specialist in Military Ground Forces, Congressional Research Service (CRS) (31 May 2022) The Army’s Multi-Domain Task Force (MDTF) report IF11797
  497. ^ Todd South (17 Sep 2021) Army’s first multi-domain task force in Europe gets to work[permanent dead link] in Norway, including an I2CEWS battalion-sized element
  498. ^ Andrew Eversden (4 Nov 2021) Army reactivates theater artillery command amid Russian build-up near Ukraine European Theater Fires Command
  499. ^ John Gordon IV, John Matsumura, RAND corporation (2021) Army Theater Fires Command: Integration and Control of Very Long-Range Army Fires RR-A809-1
  500. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (13 Apr 2021) BREAKING New Army Long-Range Units Head To Germany
  501. ^ a b Sgt. Evan Ruchotzke (21 April 2021) Warfighter 21-4 concludes, strengthens collaboration with British and French forces
  502. ^ Jason Douglas (15 Nov 2017) Fort Hood building new mission training complex
  503. ^ Muriel Delaporte (3 Jun 2021) US, France, UK Hammer Out Multinational Corps Warfighting
  504. ^ a b Spc. Zachary Stahlberg (20 May 2021) Dynamic Front 21 shows the future of modern artillery 1800 troops from 15 nations held an Artillery Systems Cooperation Activities University, Grafenwoehr Training Area, Germany, and Torun, Poland
  505. ^ a b Gabriella Sullivan (13 October 2021) V Corps completes Warfighter 22-1 en route to becoming America's forward deployed Corps in Europe
  506. ^ Devin Klecan (3 Nov 2021) Victory in Europe: V Corps reaches major milestone
  507. ^ a b Jen Judson (11 Oct 2021) US Army insists next year’s Defender Europe is not canceled
  508. ^ a b Thomas Brading, Army News Service (13 January 2020) More deployments, stronger presence set for Pacific, says SecArmy
  509. ^ Paul McLeary (2 April 2020) EXCLUSIVE Indo-Pacom Chief's Bold $20 Billion Plan For Pacific; What Will Hill Do?
  510. ^ Thomas Brading, Army News Service (21 May 2020) Talent management key to filling future specialized MDO units I2CEWS battalion needs to be filled using the Assignment Interactive Module 2.0 (AIM 2.0)
  511. ^ Andrew Eversden (1 Apr 2022) Army’s next Multi-Domain Task Force will be ‘tied’ to Indo-Pacific
  512. ^ Kyle Rempfer (30 May 2020) Final SFAB activates with upcoming missions in Asia, as Army plans a Pacific Pathways restart "5th SFAB has hired 90 percent of its required troops"
  513. ^ Kyle Rempfer (1 Mar 2021) Security force assistance brigade wants a third of its members in Indo-Pacific at all times
  514. ^ a b c d Theresa Hitchens (7 May 2020) New Air Force deviceONE To Allow Remote Top-Secret Access For Services, IC
  515. ^ Theresa Hitchens (7 Oct 2020) First Joint Exercise To Test All-Domain Capabilities: Valiant Shield 2020 ABMS Onramp 3 was scaled down
  516. ^ a b c Theresa Hitchens (29 June 2020) Air Force Eyes European ABMS Demo In Spring
  517. ^ BRETT TINGLEY AND TYLER ROGOWAY (5 Aug 2021) Kratos Says Secret "Off-Board Sensing Station" Unmanned Aircraft Will Be Transformative: The U.S. Air Force has a classified program to field low-cost, attritable drones that can be used as "off-board sensing stations." OBSS
  518. ^ Colin Clark (12 Nov 2020) Dunlap Unveils First ‘Global’ ABMS Exercise Linked together by XQ-58 drones in May 2021
  519. ^ KELSEY ATHERTON (10 September 2020) NSA Prepares Unclassified Threat Reports — From Home
  520. ^ Richard Cody (10 Sep 2021) Project Convergence: Exercise Shows Value In Data Weapons Check For The Digital Age at JSIL
  521. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (19 Jan 2021) Facing Cuts, Army Chief Touts Pacific Role
  522. ^ Colin Clark (20 Jan 3031) Austin To Scrub US Pacific Posture; More Bases, Troops Likely
  523. ^ Clare Foran (22 Jan 2021) Senate confirms Lloyd Austin to be first Black defense secretary
  524. ^ Stacie Pettyjohn, Becca Wasser, and Jennie Matuschak (20 Jul 2021) Risky Business: Future Strategy and Force Options for the Defense Department integrated deterrence
  525. ^ Dzirhan Mahadzir (29 Jul 2021) Admiral: Talisman Sabre Proves U.S., Allies Can Create Pacific Naval Force in Days Expeditionary Strike Group 7, 31st MEU, Amphibious Squadron 11
  526. ^ ww3 high tension – UK / China / South China Sea High Tension update Friday, July 30, 2021 UK Carrier Strike Group 21 enters South China Sea
  527. ^ Defender Anthony Bryant (5 August 2021) Pacific 21: Special Forces Soldiers, JGSDF conduct bilateral operations in Guam
  528. ^ Colin Clark (16 Sep 2021) Nuke Sub Accord ‘First Step’ For Deeper US-Aussie Cooperation; Aussies Get NRO Ties "AUKUS" accord
  529. ^ Colin Clark (24 September 2021) Quad Pushes Chip Supply Security, 5G ‘Diversification,’ Cybersecurity
  530. ^ a b Mark Cancian and Adam Saxton (14 February 2020) 2021 Budget Spells The End of US Force Expansion Reduced topline $740.5 billion; Army remains at 31 BCTs, 5 SFABs, and 11 CABs.
  531. ^ Jen Judson (11 Oct 2021) 'No way around it' Facing budget cuts, Army braces to fight for modernization
  532. ^ Headquarters, Dept of the Army (HQDA) (19 Jan 2021) Regaining Arctic Dominance
  533. ^ Mikayla Easley (2 Aug 2022) Army Tackles Arctic Challenges Alongside European Allies NTCs come to Alaska
  534. ^ HQDA DCS G-3/5/7 (2 Apr 2021) The Army Arctic Strategy
  535. ^ U.S. Army Alaska (21 Jul 2021) Alaska's Senior Army Commander
  536. ^ AP (12 May 2022) Army poised to revamp Alaska forces to prep for Arctic fight In process
  537. ^ Army Public Affairs (31 May 2022) Army announces initiatives to improve quality of life for Soldiers in Alaska AK initiatives in 2022: visits by VCSA, SMA, SecArmy, CSA, hiring 17 behavioral health providers, with a temporary surge in the interim
  538. ^ Voice of America (July 2022) The Inside Story: Alaska: America’s Strategic Frontier
  539. ^ Andrew Eversden (6 June 2022) Seeking morale boost in Alaska, Army formally re-activates 11th Airborne Division
  540. ^ Eve Baker (6 Dec 2022) German Army delegation visit enhances partnership with US Army in Alaska
  541. ^ Melissa Rossi (10 Jun 2022) Russian military moves in the Arctic worry the U.S. and NATO
  542. ^ Headquarters, Dept of the Army (19 Jan 2021) Regaining Arctic Dominance
  543. ^ Andrew Eversden (26 Jan 2022) BAE, Oshkosh cold weather vehicle prototypes survive Army’s Alaskan tests
  544. ^ Jen Judson (22 Aug 2022) BAE Systems wins US Army deal for Cold Weather All-Terrain Vehicle
  545. ^ Mark Schauer (13 Oct 2022) New Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle shows its stuff at the Army's Cold Regions Test Center
  546. ^ Voice of America (3 Sep 2022) Biden To Name Arctic Ambassador As China Eyes Region Senate confirmation required
  547. ^ Jacob Gronholt-Pedersen and Gwladys Fouche, Reuters (16 Nov 2022) NATO allies wake up to Russian supremacy in the Arctic
  548. ^ Cameron Porter, 405th AFSB Public Affairs Officer (16 May 2022) US Army float bridge system employed in Poland during DEFENDER-Europe 22
  549. ^ Cameron Porter, 405th AFSB Public Affairs Officer (5 May 2022) 405th AFSB supports DEFENDER-Europe 22 with APS-2 bridge system, boats
  550. ^ Capt. Angelo Mejia (9 Jun 2022) V Corps wraps up DEFENDER-Europe 22 Two wet gap crossings, Poland to Lithuania
  551. ^ Colin Demarest (23 Mar 2022) Lockheed eyes Project Convergence after successful 5G expedition on Humvees
  552. ^ Andrew Eversden (11 Apr 2022) Electronic warfare and drone swarms: Here’s the Army’s plan for EDGE 22 Electronic warfare and drone swarms: (Experimental Demonstration Gateway Exercise) risk reduction exercise 25 April-12 May for PC22, includes 20 other DoD organizations, and joint partners "Italy, Germany, the Netherlands, Australia, France, Canada and the United Kingdom"
  553. ^ Colin Demarest (6 Jun 2022) Army verifies info-sharing abilities with forces joining Project Convergence 22 "The testing included more than 50 technologies, according to the Army, and stretched from the Combined Joint Systems Integration Laboratory at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland and Fort Bliss in Texas to the U.K. and Australia".
  554. ^ Headquarters, Department of the Army, Deputy Chief of Staff, G-3/5/7 (DAMO-SSW) (29 Oct 2021) Global Defender 22
  555. ^ Todd South (11 Apr 2022) The Army’s transformation begins with these new units 17 capability gaps identified
  556. ^ Jona3than Koester (15 Jun 2022) Modernization leaders gather for Project Convergence 22 final planning conference
  557. ^ Army Futures Command (19 Sep 2022) Project Convergence 2022 to demonstrate futuristic joint, multinational warfighting technologies inaugural PC22 Technology Gateway
  558. ^ Jen Judson (10 Oct 2022) Project Convergence exercise has new gateway to test emerging tech +PC22 experiments
  559. ^ Lauren C. Williams (11 Oct 2022) Small Radios On Armored Vehicles Will Be a Big Step Toward the Army's Networked Future "The challenges include trying to install them and making sure they don’t run out of range"
  560. ^ Colin Demarest (12 Oct 2022) US Army carefully folding Ukraine info into Project Convergence tests
  561. ^ Jaspreet Gill (19 Oct 2022) As Project Convergence tries new 'tech gateways', 2 AI algorithms to transition to programs of record Todd Army 2040
  562. ^ Andrew Eversden (19 Oct 2022) At Project Convergence, Army doubles down on 'fully autonomous' Black Hawk experiments
  563. ^ Jen Judson (15 May 2022) US Army’s virtual world becoming high-demand war planning tool One World Terrain (OWT) data sets to be used at PC22 Oct and Nov 2022
  564. ^ a b c Patrick Tucker (21 Oct 2022) The Military’s Network Warfare Experiment Scaled Up This Year
  565. ^ Colin Demarest (21 Oct 2022) Project Convergence shows JADC2 alignment, leaders from 3 services say Interoperations "show the services are aligned and not disjointed".
  566. ^ Maureena Thompson, Army Futures Command (16 Nov 2022) PC22 experimentation furthers US, partner military efforts to dominate future battlefield
  567. ^ Maureena Thompson, Army Futures Command; Sgt. Daniel Ramos, 22nd Mobile Public Affairs Detachment contributed (20 Oct 2022) 82nd Airborne Soldiers engage in future warfighting experimentation
  568. ^ Jaspreet Gill (15 Nov 2022) At Project Convergence, data management is Army’s biggest challenge
  569. ^ Chris Gordon (8 Dec 2022) DOD’s New Joint Warfighting Cloud Capability Will Underpin JADC2 But Require Cultural Shift, Officials Say
  570. ^ Chris Gordon (2 Dec 2022) Project Convergence
  571. ^ Lauren C. Williams (9 Dec 2022) For DOD, 2023 Is All About Proving It Can Build A Tactical Cloud DISA's Stratus
  572. ^ Sean Carberry (2 Nov 2022) JUST IN: Autonomous Army Helicopter Proves Ready for Action
  573. ^ a b Sgt. 1st Class Terysa King (April 12, 2023) Spain port operation kicks off DEFENDER 23 US Army Europe and Africa
  574. ^ OCPA (10 December 2021) AUSA 2021: CMF #3 – Project Convergence PC23 hub & spoke
  575. ^ Andrew Eversden (14 Oct 2021) Four Questions With Army Futures Commander Gen. John Murray
  576. ^ Jen Judson (11 Oct 2021) US Army weighs taking future Project Convergence exercises abroad Archived 24 October 2021 at the Wayback Machine
  577. ^ Jen Judson (7 Feb 2023) Army sets sights on 2024 for next Project Convergence
  578. ^ Ashley Roque (8 Feb 2023) No Convergence in 2023: Army deliberating the path ahead for signature JADC2 exercise
  579. ^ a b GEN Charles C. Campbell (June 2009), "ARFORGEN Archived 2011-02-17 at the Wayback Machine: Maturing the Model, Refining the Process". Army Magazine,
  580. ^ "Allyn outlines keys to readiness under pressure | Article | The United States Army". 2016-06-13. Retrieved 2016-10-21.
  581. ^ a b c The Hon. David Norquist, Deputy Secretary of Defense, DoD (10 Sep 2020) Closing Keynote: Day 2 Defense News Conference 2020 : Sept 9 – 10 22:00 minutes
  582. ^ Thomas Brading, Army News Service (October 22, 2019) Half of BCTs now at highest level of readiness, as Army looks to add more
  583. ^ Thomas Brading, Army News Service (19 February 2020) Army leaders save $1.2 billion to fund modernization push After a set of 'Night court' cuts
  584. ^ Ready Army Archived 2016-09-06 at the Wayback Machine is a proactive campaign to increase Army community resilience and enhance force readiness by informing Soldiers, their Families, Army Civilians and contractors of relevant hazards, and encouraging them to
    • Be Informed,
    • Make A Plan,
    • Build a Kit and
    • Get Involved. see: DEFCON
  585. ^ Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (August 8, 2019). "Former Army Ranger helps save man on commercial jet".
  586. ^ a b c d David Vergun (October 9, 2018) Army readiness, lethality increasing amid troubled world, says chief of staff
  587. ^ Mark Cancian (25 March 2019) 2020 Budget: One Half Step Towards A Great Power Strategy: Notes Army's difficulty reaching end-strength objectives.
  588. ^ Sgt. LaShawna Custom, 32nd Army Air and Missile Defense Command [http:[dead link]// (March 27, 2019) OC/Ts improved readiness during Roving Sands 19] Observer-Coach/Trainer
  589. ^ Army Times (17 Nov 2018) The Army is extending recruiters orders by two months
  590. ^ Gary Sheftick, Army News Service (May 13, 2019) Large cities see jump in recruits
  591. ^ AUSA (October 26, 2018) 'Atrophied’ Recruiting Strategy Being Overhauled surge operation in 22 cities, 3 other actions
  592. ^ a b Army Directive 2018–22 (8 Nov 2018) Retention Policy for Non-Deployable Soldiers
  593. ^ Kyle Rempfer (1 September 2020) A 59-year-old Army and Marine vet, who served in Afghanistan, just graduated Army basic combat training after a 10-year break in service. He went through Marine Corps boot camp in 1978
  594. ^ U.S. Army Center for Initial Military Training Staff (May 20, 2019) Army to conduct assessment of alternate ACFT events
  595. ^ Karen Jowers (18 Jul 2022) Survey raises serious questions about the future of the all-volunteer force
  596. ^ Davis Winkie (19 Jul 2022) Citing recruiting woes, Army will shed up to 28,000 troops in next year
  597. ^ Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Installation Management (August 16, 2019) Soldier and Family Readiness Groups
  598. ^ a b Joe Lacdan, Army News Service (June 12, 2019) Army making improvements to Family Readiness Groups
  599. ^ a b Devon L. Suits (October 17, 2018) Study reveals impact of Army Families on retention, recruiting: When spouses favor Army life, 93% of Soldiers stay; but when spouses do not, 44% stay in the Army.
  600. ^ The US Army (Aug 9, 2019) Change of Responsibility Ceremony: Army Chief of staff and sergeant major of the Army
  601. ^ a b [http:[dead link]// Strangers as family 32nd AAMDC helps Soldier, family, in need]
  602. ^ US Army (6 March 2019) US Military plans release of Tenant bill of rights
  603. ^ US Army (6 Feb 2019) Senior leaders discuss upcoming moves to ease family concerns Army to receive authorization for direct hires of personnel, e.g., childcare workers
  604. ^ Sean Kimmons, U.S. Army Garrison Japan Public Affairs (7 April 2022) Military children attend Japanese schools to immerse in culture
  605. ^ Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (June 11, 2019) Army lengthens tours for Soldiers in Europe, Japan
  606. ^ But moves in summertime cause satisfaction ratings to drop from 95% down to 80%. The Military Moves Hundreds of Thousands of Families Each Summer. Many of Them Don't Go Well
  607. ^ Winifred Brown (20 May 2020) Retiring Camp Zama teacher reflects on 33 years of service
  608. ^ Devon Suits (15 Sep 2021) Army tests new EFMP system, targets assignment process for select families a new Exceptional Family Member Program (EFMP) being tested by 300 families
  609. ^ Terri Moon Cronk, (10 February 2020) DOD vows to help Exceptional Family Member Program
  610. ^ Devon Suits, Army News Service (11 August 2020) New Army Digital Garrison app serves as guide to on-post services 60 installations are currently on the app, which runs on iPhone or Android.
  611. ^ [http:[dead link]//, "Did you know ..." example notice] —p.2A, lower right-hand corner
  612. ^ Chaplain (Capt.) Calvin Park [http:[dead link]// (20 June 2019) Count the cost] page 5b
  613. ^ Stand-to: Headquarters, U.S. Army Surgeon General (Friday, 24 January 2020) Transfer of Army Medical Treatment Facilities (MTFs) to Defense Health Agency (DHA), no later than (NLT) 21 October 2021.
  614. ^ Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (6 December 2019) Surgeon general reaffirms promise of quality care during DHA transfer
  615. ^ Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (15 August 2019) Army makes changes to Total Army Sponsorship Program
  616. ^ a b Davis Winkie (27 Jun 2022) Army takes sweeping look at how new soldiers are welcomed across the force
  617. ^ Army News Service (11 Feb 2019) Installation Management Command to realign under Army Materiel Command
    • "We are deeply troubled by the recent reports highlighting the deficient conditions in some of our family housing. It is unacceptable for our families who sacrifice so much to have to endure these hardships in their own homes."—23rd Secretary of the Army, Dr. Mark T. Esper and 39th Chief of Staff of the Army, Gen. Mark A. Milley "US Army statement on military housing". U.S. Army. 13 February 2019. Retrieved February 16, 2019.
  618. ^ Reuters (2019 summary) Reuters special report on military housing
  619. ^ a b Army Public Affairs (2 October 2019) Army senior leaders discuss progress in reforming the Military Privatized Housing Initiative
  620. ^ Kari Hawkins, AMC (21 January 2020) Army focuses on making installations number one choice for military families Archived 1 February 2020 at the Wayback Machine
  621. ^ U.S. Army Public Affairs (6 February 2020) Army Secretary Ryan D. McCarthy, other service secretaries, meet with housing executives Lists 7 measures
  622. ^ Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (March 4, 2020) DOD working to add key provisions to tenant bill of rights 3 more provisions sought: "a dispute resolution process, the right to withhold rent until a dispute is resolved, and access to a building's maintenance history before the move-in date"
  623. ^ Karen Jowers (22 Oct 2021) 50,000 military families in 38 privatized housing communities see new ownership Clark Realty Capital, and Lincoln Military Housing have sold their properties to Michaels Organization, and Liberty Military Housing respectively (except for the former Lincoln housing at Fort Sam Houston, Texas which was transferred to Hunt Military Communities)
  624. ^ Davud Roza (28 Dec 2021) Why a company guilty of ‘pervasive fraud’ remains one of the Pentagon’s biggest landlords Balfour Beatty Communities LLC
  625. ^ Haley Britzky (19 Nov 2020) The Army's ‘complete failure’ led to this private's suicide after she was sexually assaulted, parents say
  626. ^ Ryan Morgan (8 Dec 2020) Video: Army Secretary says Army's sexual assault prevention program ‘hasn't achieved its mandate’
  627. ^ Scott Maucione (16 Oct 2020) Army will now assume soldiers are missing and not AWOL after multiple deaths this summer
  628. ^ The U.S. Army (8 Dec 2020) Secretary of the Army McCarthy addresses the report of the Fort Hood Independent Review Committee
  629. ^ U.S. Army (8 Dec 2020) Army Senior Leader Message to the Force
  630. ^ Devon Suits (21 Dec 2020) People first: New task force seeks Army-wide changes
  631. ^ Davis Winkie (5 May 2022) Army makes new cohesion assessment teams permanent Cohesion assessment teams (CATs)
  632. ^ Davis Winkie (27 May 2022) suicide prevention Data needs CAC
  633. ^ Leo Shane III (21 Jul 2022) The military may be required to start tracking suicides by job assignments
  634. ^ III Armored Corps Public Affairs (13 May 2022) Fort Hood’s novel People First Center officially opens doors
  635. ^ Sgt. Audrey Hayes (October 17, 2018) Army Reserve preparing to fight on a new battlefield
  636. ^ Sgt. Bethany Huff (October 23, 2018) U.S. Army Reserve pilots Deployment Assistance Teams for RFX units
  637. ^ Capt. Joselyn Sydnor, [http:[dead link]// 653rd Regional Support Group (July 17, 2019) Bliss MSF ROC drill tests MFGI capabilities] Mobilization Support Force (MSF).
  638. ^ Laven2 [http:[dead link]// (20 Nov 2018) 210th Regional Support Group (RSG) Soldiers provide support for civilians of Mobilization & Demobilization (MaD) Brigade S1/transition]
  640. ^ Sgt. 1st Class Brent Powell (September 26, 2019) Reserve brigade marks historic first with multi-state field training exercise
    • Capt. Joselyn Sydnor ″[http:[dead link]// (October 2, 2019) 30th ABCT mobilization identifies challenges, successes of expansion] 653rd Regional Support Group was mobilized as the Fort Bliss Mobilization Brigade; the mobilization of 30th ABCT was used to test out the mobilization process of the reserve component of the Army.
  641. ^ Linda Gerron (28 August 2020) U.S. Army Reserve aviation brigade adapts to COVID-19 challenges by conducting local command post exercise 11th ECAB local command post exercise without downtrace units
  642. ^ a b c Staff Report, National Guard Bureau (1 August 2020) Army National Guard to establish eight Divisions by aligning existing ARNG Division Headquarters with down-trace formations for training
  643. ^ "Department of the Army Announces Associated Units Pilot". Retrieved 2016-03-22.
  644. ^ "36th ID making Guard history in Afghanistan". Fox7 Austin. Archived from the original on 2017-01-04.
  645. ^ "Total Army Force leaders plan three-year 'Associated Units' Pilot". Retrieved 2016-06-01.
  646. ^ Myers, Meghann (2016-03-22). "army-pilot-links-active-guard-and-reserve-units-training-deployments". Army Times. Retrieved 2016-10-21.
  647. ^ US Army "Associated Units concept improving readiness, says MG Jarrard".
  648. ^ Secretary of the Army (21 March 2016), Memorandum: Designation of Associated Units in Support of Army Total Force Policy (PDF), Washington – via MultiBriefs((citation)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  649. ^ a b Pargett, Matthew (March 25, 2019). "Squad tactics tested on new virtual marksmanship trainer".
  650. ^ Banzhaf, Sgt. Brandon (April 24, 2019). "Focus on teamwork, education helps build a squad of infantrymen".
  651. ^ a b c d Fisher, Franklin (August 22, 2019). "Army overhauls small arms training with tougher standards, combat-like rigor".
  652. ^ a b Joanna Bradley, CCDC Aviation & Missile Center Public Affairs (April 18, 2019). "Aviation, Missile Center teams develops Stryker simulator".
  653. ^ Sgt. Jeff Clements, Virginia National Guard (11 September 2020). "VNG Soldiers train on CROWS remote weapons system".
  654. ^ Juliet Van Wagenen (October 10, 2014) Lockheed Martin Delivers Digital Air Ground Integration Range to US Army
  655. ^ a b c Eric Pilgrim, Fort Knox News (July 22, 2019) Army to break ground on Digital Air-Ground Integration Range this fall
  656. ^ Sundt Orogrande (2013 est.) Digital Air Ground Integration Range (DAGIR)
  657. ^ Mark Price (27 February 2020) Elaborate unconventional warfare exercise set for undisclosed sites in North Carolina JFK Special Warfare school: acting as guerrilla freedom fighters
  658. ^ Todd South (28 Oct 2022) Major Hawaii-based Army exercise tests brigade in island-hopping fight JPMRC
  659. ^ Mario J. Hoffmann (October 1, 2018) Modernizing the Army's OPFOR program to become a near-peer sparring partner
  660. ^ Jim Smilie (6 Sep 2018) Louisiana Army National Guard gears up for potential deployment in 2020 256th IBCT in XCTC training in 2018 against OPFORs, then JRTC in 2020.
  661. ^ Gina Harkins (16 Aug 2020) Fake News Is Wreaking Havoc on the Battlefield. Here's What the Military's Doing About It
  662. ^ Kyle Rempfer (17 Aug 2020) Direct commissions for Army cyber officers finally gaining steam, two-star says
  663. ^ a b Todd South (7 Aug 2020) New Army soldier facility combines tech to sharpen soldier-squad lethality
  664. ^ a b c Patti Bielling, Synthetic Training Environment CFT (June 11, 2019) 1st SFAB Soldiers hone close combat skills on Army's newest virtual trainer
  665. ^ a b Spc. William Griffen (20 February 2020) HHBN masters the fundamentals of convoy escort
  666. ^ Ms. Elvia E Kelly (IMCOM) (26 February 2020) 'Machine Gun University' keeps Soldiers ready for real-world missions Squad Advanced Marksmanship Training at Fort Bragg's Virtual Training Center, 20 Feb. 2020
  667. ^ Adam Srone (30 Sep 2021) US Army tool empowers soldiers to virtually collaborate across regions
  668. ^ Dr. Charles K. Pickar, Naval Postgraduate School (October 29, 2019) An exercise to experience Experential learning
  669. ^ US Army Army ALT Magazine (January 29, 2019) Then And Now: Training for the Future —Retired Gen. Peter W. Chiarelli, 32nd vice chief of staff of the Army: "I believe that a training environment .. should be a maneuver trainer, and it should be a gunnery trainer."
  670. ^ Maj. Anthony Clas, 3rd Armored Brigade Combat Team, 1st Armored Division Public Affairs [http:[dead link]// (10/31/2019) Regulars’ battalion masters the fundamentals during squad live-fire exercise]
  671. ^ Gary Sheftick, Army News Service Army rebuilding short-range air defense (July 2, 2019) Army rebuilding short-range air defense Manpads training for 14P MOS using synthetic training environment (STE)
  672. ^ Monica Wood (18 October 2021) Cutting-edge, VR-equipped Stinger training facility opens
  673. ^ Jacqueline M. Hames and Margaret C. Roth (January 29, 2019), "Then And Now: Training for the Future", Army ALT Magazine
  674. ^ HQDA Army Regulation AR 10–87 Glossary (11 December 2017) "Army Commands, Army Service Component Commands, and Direct Reporting Units" p.53
  675. ^ Sean Kimmons (October 11, 2018) Second phase of Multi-Domain Task Force pilot headed to Europe
  676. ^ Office of the Chief of Public Affairs (Wednesday, October 4, 2017) Readiness 2017
  677. ^ a b HQDA "Stand-To! Army Readiness Guidance, Army G-3/5/7". May 19, 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2016.
  678. ^ CSA Mark Milley (20 Jan 2016) Army Readiness Guidance, 2016/2017
  679. ^ a b c Whitley and McConville (5 May 2021) Statement before the House Armed Services Committee ON THE POSTURE OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY as cited by Office of the Director of the Army Staff Army Posture Statement 2021 (6 May 2021)
  680. ^ Alyssa Crockett (21 June 2022) Army leaders, experts collaborate to meet future equipping demands ReARMM: Regionally aligned Readiness and Modernization Model, based on logistics, mission command, ground combat, medical, fires and aviation
  681. ^ a b Headquarters, Deputy Chief of Staff, G-3-5-7 (16 October 2020) Regionally Aligned Readiness and Modernization Model
  682. ^ ASA(ALT) Weapon Systems Handbook 2018 update Page 32 lists how this handbook is organized. 440 pages.
    • By Modernization priority
    • By Acquisition or Business System category (ACAT or BSC). The Weapon systems in each ACAT are sorted alphabetically by Weapon system name. Each weapon system might also be in several variants (Lettered); a weapon system's variants might be severally and simultaneously in the following phases of its Life Cycle, namely — °Materiel Solution Analysis; °Technology Maturation & Risk Reduction; °Engineering & Manufacturing Development; °Production & Deployment; °Operations & Support
    • ACAT I, II, III, IV are defined on page 404
  683. ^ Megan Cotton Gully, Army Materiel Command Public Affairs (3 Jun 2022) Army industrial base sets way for the future "23 depots, arsenals and ammunition plants that manufacture, reset and maintain Army equipment"
  684. ^ Caitlin Kenney (15 Sep 2022) Army Wants to Double Or Triple Some Arms Production As Ukraine War Continues "GMLRS, HIMARS, and artillery rounds top the list".
  685. ^ Andrew Eversden (14 Sep 2022) Army acquisition chief ‘not uncomfortable’ with US stockpiles, considers multi-year deals +Javelins
  686. ^ Hearing Before The Committee on Armed Services. United States Senate, One Hundred Fourteenth Congress, First Session (March 25, 2015) The Current State of Readiness of U.S. Forces in Review of the Defense Authorization Request for Fiscal Year 2016 and the Future Years Defense Program
  687. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (April 17, 2019) Army Tells Shoddy Suppliers: Shape Up
  688. ^ Miles Brown (April 18, 2019) AMCOM transforming to support multi-domain operations Bill Marriott: the aviation LCMC is responsible
  689. ^ JOHN VANDIVER, STARS AND STRIPES (January 18, 2018) ‘Big Red One’ deploying division headquarters for Europe mission
  690. ^ a b c d AUSA (2008) Army Prepositioned Stocks: Indispensable to America's Global Force-projection Capability
  691. ^ Todd South (30 Aug 2021) A single unit handles the Army’s rail needs. It was cut from 600 to 180 soldiers 757th Expeditionary Rail Center (ERC) but a CONUS unit is needed
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    • 2000 troops to relocate from Stuttgart to Mons
    • On hold: 2000 Airmen were due to deploy from UK to Germany
    • An F-16 squadron will move from UK to Italy
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