Romanian Air Force
Forțele Aeriene Române
Stema Statului Major al Fortelor Aeriene.svg
Emblem of the Romanian Air Force
Founded
  • 1 April 1913; 109 years ago (1913-04-01)
  • 1 January 1924 as an independent force category[1]
Country Romania
TypeAir force
RoleAerial warfare
Size10,700 personnel[2]
Part ofRomanian Armed Forces
HeadquartersBucharest
Anniversaries20 July[3]
Commanders
Chief of the Air Force StaffLieutenant general Viorel Pană[4]
Insignia
Roundel
Roundel of Romania.svg
Flag of the General Staff
Flag of the Romanian Air Force (obverse).svg
Aircraft flown
AttackIAR-330 SOCAT
FighterMiG-21 LanceR C, F-16AM MLU
ReconnaissanceAntonov An-30, RQ-7 Shadow
TrainerMiG-21 LanceR B, F-16BM, IAR-99, Iak-52, IAR 316
TransportAntonov An-26, C-130 Hercules, C-27J Spartan, IAR-330L/M Puma

The Romanian Air Force (RoAF) (Romanian: Forțele Aeriene Române) is the air force branch of the Romanian Armed Forces. It has an air force headquarters, an operational command, five airbases and an air defense brigade. Reserve forces include one air base and three airfields.

In 2019, the Romanian Air Force employed 15,000 personnel.

Current state

Romanian F-16 at the 86th Fetești Air Force Base
Romanian F-16 at the 86th Fetești Air Force Base

The Romanian Air Force modernized 110 MiG-21 LanceRs, in cooperation with Israel between 1993 and 2002. Today, 23-28 of these MiG 21 LanceRs are operational.[5][6] The Romanian Air Force also operates C-130 Hercules, C-27J Spartan and An-26 transport airplanes and IAR-330 Puma helicopters. IAR-330 PUMA SOCAT helicopters have been modernized by the Romanian Aviation Industry in cooperation with Elbit Systems (Israel) for attack missions. The Romanian Air Force also includes locally built IAR-99 Șoim jet planes, in general only used for training of the young pilots. The remaining MiG-29s have been withdrawn since 2003.

In the spring of 2009, the Romanian government decided to purchase VSHORAD/SHORAD systems from France.[7] The deal included Mistral MANPADS and MICA VL surface-to-air missiles.[8] However, after preliminary talks with MBDA in August, the deal was put on hold and canceled afterwards because of the defense cuts.[9]

In February 2010, the Supreme Council of National Defense signed an agreement with the United States for missile defence under whose terms land-based SM-3 systems would be installed in Romania. On 3 May 2011, the president of Romania Traian Băsescu announced the location for the SM-3 systems: former Air Force base Deveselu in Olt County.[10] The system includes 3 batteries with 24 SM-3 Block I rockets, manned by approximately 200 US soldiers (with a maximum of 500) under Romanian Air Force overall command. The Deveselu Aegis Ashore site has been declared operational on 13 May 2016.[11]

Due to the old age of the MiGs, the Romanian Air Force is in the process of procurement of new fighters or possibly used fighters from partner states. Romania has signed a contract in 2013 with Portugal for 12 F-16 A/B Block 15 MLU fighters.[12] The first six fighters have entered service with the Romanian Air Force in October 2016, another three have been delivered in December and the last three have entered service in 2017.

Romania signed a contract in 2019 with Portugal for another 5 F-16 A/B Block 15 MLU fighters, which were delivered until March 2021.

It was announced in December of 2021 that a deal for 32 F-16 A/B Block 20 fighters from Norway is being finalized, in a deal estimated to cost €454 million.[13] If completed, the Norwegian deal will allow the Romanian Air Force to retire the last of its outdated Soviet-designed Mikoyan MiG-21 aircraft.[14] The contract is to be signed in the spring of 2022 with the first three aircraft to arrive at the end of the year, according to the Air Force chief of Staff.[15]

On 2 February 2022, the President of Romania stated intent to purchase the fifth-generation F-35 joint strike fighter as part of its Air Force modernization, which plans to spend a total of 9.8 billion euro until 2026 to boost its defense capabilities.[16] According to the Minister of Defence, Romania plans to start the F-35 acquisition procedure in 2032.[17]

On 23 May, the MiG-21 LanceRs resumed flights after being suspended on 15 April 2022. The LanceR will continue to fly for a period of one year, until 13 May 2023 after which they will be replaced by the F-16s purchased from Norway.[18]

The current chief of the Romanian Air Force Staff, succeeding Major General Laurian Anastasof on 11 October 2017, is Lieutenant General Viorel Pană.[19]

History

A. Vlaicu Nr. I at military exercises 27 Sept. 1910
A. Vlaicu Nr. I at military exercises 27 Sept. 1910

Beginnings

In 1818, during the reign of John Caradja, the prince of Wallachia, an unmanned hot air balloon was flown off Dealul Spirii in Bucharest.[20] On 2 July [O.S. 20 June] 1874, Marius Willemot, the owner of the hydrogen balloon named "Mihai Bravul" flew together with Majors Iacob Lahovary, Constantin Poenaru and Dumitrescu over Bucharest. The last flight took place on 19 [O.S. 7 July] 1874, Willemot flying together with Colonel Nicolae Haralambie, Ion Ghica and a third person. The balloon had made its first flight at Paris on 27 March of the same year.[21]

On 20 November 1909 the Chitila Piloting School was formed as a joint venture by Mihail Cerchez. The school, conducted by French flight instructors, had five hangars, bleachers for spectators and workshops where the Farman airplanes were built under license. The school opened on 9 July 1910, when the chief flight instructor and director of the school René Guillemin crashed a Farman III biplane from a height of 40 metres (130 ft) during a demonstration flight and broke his leg.

Guillemin was succeeded by Michel-Paul Molla who made the first flight across Bucharest on 7 September 1910. Molla was succeeded by two others before the school closed in late 1912 due to financial difficulties, having trained six officers, but only licensed two.[22]

In November 1909, the Romanian Minister of War commissioned Aurel Vlaicu to build the A. Vlaicu I airplane at the Bucharest Army Arsenal which first flew on 17 June 1910. On 28 September during the Fall military exercise, Vlaicu flew his airplane from Slatina to Piatra Olt carrying a message, Romania thus becoming one of the first countries to use airplanes for military purposes.[23] Along with other Romanian pilots, Vlaicu flew reconnaissance missions during the Second Balkan War.[24][25][26] Vlaicu III, the first metal aircraft in the world, was completed after his death, in May 1914.[27]

World War I

A Romanian Nieuport 11. The blue color on the tail appears nearly white in the black and white photograph.
A Romanian Nieuport 11. The blue color on the tail appears nearly white in the black and white photograph.

Main article: Romanian Air Corps

On the eve of Romania's entrance in the war in August 1916, only 24 out of the 44 aircraft that had been imported and assembled at RGA were available. Another 20 aircraft were provided by the flight schools. The total of 44 aircraft included: 10 Bristol T.B.8, 7 Bristol Coanda Monoplanes, 5 Blériot XI, 4 Farman HF.20, 8 Farman MF.7 and MF.11, 4 Voisin III, 4 Morane-Saulnier monoplanes, 1 Caudron G.3 and 1 Aviatik C.I.[28][29][30][a][b] Added to these were two native-made monoplanes designed by Aurel Vlaicu.[31] One of the Vlaicu monoplanes, A Vlaicu II, crashed in 1913, while the A Vlaicu I was retired in 1914, leaving A Vlaicu III as the sole Romanian-made aircraft in the Romanian Air Corps.[32]

During World War I, Romania acquired 322 aircraft from France and ex-RNAS aircraft from Great Britain including Nieuport 11 and 17 single seat fighters and Morane-Saulnier LA and Nieuport 12 two seat fighters, Caudron G.3, Henry Farman HF.20, Farman MF.11, and Farman F.40 & 46 artillery observation and reconnaissance aircraft, Caudron G.4, Breguet-Michelin BLM and Voisin LA bombers.[33] On 16 September 1916, a Romanian Farman F.40 downed an Imperial German Air Service aircraft near Slobozia; this was the first Romanian aerial victory. By the end of World War I, Romanian pilots had flown about 11,000 hours and 750 missions; however, it was unable to prevent the December 1916 Romanian offensive at the Battle of the Argeș from being defeated, which resulted in the occupation of southern Romania, and the armistice on 6 December 1917 following the Russian revolution.[34]

World War II

A pair of IAR-80 fighters on patrol during World War II
A pair of IAR-80 fighters on patrol during World War II

Main article: Royal Romanian Air Force

See also: Western Allied Campaign in Romania

When Romania, allied with Nazi Germany, went to war against the Soviet Union on 22 June 1941, the Romanian Air Force had 621 airplanes, including its locally made fighter IAR 80/81. The air force accomplished hundreds of missions, contributing to Romania's recapture of Northern Bucovina and Bessarabia, which had been occupied by the Soviet Union a year earlier. Until the Odessa episode[clarification needed], the Romanian military fighters gained 661 air victories. Romanian Military Aviation fought on the Eastern Front until 22 August 1944, bringing an important contribution to the great battles at Stalingrad, in Crimea, and the Ukrainian fronts. Between 1941 and 1944, Romanian aircraft won 2,000 air victories. The most famous flying aces were Captain Prince Constantin Cantacuzino, who gained 69 certified victories, Captain Horia Agarici, and Captain Alexandru Șerbănescu, who shot down 60 enemy airplanes.

In the aftermath of King Michael's Coup of 23 August 1944, Romania turned against Germany and joined the Allies.

Cold War

A pair of Romanian MiG-21 fighters, late 1970s
A pair of Romanian MiG-21 fighters, late 1970s

Starting with 1948, Romania tailored its military to Soviet concepts and doctrine. On 15 February 1949, the Aviation Command was established based on the Soviet model (regiments instead of flotillas). New Soviet aircraft, such as Yakovlev Yak-18, Polikarpov Po-2, Lavochkin La-9, Tupolev Tu-2, and Ilyushin Il-10 entered service. A year later, 9 Yakovlev Yak-17s and Yak-23s entered the air force, and in 1952, other 88 aircraft: MiG-15 and MiG-17. In 1958, the first supersonic fighter MiG-19 entered the inventory. Three years later, in February 1962, a new fighter was added to the inventory, MiG-21, which represented one of the most effective fighters of that time.[citation needed]

Starting with 1974, Romanian-made aircraft supplemented the already existing jets. The Romanian IAR-93 attack aircraft flew its first flight on 31 October 1974. It represented a great step forward taking into account that it was the only jet fighter not made by the Soviets, the only one ever manufactured and operated by a Warsaw Pact country.[35]

In 1962, the first helicopter subunits were established and followed later on, in 1965, by the first Soviet Mi-2 and Mi-4 helicopters. From 1968, Mi-8 helicopters will also enter service.[36] Renewing the aircraft fleet process went on, the first 2 MiG-23s arriving on 23 January 1979.[37]

On 14 May 1981, at 20:16, Soviet spaceship Soyuz-40 was launched from Baikonur to perform a common Romanian-Soviet flight, with Lieutenant Dumitru Prunariu and Colonel Leonid Popov as commander on board. During the early 1980s, 67th Fighter-Bomber Regiment and 49th Fighter-Bomber Regiment from Craiova and Ianca were equipped with new IAR-93s, which replaced old MiG-15s and MiG-17s. In December 1989, just a few days before the Romanian revolution against communism began, MiG-29 aircraft entered the Air Force inventory. Initially 45 MiG-29s were ordered but only 21 were delivered, with the rest of the order being cancelled. The MiG-29s were assigned to the 2nd and 3rd Squadrons of the 57th Fighter Regiment located at the Mihail Kogălniceanu Airport.[38]

Post-1990

The MiG-29 was withdrawn in 2003
The MiG-29 was withdrawn in 2003

The Romanian MiG-29 fleet was intended to undergo modernization under a project named "Sniper" done by DASA, Aerostar and Elbit. The first flight took place on 5 May 2000 and the prototype was presented at ILA 2000.[39][40] However, the modernization project was canceled due to various reasons and the MiG-29s were retired.[41]

2007 Baltic Air Policing

Four MiG-21 LanceR Cs were deployed from August–November 2007 at Šiauliai, in Lithuania for Baltic Air Policing. The Romanian detachment succeeded the French Air Force Mirage 2000Cs of Escadron de Chasse 01.012 from Cambrai, which fulfilled the Baltic Air Policing since May 2007. Once the RoAF finished its three-month stint, a Portuguese Air Force detachment took over the mission.[42]

The four aircraft and most of the staff came from the 71st Air Base. A total of 67 personnel, among them nine pilots, were part of the detachment: 63 served at Šiauliai, while other four served at the air traffic control centre in Kaunas, to ensure smooth cooperation with local authorities. The Romanian detachment attracted attention from the local media, not least from the fact that it was only the second time a fighter from the Soviet era deployed to ŠiauliaiPolish Air Force MiG-29s had also been deployed there in 2006.[43]

2022 Russian Invasion of Ukraine

On the starting day of the Russian invasion of Ukraine, two F-16s from the 53rd Fighter Squadron were sent to intercept a Sukhoi Su-27 of the Ukrainian Air Force that was approaching Romanian airspace. The Su-27 was escorted to the 95th Air Base where the pilot was taken by Romanian authorities.[44] The Ukrainian Minister of Defence quickly apologized for this event and requested the return of the airplane and its pilot. After a maintenance team from Ukraine fixed the technical issues of the fighter,[45] the aircraft was returned without its weapons on 1 March, being escorted by two MiG-21 LanceRs to the border where other Ukrainian airplanes took over.[46][47]

On 2 March 2022, a MiG-21 LanceR was lost while on an air patrol inside Romanian airspace near Cogealac, 60 miles from the Ukrainian border. This "occurred amid increased air police missions in Romania after the Russian invasion of Ukraine." An IAR 330 on a search and rescue mission for the missing MiG-21 crashed with seven fatalities.[48][49] The eight servicemen who died in the two accidents were posthumously promoted and decorated by the president of Romania.[50] Shortly after, fake news claiming that the Romanian MiG was shot down by Ukrainian S-300 missile systems appeared. These claims were officially refuted.[51] The preliminary analysis published on 23 March showed that the crashes occurred due to human and environmental factors.[52]

Structure

See also: List of Romanian Air Force units

Air Force General Staff

The Romanian Air Force General Staff represents the military concept-developing, command and executive structure providing Air Forces peacetime, crisis and wartime leadership in order to reach, maintain and increase, as required, the operational level of the military subordinated structures so that to be able to operate under authorized commands responsible for military operations planning and conduct.

Generate, mobilize, structure, equip, operationalize and regenerate the required forces, provide the logistic support necessary to conduct military operations and based on higher orders, take over both the Joint Operation Air Component and independent air operations command and control, through the Main Air Operational Center. Starting with July 1, 2010, the Romanian Air Force bases were renamed to Air Flotillas.[53]

Units

Romanian Air Force is located in Romania
Romanian Air Force radar stations
Red pog.svg
Fighter base
Pink pog.svg
Helicopters
Green pog.svg
Other flying units
Orange pog.svg
AN/FPS-117(V) Radar station
Lightgreen pog.svg
Control and Reporting Centre
Steel pog.svg
Air Signals and IT Centre
Alenia C-27J Spartan RoAF 90th Airlift Base
Alenia C-27J Spartan RoAF 90th Airlift Base

The structure current structure of the Romanian Air Force is as follows:[54]

A IAR-99 Şoim in 100th anniversary of aviation colours
A IAR-99 Şoim in 100th anniversary of aviation colours

Reserve air bases

Capu Midia Training Range

The Capu Midia Surface-to-air Training and Air-to-Surface Shooting Range provides firing training, execution and evaluation facilities. It is located in Constanța County, 20 kilometres (12 mi) north of the city of, Constanța.

Aircraft

Further information: List of aircraft of the Romanian Air Force

Current inventory

A MiG-21 LanceR 'C', in flight
A MiG-21 LanceR 'C', in flight
Romanian Air Force IAR-330 SOCAT
Romanian Air Force IAR-330 SOCAT
Aircraft Origin Type Variant In service Notes
Combat Aircraft
MiG-21 Soviet Union fighter LanceR[56] 23[2]
F-16 Fighting Falcon United States multirole F-16AM 14[57] ex-Portuguese Air Force aircraft
Reconnaissance
Antonov An-30 Soviet Union surveillance 2[57]
Transport
Antonov An-26 Soviet Union transport 1[57]
C-27J Spartan Italy transport 7[57]
C-130 Hercules United States transport C-130B 6 two are H variants[58]
Helicopters
IAR 330 Romania utility / transport 58[57] 22 SOCAT’s used in a gunship role
Trainer Aircraft
IAR 99 Romania jet trainer 19[57]
IAR 316 Romania trainer / utility 7[57] licensed built SA316B
Yakovlev Yak-52 Romania trainer 14[57]
F-16 Fighting Falcon United States conversion trainer F-16BM 3[57]
UAV
RQ-7 Shadow United States surveillance Shadow 600 6[59]

Note: Three C-17 Globemaster III's and five RQ-4D's are available through the Heavy Airlift Wing, and Alliance Ground Surveillance programs[60][61]

Air Defense

The MIM-104 Patriot system
The MIM-104 Patriot system
An AN/TPS-79(R) Gap Filler radar
An AN/TPS-79(R) Gap Filler radar

The Romanian Air Force also has several anti-aircraft systems:[62]

Name Origin Type In service Notes
SAM
S-75M3 Volhov Soviet Union SAM system 6 batteries[62]
MIM-104 Patriot United States SAM system 1 battery 4 batteries on order[63]
MIM-23 Hawk United States SAM system 8 batteries[62][64]
Air Defence Artillery
S-60 57mm Soviet Union Mobile anti-aircraft towed gun[65]
Radars
P-14 Soviet Union Radar 2D VHF radar[66]
P-18 Soviet Union Radar 2-dimensional air search radar[67]
P-37 (radar) [ro] Soviet Union Radar E band/F band 2D radar[68]
PRV-13 [ro] Soviet Union Radar Radar altimeter[69]
AN/TPS-79(R) United States Radar 17 Medium range 3D radar- co-produced in Romania[70][71]
AN/FPS-117 United States 3D radar (5) FPS-117 / (4) TPS-77[72][73][74] Long-range 3D radar

Aircraft markings

The Romanian roundel uses the colours of the Romanian flag. It is used on Romanian Armed Forces vehicles and Romanian Air Force aircraft.

Ranks and insignia

Main article: Romanian Armed Forces ranks and insignia

Officers
NATO code OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) Student officer
 Romanian Air Force[76]
Romania-Army-OF-10.svg
Romania-AirForce-OF-9.svg
Romania-AirForce-OF-8.svg
Romania-AirForce-OF-7.svg
Romania-AirForce-OF-6.svg
Romania-AirForce-OF-5.svg
Romania-AirForce-OF-4.svg
Romania-AirForce-OF-3.svg
Romania-AirForce-OF-2.svg
Romania-AirForce-OF-1b.svg
Romania-AirForce-OF-1a.svg
Mareșal General General-locotenent General-maior General de flotilă aeriană Comandor Căpitan-comandor Locotenent-comandor Căpitan Locotenent Sublocotenent
Enlisted
NATO code OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
 Romanian Air Force[76]
RO AF OR-9.png
RO AF OR-8.png
RO AF OR-7.png
RO AF OR-6a.png
RO AF OR-6.png
RO AF OR-5.png
Romania-AirForce-OR-4c.svg
Romania-AirForce-OR-4b.svg
Romania-AirForce-OR-4a.svg
Romania-AirForce-OR-3.svg
Romania-AirForce-OR-2.svg
Plutonier adjutant principal Plutonier adjutant Plutonier-major Plutonier Sergent-major Sergent Caporal clasa I Caporal clasa a II-a Caporal clasa a III-a Fruntaș Soldat

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ Using the numbers and airplane types from the 3 sources gives that the 20 aircraft from the flight schools were the 10 Bristol TB 8, the 7 Bristol Coanda and 3 Farman HF 20.
  2. ^ The Morane-Saulnier types were not specified.

Footnotes

  1. ^ "Anul 1920". RoAF (in Romanian).
  2. ^ a b International Institute for Strategic Studies (February 2021). The Military Balance 2021. Routledge. pp. 137–139. ISBN 978-1032012278.
  3. ^ "Ziua Aviației Române și a Forțelor Aeriene. 100 de ani de aviație militară". Stiriletvr.ro. 24 December 2014. Archived from the original on 25 December 2014. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
  4. ^ "General locotenent doctor Viorel PANĂ". RoAF (in Romanian).
  5. ^ "Câte MiG-21 LanceR mai are România. Armata trece numărul bătrânelor avioane la "informații confidențiale"". Defense Romania (in Romanian). 21 April 2021.
  6. ^ "Câte avioane MiG-21 LanceR mai are România?". Aviatia Magazin (in Romanian). 1 July 2021.
  7. ^ "Defense & Security Intelligence & Analysis: IHS Jane's – IHS". Archived from the original on 26 April 2012. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
  8. ^ "Cer Senin Magazine, nr. 3/2009, page 10" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 August 2011. Retrieved 29 June 2011.
  9. ^ "Defense under external pressure". Archived from the original on 25 December 2014. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
  10. ^ "Băsescu anunță locul unde vor fi amplasate în România rachetele americanilor. Ce spune primarul din Deveselu, chemat luni seară la Cotroceni să-și dea acordul". Gandul.info. Archived from the original on 28 July 2012. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
  11. ^ "Scutul american antirachetă din România a devenit operațional. Vezi imagini de afara și din interiorul bazei de la Deveselu". HotNews. Archived from the original on 26 October 2016. Retrieved 26 October 2016.
  12. ^ Cristian Fierbinteanu (11 October 2013). "România şi Portugalia au semnat contractul de achiziţie a 12 avioane F-16. Primele avioane vor ajunge în ţară în 2016". Mediafax (in Romanian).
  13. ^ Dubois, Gastón (13 December 2021). "Romania wants to acquire 32 second-hand F-16 for US$ 514 million". aviacionline. Retrieved 13 February 2022.
  14. ^ "Romania looks to buy former Norwegian Air Force F16 fighters". 12 December 2021. Retrieved 13 February 2022.
  15. ^ "Primele avioane F-16 din Norvegia vor veni în România în 2022. Peste 3 ani, Mig-ul 21 Lancer va fi scos din serviciul de luptă". TVR (in Romanian). 27 December 2021.
  16. ^ "Romania intends to buy F35 fighter jets - president". SeeNews. Archived from the original on 3 February 2022. Retrieved 12 February 2022.
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  19. ^ "Generalul Viorel Pana preia conducerea Aviatiei Militare". Aviatia Magazin (in Romanian). 12 October 2017.
  20. ^ Horia Salca. "Dr. Horia Salca". Archived from the original on 28 December 2014. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
  21. ^ Ioan Vasile Buiu (2007). "1874: Balonul "Mihai-Bravul" şi Ascensiunile Sale" (PDF) (in Romanian).
  22. ^ Ralph S. Cooper, D.V.M. "Gheorghe Negrescu". Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
  23. ^ Gheorghiu, 1960, p.101
  24. ^ "Aviația Magazin – Blog Archive Momente din istoria aviației militare române (II) – Aviația Magazin". Aviația Magazin. 13 January 2013. Archived from the original on 25 December 2014. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
  25. ^ "Aviația Magazin Blog – Archive Momente din istoria aviației române (III) – Aviația Magazin". Aviația Magazin. 18 January 2013. Archived from the original on 25 December 2014. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
  26. ^ "Momente din istoria aviatiei militare romane". 5 January 2013. Archived from the original on 25 December 2014. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
  27. ^ Jozef Wilczynski, Technology in Comecon: Acceleration of Technological Progress Through Economic Planning and the Market, p. 243
  28. ^ Keith Hitchins, Clarendon Press, 1994, Rumania 1866–1947, p. 262
  29. ^ Ronald L. Tarnstrom, Trogen Books, 1998, Balkan Battles, p. 326
  30. ^ Alexandru Armă, Valeriu Avram (2018). Aeronautica română în Războiul de Întregire naţională 1916-1919 (in Romanian). Editura Vremea. p. 5.((cite book)): CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  31. ^ William Green, John Fricker, MacDonald, 1958, The Air Forces of the World: Their History, Development, and Present Strength, p. 234
  32. ^ Dan Antoniu (2014). Illustrated History of Romanian Aeronautics. p. 25. ISBN 978-973-0-17209-6.
  33. ^ Green, 1971, p.25-26
  34. ^ Green, 1971, p.26
  35. ^ The Report: Romania 2008. Oxford Business Group. 2008. p. 134. ISBN 9781902339856.
  36. ^ Trustul de Presă al MApN (14 December 2020). "Cum a început România să construiască elicoptere". presamil.ro (in Romanian).
  37. ^ Petre Opris (12 October 2015). "Cum au ajuns avioanele sovietice MIG-23 in Romania si cum voia Ceausescu sa fabrice tancuri pentru pietele externe". HotNews (in Romanian).
  38. ^ Vlad Anton. "Un exponat unicat: MiG-29 Sniper". Historia (in Romanian).
  39. ^ "MiG-ul 29 Sniper a ajuns la Berlin fara escala". Ziarul de Iași (in Romanian). 6 June 2000.
  40. ^ "Multinational team tackles Sniper upgrade project". FlightGlobal. 27 July 2000.
  41. ^ Tudor Curtifan (25 October 2021). "Armata României, după 30 de ani: De la MiG-29 la F-16. Ce s-a schimbat din 1989 până în prezent" (in Romanian).
  42. ^ Air Forces Monthly, November 2007 issue, p.36.
  43. ^ Air Forces Monthly, November 2007 issue, p.37.
  44. ^ "Avion militar ucrainean, interceptat și aterizat la Bacău". Ministerul Apărării Naționale (in Romanian). 24 February 2022.
  45. ^ "Ce se întâmplă cu Su-27 ucrainean ajuns în România? Ucraina cere ca pilotul și avionul să se întoarcă în țară". Defense Romania (in Romanian). 25 February 2022.
  46. ^ David Cenciotti (1 March 2022). "The Ukrainian Air Force Su-27 That Landed In Romania Flown Back To Ukraine". The Aviationist.
  47. ^ "Aeronava Suhoi 27 aparținând Forțelor Aeriene Ucrainene a părăsit spaţiul aerian al României". Ministerul Apărării Naționale (in Romanian). 1 March 2022.
  48. ^ Chirileasa, Andrei (2 March 2022). "Eight dead as Romanian MIG aircraft disappears in mission and helicopter sent to find it crashes". Romania-Insider. Retrieved 11 March 2022.
  49. ^ "Date despre militarii căzuți la datorie în urma prăbușirii elicopterului IAR 330 - Puma". Ministerul Apărării Naționale (in Romanian). 2 March 2022.
  50. ^ "Cei opt militari care au căzut la datorie au fost înaintați în grad, post-mortem, și au fost decorați de Președintele României". Ministerul Apărării Naționale (in Romanian). 4 March 2022.
  51. ^ "Fake: Ukrainian Air Defense Shot Down Romanian MIG 21". StopFake. 12 March 2022.
  52. ^ "Concluziile preliminare privind cauzele prăbușirii aeronavelor MiG-21 LanceR şi IAR-330, din data de 2 martie". Ministerul Apărării Naționale (in Romanian). 23 March 2022.
  53. ^ "Romania's Air Force Staff to be overhauled starting July 1, 2010". Archived from the original on 25 December 2014. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
  54. ^ "Romania - Air Force". Scramble (NL).
  55. ^ Liviu Anghel (12 September 2019). "Patrioții din pădurea Mihai Bravu". presamil.ro (in Romanian).
  56. ^ http://www.thenewstribe.com/2015/06/20/paf-super-mushak-jets-participate-in-bucharest-international-airshow-2015/
  57. ^ a b c d e f g h i "World Air Forces 2022". Flightglobal Insight. 2022. Retrieved 6 May 2022.
  58. ^ "Guvernul SUA a donat o aeronavă C-130 Hercules Forţelor Aeriene Române". Adevărul (in Romanian). 14 December 2021. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  59. ^ "Romania gets Shadow 600". flightglobal.com. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
  60. ^ "Heavy Airlift Wing". Strategic Airlift Capability Program. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
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Bibliography