RQ-7 Shadow
A Shadow UAS in flight
Role Tactical reconnaissance UAS for ground maneuver forces
Unmanned combat aerial vehicle (optionally)
Manufacturer AAI Corporation
First flight 1991
Introduction 2002[1]
Status Active, in production
Primary users United States Army
9 other users
Number built 500+[2]
Developed from AAI RQ-2 Pioneer

The AAI RQ-7 Shadow is an American unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) used by the United States Army, Australian Army, Swedish Army, Turkish Air Force and Italian Army for reconnaissance, surveillance, target acquisition and battle damage assessment. Launched from a trailer-mounted pneumatic catapult, it is recovered with the aid of arresting gear similar to jets on an aircraft carrier. Its gimbal-mounted, digitally stabilized, liquid nitrogen-cooled electro-optical/infrared (EO/IR) camera relays video in real time via a C-band line-of-sight data link to the ground control station (GCS).

The US Army's 2nd Battalion, 13th Aviation Regiment at Fort Huachuca, Arizona, trains soldiers, Marines, and civilians in the operation and maintenance of the Shadow UAS. The Shadow is operated in the U.S. Army at brigade-level.[3]


The RQ-7 Shadow is the result of a continued US Army search for an effective battlefield UAS after the cancellation of the Alliant RQ-6 Outrider aircraft. AAI Corporation followed up their RQ-2 Pioneer with the Shadow 200, a similar, more refined UAS. In late 1999, the army selected the Shadow 200 to fill the tactical UAS requirement, redesignating it the RQ-7. Army requirements specified a UAS that used an aviation gasoline engine, could carry an electro-optic/infrared imaging sensor turret, and had a maximum range of 31 miles (50 kilometers) with four-hour, on-station endurance. The Shadow 200 offered at least twice that range. The specifications also dictated that UAS would be able to land in an athletic field.[4]


Soldier performing pre-flight inspections on a RQ-7B Shadow in Afghanistan, 2019

The RQ-7 Shadow 200 unmanned aircraft system is of a high-wing, constant chord pusher configuration with a twin-tailboom empennage and an inverted v-tail. The aircraft is powered by a 38 bhp (28 kW) AR741-1101 Wankel engine designed and manufactured by UAV Engines Ltd in the United Kingdom.[5][6] Onboard electrical systems are powered by a GEC/Plessey 28 volt, direct current, 2 kW generator.[5][6]

Currently, the primary load of the aircraft is the Israeli Aircraft Industries POP300 Plug-in Optical Payload which consists of a forward-looking infrared camera, a daytime TV camera with a selectable near-infrared filter and a laser pointer.[6][7] The aircraft has fixed tricycle landing gear. Takeoffs are assisted by a trailer-mounted pneumatic launcher which can accelerate the 170 kg (375 pound) aircraft to 70 knots (130 km/h) in 40 feet (12 m).[6]

Landings are guided by a Tactical Automatic Landing System, developed by the Sierra Nevada Corporation, which consists of a ground-based micro-millimeter wavelength radar and a transponder carried on the aircraft.[6][8] Once on the ground, a tailhook mounted on the aircraft catches an arresting wire connected to two disk brake drums which can stop the aircraft in less than 170 feet (52 m).[6]

The aircraft is part of a larger system which currently uses the M1152-series of Humvees for ground transport of all ground and air equipment. A Shadow 200 system consists of four aircraft, three of which are transported in the Air Vehicle Transporter (AVT). The fourth is transported in a specially designed storage container to be used as a spare. The AVT also tows the launcher.

The AVT Support Vehicle and trailer contain extra equipment to launch and recover the aircraft, such as the Tactical Automatic Landing System. Maintenance equipment for the aircraft is stored in the Maintenance Section Multifunctional (MSM) vehicle and trailer as well as the M1165 MSM Support Vehicle and its associated trailer.

Two Humvee-mounted Ground Control Stations (GCS), also part of the Shadow 200 system, control the aircraft in flight. Each station has an associated Ground Data Terminal (GDT), which takes commands generated by the GCS and modulates them into radio waves received by the aircraft in flight. The GDT receives video imagery from the payload, as well as telemetry from the aircraft, and sends this information to the GCS.[6]

A trailer, towed by the M1165 GCS support vehicle, carries the GDT and houses a 10 kW Tactical Quiet Generator to provide power for its associated GCS. The Shadow 200 system also includes a Portable Ground Control Station (PGCS) and Portable Ground Data Terminal (PGDT), which are stripped-down versions of the GCS and GDT designed as a backup to the two GCSs.[6]

A fielded Shadow 200 system requires 22 soldiers to operate it. Army modelling indicates that crew workload is highest at takeoff, and second-highest at landing.[9]

The Shadow is restricted from operating in bad weather conditions, not being meant to fly through rain and with sensors that cannot see through clouds.[10]

Operational history

Service with the United States

By July 2007, the Shadow platform accumulated 200,000 flight hours, doubling its previous record of 100,000 hours in 13 months.[11][12] The system then surpassed 300,000 flight hours in April 2008,[13] and by May 2010, the Shadow system had accumulated over 500,000 flight hours. As of 2011, the Shadow had logged over 709,000 hours.[14] The Shadow platform has flown over 37,000 sorties in support of operations in Iraq and Afghanistan by US Army and Army National Guard units.[13]

On 6 August 2012, AAI announced that the Shadow had achieved 750,000 flight hours during more than 173,000 missions.[15] More than 900,000 flight hours had been logged by Shadow UAVs by the end of June 2014.[16]

The Shadow did not see service in the Afghanistan campaign of 2001–2002, but it did fly operational missions in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom. The operating conditions in Iraq proved hard on the UAVs, with heat and sand leading to engine failures,[citation needed] resulting in a high-priority effort to find fixes with changes in system technology and operating procedures. Shadow UAS have since flown more than 600,000 combat hours in support of the Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.[17]

In 2007, the United States Marine Corps began to transition from the RQ-2 Pioneer to the RQ-7 Shadow.[18] VMU-1, VMU-2 completed their transition from the RQ-2 to the RQ-7 and ScanEagle while VMU-3 and VMU-4 were activated as Shadow and ScanEagle elements.[19][20][21] VMU-3 was activated on 12 September 2008 and VMU-4 conducted its inaugural flight on 28 September 2010 in Yuma, Arizona.[21][22] In October 2007, VMU-1 became the first Marine Corps squadron to see combat in Iraq.[18] VMU-2 deployed a Shadow detachment to Afghanistan in 2009, with VMU-3 following in January 2010.[20][21]

The Navy provided personnel for four Shadow platoons in support of army brigades deployed in Iraq. The first two platoons returned from 6-month tours in Iraq in January and February 2008. The Navy personnel went through the Army's training program at Fort Huachuca, Arizona.[23]

The U.S. Army is implementing a plan to reform its aerial scout capabilities by scrapping its fleet of OH-58 Kiowa helicopters from 2015 to 2019 and replacing them with AH-64 Apache attack helicopters teamed with Shadow and MQ-1C Gray Eagle UAVs. Using unmanned assets to scout ahead would put the pilots of manned aircraft out of reach of potential harm. Reformed combat aviation brigades (CAB) would consist of a battalion of 24 Apaches for attack missions and an armed reconnaissance squadron of another 24 Apaches teamed with three Shadow platoons totaling 12 RQ-7s overall; it would also include a Gray Eagle company. The manned-unmanned teaming of Apaches and Unmanned Aircraft (UA) can meet 80 percent of aerial scout requirements.[24]

On 16 March 2015, the 1st Battalion, 501st Aviation Regiment was reflagged the 3rd Squadron, 6th Cavalry Regiment, making it the first of 10 Apache battalions to be converted to a heavy attack reconnaissance squadron by eliminating the Kiowa scout helicopter and having three RQ-7 Shadow platoons organically assigned; the attack battalions will also be aligned with an MQ-1C Gray Eagle company assigned to each division. Moving Shadows from brigade combat team level to the battalions themselves reduces lines of communication, distance issues, and allows operators and pilots to better train and work together.[25]

In early July 2014, the U.S. Army sent RQ-7 Shadows to Baghdad as part of efforts to protect embassy personnel against Islamic State militant attacks, along with Apache attack helicopters which could use them through manned and unmanned teaming to share information and designate targets.[26]

On 29 July 2018, the U.S. Marine conducted its final launch of the RQ-7B during RIMPAC exercises before retiring it. Since first deploying with Marines to Iraq in October 2007, the aircraft eventually equipped four tactical UAS squadrons, flying some 39,000 hours during 11 operational deployments. The Shadow was replaced by the RQ-21 Blackjack, which was first deployed in 2014.[27]

In March 2019, the U.S. Army selected Martin UAV and AAI Corporation to "provide unmanned aircraft systems for platoons to try out as candidates to replace the Shadow tactical UAS." The Army seeks better acoustics and runway independence as compared to the old Shadow,[28] as well as lower equipment requirements. Shortly after the selection of the first teams, L3Harris Technologies and Arcturus-UAV (later under AeroVironment) were also picked to submit candidates.[29] The four aircraft were used to evaluate requirements and assess new capabilities, and in August 2021 the Army decided to proceed with a competition for the Future Tactical Unmanned Aircraft System (FTUAS); a fielding decision is planned for 2025.[30] The Army chose the AeroVironment Jump 20 in August 2022. The procurement will inform requirements for a second program increment, which will rely on a separate competitive acquisition.[31][32] Although the Army already planned to replace the Shadow in brigade combat teams, it was initially planned to continue to be used by combat aviation brigades and special forces units into the mid-2030s,[33] but the Army revealed in February 2024 that it had decided to replace the entire Shadow fleet as part of an overhaul of its aviation assets.[34][35]

Service with Romania

The first Shadow 600 UAVs entered service with the Romanian Air Force in 1998, and by 2007, nine drones were in service. The drones were used during the Romanian deployment to Iraq starting from 2003.[36] These drones flew on IMINT missions as part of the General Directorate for Defense Intelligence in support of Multinational Division Central-South.[37][38] Three drones crashed during this deployment.[39]


RQ-7A Shadow

The RQ-7A was the initial version of the Shadow 200 UAS developed by AAI. The first low-rate initial-production systems were delivered to the US Army in 2002 with the first full-scale production systems being delivered in September 2003.[4] The RQ-7A was 11 ft 2 in (3.40 m) long and had a wingspan of 12 ft 9 in (3.89 m) with a 327 lb (148 kg) max takeoff weight.[4] The aircraft's endurance ranged between 4 and 5.5 hours depending on mission. The "A" model aircraft also had the AR741-1100 engine which could use either 87 octane automotive gasoline or 100LL aviation fuel.[6] The "A" model also featured IAI's POP200 payload.[6][7]

RQ-7B Shadow

The RQ-7B leaves its launcher.

Production of Shadow aircraft shifted to a generally improved RQ-7B variant in the summer of 2004. The RQ-7B features new wings increased in length to 14 ft (4.3 m). The new wings are not only more aerodynamically efficient, they are "wet" to increase fuel storage up to 44 liters for an endurance of up to 6 hours.[6] The payload capability has been increased to 45 kilograms (99 pounds).[4]

After reports from Iraq that engines were failing, in 2005, the Army's UAV project manager called for the use of 100LL, an aviation fuel, rather than the conventional 87 octane mogas. Avionics systems have been generally improved, and the new wing is designed to accommodate a communications relay package, which allows the aircraft to act as a relay station. This allows commanders or even the aircraft operators themselves to communicate via radio to the troops on ground in locations that would otherwise be "dead" to radio traffic.

The Shadow can operate up to 125 km (78 mi) from its brigade tactical operations center, and recognize tactical vehicles up to 8,000 ft (2,400 m) above the ground at more than 3.5 km (2.2 mi) slant range.[40]

Other incremental improvements to the system include replacing the AR741-1100 engine with the AR741-1101 which increases reliability through the use of dual spark plugs as well as limiting the fuel to 100LL. Also, the older POP200 payload was replaced with the newer POP300 system.[6] In February 2010, AAI began a fleet update program to improve the Shadow system. The improvements include installing the wiring harnesses and software updates for IAI's POP300D payload which includes a designator for guiding laser-guided bombs.[41]

Other improvements in the program will include an electronic fuel injection engine and fuel system to replace the AR741-1101's carburetted engine. The most visible improvement to the system will be a wider wing of 20 feet (6.1 m) in span which is designed to increase fuel capacity and allow for mission endurance of almost 9 hours. The new wings will also include hardpoints for external munitions.[41]

A joint Army-Marine program is testing IED jamming on a Shadow at MCAS Yuma. Another joint effort is to view a 4 km × 4 km (2.5 mi × 2.5 mi) ground area from 3,650 m (12,000 feet).[42]

The Army is now proposing the upgraded Shadow 152A, which includes Soldier Radio Waveform software, which allows both the command post and their troops to see the images that the UAV is projecting, as long as they are on the same frequency. It also increases the distance and area of communication.[43]

Preliminary TCDL testing conducted at Dugway Proving Ground was a success. This led to an estimated fielding date of May 2010 for TCDL.[4] In March 2015, the first Shadow unit was equipped with the upgraded RQ-7BV2 Shadow version. New capabilities for the BV2 include the TCDL, encryption of video and control data-links, software that allows interoperability between other UAS platforms, integration of a common control station and control terminal for all Army UAS platforms, an electronic fuel-injection engine, and increased endurance to nine hours through a lengthened wingspan of 20 ft (6.1 m),[44][45] with weight increased to 204 kg (450 lb).[46] Shadow systems are being upgraded at a rate of 2-3 per month, with all Army Shadows planned to become BV2s by 2019.[47]

In 2020, the Army introduced the Shadow Block III. The configuration allows the Shadow to fly in rainy conditions of up to two inches per hour, a four-fold increase over previous versions, carries the L3 Wescam MX-10 EO/IR camera with enhanced image collection, has a Joint Tactical Radio System to enable communications relay, and uses a more reliable and powerful engine configuration with reduced noise.[48]

Armed Shadow

On 19 April 2010 the Army issued a "solicitation for sources sought" from defense contractors for a munition for the Shadow system with a deadline for proposals due no later than 10 May 2010.[49] Although no specific munition has been chosen yet, some possible munitions include the Raytheon Pyros bomb, the General Dynamics 81 mm 4.5 kg (10-pound)[50][51][52] air-dropped guided mortar, as well as the QuickMEDS system for delivering medical supplies to remote and stranded troops.

The Army subsequently slowed work, and the Marine Corps then took the lead on arming the RQ-7 Shadow. Raytheon has conducted successful flight tests with the Small Tactical Munition,[53] and Lockheed Martin has tested the Shadow Hawk glide weapon from an RQ-7.[54] On 1 November 2012, General Dynamics successfully demonstrated their guided 81 mm Air Dropped Mortar, with three launches at 7,000 ft (2,100 m) hitting within seven meters of the target grid.[55]

As of August 2011, the Marine Corps has received official clearance to experiment with armed RQ-7s, and requires AAI to select a precision munition ready for deployment.[56] AAI was awarded $10 million for this in December 2011, and claims a weapon has already been fielded by the Shadow.[57][58] In 2014, Textron launched the Fury precision weapon from a Shadow 200.[59]

By May 2015, the Marine Corps had run out of funding for weaponizing the RQ-7, and the Army had shown little interest in continuing the effort. The Army's stance is that the Shadow's primary capability is persistent surveillance, while there are many other ways to drop bombs on targets and adding that to the Shadow would add weight and decrease endurance.[60]


A test version called STTB flew in summer 2011. AAI is developing a bigger version called M2 with a blended wing to include a 3-cylinder 60 hp (45 kW) Lycoming heavy fuel engine,[61][62] and began flight testing in August 2012.[63] The Shadow M2 has a conformal blended body that reduces drag, wingspan increased to 25 ft (7.6 m), and is 120 lb (54 kg) heavier. It can fly for 16 hours at altitudes up to 18,000–20,000 ft (5,500–6,100 m). Its endurance and service ceiling are comparable to Group 4 UASs like the MQ-1 Predator, so the company is pitching the M2 as a budget-conscious alternative to larger unmanned aircraft.[64][65][66]

It has a greater payload to carry synthetic aperture radar (SAR), wide-area surveillance, navigation, signals intelligence, and electronic warfare packages. It also has the ability to be controlled beyond line-of-sight through a SATCOM link. Although the M2 uses the same internal components as the RQ-7B Shadow 200 and is compatible with existing support equipment and ground infrastructure, its greater weight necessitates changes to the existing launcher.[64][65][66] The Shadow M2 uses 80-85 percent of the components of the Shadow V2, while allowing for an additional 100 lb (45 kg) of capability with total airframe weight increased to 720 lb (330 kg).[67]

In June 2017, Textron introduced the Nightwarden TUAS as a production-ready model of the developmental Shadow M2, the change in name due to significant improvements and enhancements to the system such as greater flexibility and combat capability, SATCOM features, and enhanced command-and-control. The aircraft has a range of 1,100 km (680 mi), maximum speed of 90 knots (100 mph; 170 km/h), endurance of 15 hours, can fly at an altitude of 16,000 ft (4,900 m), and has a maximum takeoff weight of 750 lb (340 kg) with a dual-payload bay with a capacity of 130 lb (59 kg).[68][69]

Shadow 600

A Shadow 600 UAV

AAI has also built a scaled-up Pioneer derivative known as the "Shadow 600". It also resembles a Pioneer, except that the outer panels of the wings are distinctively swept back, and it has a stronger Wankel engine, the UAV EL 801, with 52 hp (39 kW).[70] A number of Shadow 600s are in service in several nations, including Romania.[71]

SR/C Shadow

AAI, in conjunction with Textron sister company Bell Helicopter, intends to modify two Shadows with a Carter rotor on top for vertical take-off and landing, eliminating the need for the recovery and pneumatic launcher systems, while increasing payload and endurance.[72][73] As of August 2011, it is expected to fly in 2012.[74][needs update] AAI also expected to use the SR/C technology for the Shadow Knight, a powered-rotor two-propeller surveillance aircraft for the US Navy MRMUAS program;[75][76] however, the MRMUAS program was cancelled in 2012.[77]


Current operators

 United States

Former operators

Incidents and accidents

On 15 August 2011, a U.S. Air Force C-130 cargo plane collided with a RQ-7 while on approach to Forward Operating Base Sharana in Paktika Province, Afghanistan. The C-130 made an emergency landing with damage to two engines and one wing, while the RQ-7 was destroyed completely.[87] The collision caused the cargo aircraft to be grounded for several months while being fixed, while the RQ-7 wreckage was never recovered.

On 3 April 2014, a Pennsylvanian Army National Guard RQ-7 participating in training exercises at Fort Indiantown Gap crashed near an elementary school in Pennsylvania and was then hit by a civilian vehicle destroying the drone. No injuries were reported.[88]

On 10 July 2019, a U.S. Army RQ-7 operated by the 25th Infantry Division crashed in the Waianae mountains near the Schofield Barracks in Hawaii.[89]

On 17 July 2019, a Wisconsin National Guard RQ-7 lost its link to its operator at Volk Field during a training exercise. The drone went down into trees south of Interstate 90/94 between Oakdale and Camp Douglas. No injuries or damage were reported. The drone suffered "significant" damage. [90]

Specifications (200 Family)

General characteristics


Note: When outfitted with IE (Increased Endurance) Wings, the CRP (Communications Relay Package) and the 1102 engine, endurance time is increased to 9 hours, wing span is increased to approx. 22 feet (6.7 m), and the service ceiling is 5,500 m (18,000 ft) (only with authorization).

See also

Related development

Related lists


  1. ^ "RQ-7 Shadow UAV". Olive-Drab. Archived from the original on 15 May 2012. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
  2. ^ "Pakistan gets U.S. drones" Archived 29 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine United Press International, 26 January 2010.
  3. ^ U.S. Services Outline Future Plans for Unmanned Aircraft Archived 13 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine - Ainonline.com, 2 November 2016
  4. ^ a b c d e Goebel, Greg. "Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: [8.1] US ARMY RQ-7A SHADOW 200 / SHADOW 600" Greg Goebel / In The Public Domain. 1 January 2009. [1] Archived 14 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ a b "AR741 – 38 BHP Engine for surveillance uavs". UAV Engines Ltd. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 4 April 2014.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l US Army Technical Manual 9-5895-YYY-10 Shadow 200 TUAV System, 22 October 2004.
  7. ^ a b "Pop Family". Israeli Aircraft Industries. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 4 April 2014.
  8. ^ "Sierra Nevada Corporation Web Site". Archived from the original on 29 August 2010.
  9. ^ Hunn & Heuckeroth. A Shadow Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Improved Performance Research Integration Tool (IMPRINT) Model Supporting Future Combat Systems Archived 8 April 2013 at the Wayback Machine p.12, 14. Army Research Laboratory, February 2006. Retrieved 26 November 2011.
  10. ^ RIMPAC 2016: Marines Test UAVs for Artillery Calls for Fire, Close Air Support Archived 13 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine - News.USNI.org, 1 August 2016
  11. ^ Child, Jeff. "Small UAVs Step Up to Advanced Comms Capabilities". COTS Journal. Archived from the original on 14 June 2012. Retrieved 6 June 2012.
  12. ^ Miller, Mollie. "Cutting edge UAS technology launches at Fort Rucker". Army Flier. US Army TRADOC. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 6 June 2012.
  13. ^ a b "AAI Shadow 200 Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle". Military Aircraft. Military Factory. Archived from the original on 11 May 2012. Retrieved 6 June 2012.
  14. ^ Joakim Kasper Oestergaard (30 September 2013). "About the RQ-7 Shadow". Aeroweb. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 4 April 2014.
  15. ^ Shadow achieves 750,000 hours – AAICorp.com, 6 August 2012
  16. ^ PEO Aviation Public Affairs (17 December 2014). "Aviation Community has more milestones on horizon". Redstone Rocket.
  17. ^ Cole, William (25 May 2011). "Hawaii Guard gets flock of Shadow UAVs". Star Advertiser. Archived from the original on 2 January 2015. Retrieved 14 May 2012.
  18. ^ a b Talton, Trista. "U.S. Marines' Shadow UAV Sees First Combat". Defensenews.com. Archived from the original on 31 July 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2007.
  19. ^ "Marine Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Squadron 1 History". 3D Marine Aircraft Wing. Archived from the original on 13 April 2012. Retrieved 10 June 2012.
  20. ^ a b "Marine Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Squadron Two (VMU-2) History". 2nd Marine Aircraft Wing. Archived from the original on 10 March 2010. Retrieved 10 June 2012.
  21. ^ a b c "Marine Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Squadron 3 History". 3D Marine Aircraft Wing. Archived from the original on 13 April 2012. Retrieved 10 June 2012.
  22. ^ Jennings, Gareth (31 July 2008). "USMC prepares to stand up third UAV squadron". IHS Jane's. Archived from the original on 17 July 2012. Retrieved 10 June 2012.
  23. ^ "DC Military: A month later, VC-6 unit's homecoming just as sweet". Archived from the original on 30 July 2012.
  24. ^ "Scout mission compromised by funding cut" Archived 19 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine Military Times, 1 February 2014
  25. ^ "First of 10 Apache units converts, adds 12 Shadow UASs" Army Times, 16 March 2015
  26. ^ "Army Apache helos used in strikes against Islamic State" Archived 5 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine Military Times, 5 October 2014
  27. ^ a b Marines Bring Shadow Operations to an End Archived 5 August 2018 at the Wayback Machine. Aviation International News. 2 August 2018.
  28. ^ Judson, Jen (28 March 2019). "US Army picks 2 drones to test as Shadow replacement". DefenseNews. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
  29. ^ US Army heads into future tactical unmanned aircraft rodeo next month. Defense News. 29 January 2021.
  30. ^ US Army endorses tactical drone contest to replace Shadow. Defense News. 16 August 2021.
  31. ^ Army taps AeroVironment’s Jump 20 to replace Shadow unmanned system. Defense News. 18 August 2022.
  32. ^ AeroVironment wins first increment of Army’s future tactical drone competition Archived 26 August 2022 at the Wayback Machine. Breaking Defense. 19 August 2022.
  33. ^ With Army combat aviation in mind, Textron plans upgrades to Shadow drone through at least 2036 Archived 21 October 2022 at the Wayback Machine. Breaking Defense. 11 October 2022.
  34. ^ US Army spent billions on a new helicopter that now will never fly. Defense News. 8 February 2024.
  35. ^ In shakeup, Army cancels planned scout helo, will retire two drones. Defense One. 8 February 2024.
  36. ^ "Romania va trimite trupe speciale in Irak". Adevărul (in Romanian). 3 July 2003.
  37. ^ "Comunicat". mapn.ro (in Romanian). 13 July 2007.
  38. ^ Radu Tudor (1 October 2005). "Irak si Afganistan, democratie cu somatie". jurnalul.ro (in Romanian).
  39. ^ a b "Shadow 600 in Armata Romana". resboiu.ro (in Romanian). 11 March 2014.
  40. ^ Textron Systems was awarded a $97 million contract to modify the Shadow Tactical UAV Archived 19 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine – Armyrecognition.com, 4 February 2016
  41. ^ a b "AAI’s Shadow Unmanned Aircraft takes flight with new extended wing design" Archived 17 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine Unmanned Vehicles Magazine Online, 19 April 2010.
  42. ^ Warwick, Graham. Shadow punches above its weight Archived 14 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine Aviation Week, 4 February 2011. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
  43. ^ Upgrades to the UAV Shadow in evaluation stage Archived 8 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine – SuasNews.com, 3 November 2012
  44. ^ AAI Is Upgrading Half of U.S. Army’s Shadow Fleet Archived 6 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine – Ainonline.com, 20 July 2012
  45. ^ Army Achieves Dual Aviation Milestones Archived 23 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine – Defensemedianetwork.com, 26 March 2015
  46. ^ Textron pushing Shadow M2 airframe as it signs final V2 contracts Archived 6 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine - Flightglobal.com, 4 May 2016
  47. ^ Army Seeking Improved Drone Capabilities Archived 24 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine – 13 October 2015
  48. ^ Textron Completes Testing of Shadow Block III Upgrades Archived 13 February 2021 at the Wayback Machine. Aviation International News. 17 June 2019.
  49. ^ "FedBizOpss.gov, Solicitation# W31P4Q-10-R-0142, 19 April 2010". Archived from the original on 28 April 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2010.
  50. ^ "81mm Mortar Ammunition And Fuzes" Archived 11 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine Gary's U.S. Infantry Weapons Reference Guide, 10 May 2006. Retrieved 10 June 2012.
  51. ^ "General Dynamics demonstrates precision strike capability for Tactical UAVs with 81 mm air-dropped guided mortar" Archived 17 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine Unmanned Vehicles Magazine Online, 6 April 2010.
  52. ^ "Arming RQ-7 UAVs: The Shadow Knows…". 26 February 2017. Archived from the original on 26 February 2017. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  53. ^ "USMC seeks to arm Shadow, fast and without US Army help". Archived from the original on 21 December 2010. Retrieved 19 December 2010.
  54. ^ "Lockheed Martin's Shadow Hawk Munition Launched from Shadow UAS for the First Time" Archived 22 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine Defense Unmanned, 1 May 2012. Retrieved 10 June 2012.
  55. ^ ADM test Archived 5 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine – SuasNews.com, 1 November 2012
  56. ^ Trimble, Stephen. AUVSI: Marine Corps experiments with armed Shadow Flight International, 17 August 2011
  57. ^ Trimble, Stephen. Missed Targets Prompted US Marine Corps to Arm Shadows Archived 16 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 12 January 2012. Retrieved 2 February 2012.
  58. ^ AAI Gets $66M Contracts for Weapons and Laser Designators on Shadow Archived 10 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine UAS Vision, 5 January 2012. Retrieved 2 February 2012.
  59. ^ Kesselman, Scott. "Textron Fury Missile Successfully Fired from Tactical UAS Archived 28 September 2014 at archive.today" AUVSI, 24 September 2014. Retrieved 27 September 2014.
  60. ^ Army outlines plans to re-engine RQ-7 Archived 9 May 2015 at the Wayback Machine – Flightglobal.com, 5 May 2015
  61. ^ AAI flies testbed for next-generation Shadow UAV developments Archived 14 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine, 2 August 2011. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  62. ^ AAI flys heavily modified Shadow M2 STTB UAV’s Archived 12 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine, 6 August 2011. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  63. ^ Gourley, Scott. "AAI Textron begins Shadow M2 flight tests" Archived 3 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine Shephard Media, 9 August 2012. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
  64. ^ a b AAI unveils Shadow M2 Archived 2 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine – Flightglobal.com, 17 October 2011
  65. ^ a b AAI Unveils Larger, More Capable Shadow Archived 2 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine – Ainonline.com, 24 October 2011
  66. ^ a b Army's Shadow UAS gets upgrades[dead link] – Defensenews.com, 15 January 2014
  67. ^ Textron Eyes Next-Gen Shadow Drone With Greater Payload - Defensenews.com, 29 April 2016
  68. ^ Textron Systems introduces Nightwarden Tactical UAS Archived 26 June 2017 at the Wayback Machine - Airrecognition.com, 22 June 2017
  69. ^ Textron Unveils New Tactical Unmanned Aircraft at Paris Air Show Archived 23 June 2017 at the Wayback Machine - Nationaldefensemagazine.org, 19 June 2017
  70. ^ Shadow 600 – Specifications & Data Sheet Archived 18 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine 9 May 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2012.
  71. ^ a b "Romania takes delivery of Shadow 600s. US Army tries again with brigage-level UAV. US Navy selects UCAV contractors". Faqs.org. Retrieved 4 June 2013.
  72. ^ "AAI Adds Unpowered Rotor To Shadow UAV For VTOL | Aviation Week Network". aviationweek.com. Retrieved 13 May 2023.
  73. ^ Warwick, Graham. Carter flies VTOL hybrid Aviation Week, 26 January 2011. Retrieved 27 January 2011.
  74. ^ Warwick, Graham. AAI Flies Precursor To Advanced Shadow UAVs[permanent dead link] Aviation Week, 1 August 2011. Retrieved 2 September 2011.
  75. ^ Warwick, Graham. AAI Unveils Shadow Knight UAV For MRMUAS[permanent dead link] Aviation Week, 24 January 2012. Retrieved 30 January 2012.
  76. ^ Warwick, Graham. Introducing AAI's Shadow Knight Aviation Week, 24 January 2012. Retrieved 4 February 2012.
  77. ^ Mortimer, Gary. "MRMUAS to be cancelled" Archived 3 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine SUAS news, 13 February 2012. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
  78. ^ Army buys 18 Shadow UAVs Archived 1 July 2012 at archive.today Australian Aviation, 2 August 2010.
  79. ^ "Shadow Tactical Unmanned Aerial System Commences Afghan Operations" Archived 30 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine Defense Unmanned / Department of Defence (Australia), 4 May 2012. Retrieved 10 June 2012.
  80. ^ "Italy Upgrades its Army with Shadow UAVs". Archived from the original on 7 August 2010. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
  81. ^ "Sweden to acquire AAI's Shadow 200" Archived 28 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 21 May 2010.
  82. ^ "AAI RQ-7B Shadow 200, U.S. Army UAV". skytamer.com. Archived from the original on 5 January 2021. Retrieved 17 December 2020.
  83. ^ "Turkish RQ7" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 June 2021. Retrieved 17 December 2020.
  84. ^ "NATO Unmanned Aircraft Systems - Operational" (PDF). 19 December 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 December 2008. Retrieved 17 December 2020.
  85. ^ UAV Growth Continues Archived 1 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine – Strategypage.com, 30 October 2012
  86. ^ "More RQ-7s for US Army". 12 November 2012. Archived from the original on 12 November 2012. Retrieved 27 August 2021.
  87. ^ Hodge, Nathan, "U.S. Says Drone, Cargo Plane Collide Over Afghanistan", The Wall Street Journal, 17 August 2011, p. 11.
  88. ^ "Military drone crashes in Lebanon County - abc27 WHTM". Archived from the original on 5 April 2014. Retrieved 4 April 2014.
  89. ^ "Firefighters continue monitoring brush fire sparked by downed Army drone". 11 July 2019. Archived from the original on 11 July 2019. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
  90. ^ "National Guard drone crashes near Volk Field". Archived from the original on 18 July 2019. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
  91. ^ Lednicer, David. "The Incomplete Guide to Airfoil Usage". m-selig.ae.illinois.edu. Archived from the original on 26 March 2019. Retrieved 16 April 2019.