Mongolian Air Force
Монгол Улсын Зэвсэгт Хүчний Агаарын цэрэг
Emblem of the Mongolian Air Force[1]
Founded25 May 1925; 98 years ago (1925-05-25)
Country Mongolia
TypeAir force
RoleAerial warfare
Size800[2]
Part ofMongolian Armed Forces
Engagements
Commanders
CommanderBrigadier-General Ochir Enkhbayar[3]
Chief of StaffBrigadier-General B. Batbayar[4]
Notable
commanders
Hamza Zaisanov[5][6]
Insignia
Flag
Combat Banner
Fin flash[7]Soyombo yellow

The Mongolian Air Force (Mongolian: Монгол Улсын Зэвсэгт Хүчний Агаарын цэрэг) is the aerial warfare service branch of the Mongolian Armed Forces.

History

Early years and WWII

On 25 May 1925, a Junkers F.13 piloted by Lieutenant Colonel D. Shatarragchaa[8] entered service as the first aircraft in Mongolian civil and military aviation, landing in Mongolia that day.[9] By 1935 Soviet aircraft were based in the country. In May 1937 the air force was renamed the Mongolian People's Republic Air Corps. During 1939–1945 the Soviets delivered Polikarpov I-15s, Polikarpov I-16s, Yak-9s and Ilyushin Il-2s.

Cold War

Former insignias (1949-1992)
Roundel
Fin flash

By 1966 the first S-75 Dvina SAM units entered service, and the air force was renamed the Air Force of the Mongolian People's Republic. The MiG-15UTI and MiG-17 the first combat jet aircraft in the Mongolian inventory, entered service in 1970 and by the mid-1970s was joined by 25 MiG-21s, Mi-8s and Ka-26s. Jügderdemidiin Gürragchaa, the first Mongolian to fly into space, was born on 5 December 1947, in the Gurvan-Bulak settlement of Bulgan Province, into the family of a cattle-breeder. He graduated from a military school of aircraft technicians in the Soviet Union. In 1972 he was enrolled at the Zhukovsky Air Force Academy. After graduating from the academy, he worked as an aircraft equipment engineer in an air squadron of the Mongolian People's Army. In 1978, Jugderdemidiyn Gurragchaa started training at Gagarin cosmonauts' training center and completed a course of training under the Intercosmos program. His flight with Vladimir Dzhanibekov on Soyuz 39 as a Research Cosmonaut, launched 22 March 1981, lasted 7 days, 20 hours, 42 minutes, 3 seconds. He later became the head of a scientific institute in Ulan Bator and eventually Mongolian Minister of Defence.

The Civil Air Transport Administration, responsible for Mongolian Airlines (MIAT), was thought to be affiliated with the air force. All airline pilots had military ranks, and they flew Soviet-built transport aircraft on crop dusting, forest and steppe fire patrol, and air ambulance missions. During the mid-1960s the USSR assisted the People's Republic of Mongolia in setting up an air defense system, which also was closely coordinated with the Soviet Air Defence Forces.

Since 1989

After the end of the Cold War and the advent of the Democratic Revolution, the air force was effectively grounded due to a lack of fuel and spare parts. Due to a complete lack of resources, as of 2006 Mongolia did not anticipate being able to reform its flying Air Force in the foreseeable future. However, as air defense is part of the Air Force, the US was pursuing specific training line items in this field as well as air-related fields that may support peacekeeping deployments and operations (For example, slots to the United States Army Air Defense Artillery Branch officer basic course, tarmac security, and cargo load planning).

Modern air force

The government has been trying to revive the air force since 2001. The current Armed Forces maintains an Air Forces Defense Command (Агаарын довтолгооноос хамгаалах цэргийн командлал), under the command of the General Staff. The country has the goal of developing a full air force in the future.[10]

Units

Equipment

Russia's 2008 decision to provide to Mongolia around $120 million worth of conventional weapons and other military equipment, including MI-24 attack helicopters and possibly two MiG-29 fighter jets, has drawn renewed attention to the bilateral relationship. Although the terms of the deal were not initially clear, it would be a combination of grant aid and low-interest loans.[11]

In 2011, the Ministry of Defense announced that they would buy MiG-29s from Russia by the end of the year, but this did not materialize.[12][13] From 2007 – 2011 the fleet of MiG-21s was reduced.[14][15][16]

In October 2012 the Ministry of Defense returned an Airbus A310-300 to MIAT Mongolian Airlines.[17] In 2013 the Air Force looked at buying three Lockheed Martin C-130J planes, however a deal was never reached.[18] Left without Russian aid, the Mongolian air force's inventory has gradually been reduced to a few Antonov An-24/26'st and a dozen airworthy Mi-24 and Mi-8 helicopters.[13]

On 26 November 2019 Russia donated two MiG-29 fighter aircraft to Mongolia.[19]

Aircraft

Aircraft Origin Type Variant In service Notes
Combat Aircraft
Mikoyan MiG-29 Russia Fighter 2[20]
Transport
Antonov An-26 Soviet Union Transport 3[20]
Helicopters
Mil Mi-8 Soviet Union Transport Mi-8/171 6[20]

Air Defense

Name Type Quantity Origin Notes
S-125 Neva/Pechora Mobile Surface-to-air missile 2 batteries[2]  Russia Upgraded to the Pechora 2M standard.[21]
ZPU-4 Anti-aircraft gun 150[2]  Soviet Union
ZU-23-2 Anti-aircraft gun  Soviet Union
AZP S-60 Anti-aircraft gun  Soviet Union

References

  1. ^ "Монгол Улсын зэвсэгт хүчин".
  2. ^ a b c International Institute for Strategic Studies (15 February 2023). The Military Balance 2023. Taylor & Francis. p. 274. ISBN 978-1-000-91070-4.
  3. ^ "Монгол Улсын зэвсэгт хүчин".
  4. ^ "Монгол Улсын зэвсэгт хүчин".
  5. ^ ""Аз ұлттың – алып ұлы" Генерал Зайсанов Мүдәрісұлы". 29 August 2019.
  6. ^ "| ЦентрАзия".
  7. ^ GALLET, Matthieu. "Armée de l'air mongole". AviationsMilitaires.net.
  8. ^ a b "НИСЭХ ХҮЧНИЙ 96 ЖИЛИЙН ОЙ ТОХИОЛОО". gsmaf.gov.mn. 26 May 2021. Retrieved 2021-05-31.
  9. ^ Scramble.nl (2001). "Mongolian Air Force". Archived from the original on 7 February 2012. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
  10. ^ "Б.БАЯРМАГНАЙ: ЗЭВСЭГТ ХҮЧНИЙГ ГЭРЭЛТЭЙ, ГЭГЭЭТЭЙ ИРЭЭДҮЙ ХҮЛЭЭЖ БАЙНА". 2011-11-07. Archived from the original on 2015-09-04. Retrieved 2012-03-13.
  11. ^ Mongolia Air Force Archived 2013-10-14 at the Wayback Machine. globalsecurity.org. Retrieved on 2013-10-12.
  12. ^ news.mn (2011-07-15). "Монголын нисэх хүчин МиГ-29 сөнөөгчөөр зэвсэглэнэ". Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
  13. ^ a b "Putin's present: Mongolia gets MiG fighters - News.MN". 28 November 2019.
  14. ^ "Mongolian general under investigation in attempted sale of fighters to North Korea - Washington Post". Archived from the original on 2013-04-20. Retrieved 2017-09-05.
  15. ^ "MongolNews.mn - "МИГ-21"-ИЙГ ЗАДАЛЖ ЗАРАХ ТУШААЛЫГ ЗХЖШ-ын эрх бүхий албан тушаалтан өгчээ". Archived from the original on 2013-08-20. Retrieved 2013-08-31.
  16. ^ shuud.mn : Монголын цэргийнхэн Хойд Солонгосыг “зэвсэглэсэн үү” Archived 2013-04-10 at the Wayback Machine. shuud.mn. Retrieved on 2013-04-16.
  17. ^ mod.gov - АЭРОБУС ОНГОЦЫГ БУЦААЖ ӨГНӨ Archived 2013-10-04 at the Wayback Machine. mod.gov.mn. Retrieved on 2013-4-08.
  18. ^ eurasianet - Mongolia Planning To Buy U.S. Military Airplanes Archived 2013-08-07 at the Wayback Machine. eurasianet.org. Retrieved on 2013-4-08.
  19. ^ Karnozov, Vladimir (2019-12-19). "Mongolian Air Force replenished with MiG". Russian Aviation. Retrieved 2022-01-22.
  20. ^ a b c Hoyle, Craig (2023). "World Air Forces 2024". Flight Global. Flight Global Insight. p. 24. Retrieved 9 January 2024.
  21. ^ "Trade Registers". Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Archived from the original on 14 April 2010. Retrieved 9 January 2024.