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Air Defense Artillery branch
USAADA-PLAQUE.svg
Branch plaque
Active1968; 54 years ago (1968)
to present
Country United States
Branch United States Army
TypeCombat Arms
RoleAir and Missile Defense
PatronSaint Barbara
Motto(s)"First to Fire"
Color  Scarlet[1]
MarchADA March
Mascot(s)Oozlefinch
Anniversaries17 November 1775- The Continental Congress elected Henry Knox "Colonel of the Regiment of Artillery"[2]
Insignia
Branch insignia
USAADA-BRANCH.svg

The Air Defense Artillery Branch is the branch of the United States Army that specializes in anti-aircraft weapons (such as surface to air missiles). In the U.S. Army, these groups are composed of mainly air defense systems such as the Patriot Missile System, Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD), and the Avenger Air Defense system which fires the FIM-92 Stinger missile.

The Air Defense Artillery branch descended from Anti-Aircraft Artillery (part of the U.S. Army Coast Artillery Corps until 1950, then part of the Artillery Branch) into a separate branch on 20 June 1968. On 1 December 1968, the ADA branch was authorized to wear modified Artillery insignia, crossed field guns with missile. The Branch Motto, "First To Fire", was adopted in 1986 by the attendees of the ADA Commanders' Conference at Fort Bliss. The motto refers to a speech given by General Jonathan Wainwright to veterans of the 200th Coast Artillery (Antiaircraft) stating they were the 'First to Fire' in World War II against the Empire of Japan.[3]

Mission

According to the Army's Field Manual 3-01, the mission of Air Defense Artillery is "to protect the force and selected geopolitical assets from aerial attack, missile attack, and surveillance."[4]

History

On 10 October 1917 an Antiaircraft Service in the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) was created at Arnouville-Les-Gonesse where an antiaircraft school was established. The antiaircraft units were organized as serially numbered battalions during the war, as follows:

Coast Artillery role

The National Defense Act of 1920 formally assigned the air defense mission to the Coast Artillery Corps, and 4 battalions were organized in 1921. In 1924, under a major reorganization of the Coast Artillery, the battalions were reorganized as regiments. There were also 42 Organized Reserve antiaircraft regiments in 8 brigades; however, many of the Reserve units only had a small number of personnel assigned, and many were demobilized without activation during World War II.[8][9][10][11]

Expansion

In 1938 there were only six Regular Army and thirteen National Guard regiments, but by 1941 this had been expanded to 37 total regiments. In November 1942, 781 battalions were authorized. However, this number was pared down to 331 battalions by the end of the war. By late 1944 the regiments had been broken up into battalions and 144 "Antiaircraft Artillery Groups" had been activated; some of these existed only briefly.[13]

The serially-numbered battalions in late World War II included the following types:

and in the 1950s:

On 9 March 1942 Antiaircraft Command was established in Washington D.C. and 1944 the AAA school was moved to Fort Bliss.


Army Air Defense Command

Army Air Defense Command ran from 1957 to 1974.

In 1991 the Patriot missile was heavily utilized during the Gulf War. After this short skirmish ended Air Defense has not been involved in any significant combat actions due to lack of enemy air assets and/or missile technology.

In 2010 the United States Army Air Defense Artillery School was moved from Fort Bliss to Fort Sill.

Air Defense Artillery Units

The following lists all units that make up the Army's Air Defense Artillery Branch.[14]

Army Air and Missile Defense Commands

Command SSI Subordinate to Garrison or Headquarters
10th Army Air and Missile Defense Command (AAMDC)
10aamdc.png
United States Army Europe Kaiserslautern, Germany
32nd AAMDC
32aamdc.svg
United States Army Forces Command Fort Bliss, Texas
94th AAMDC
94thAAMDC.png
United States Army Pacific Fort Shafter, Hawaii
263rd AAMDC
263ADABdeSSI.svg
South Carolina Army National Guard Anderson, South Carolina

Air Defense Artillery Brigades

A soldier assigned to the 35th Air Defense Artillery Brigade's 1st Battalion, 43rd Air Defense Artillery Regiment conducting maintenance on a Patriot missile launcher in 2006
A soldier assigned to the 35th Air Defense Artillery Brigade's 1st Battalion, 43rd Air Defense Artillery Regiment conducting maintenance on a Patriot missile launcher in 2006
Brigade SSI Subordinate to Garrison
11th Air Defense Artillery Brigade (ADAB)
11ADABdeSSI.svg
32nd AAMDC Fort Bliss, Texas
30th ADAB
30ada-bde.gif
Army Air Defense Artillery School Fort Sill, Oklahoma
31st ADAB
31ADABdeSSI.svg
32nd AAMDC Fort Sill, Oklahoma
35th ADAB
35ADABdeSSI.svg
Eighth United States Army / 94th AAMDC[15] Osan Air Base, South Korea
38th ADAB
38ADABde.jpg
94th AAMDC Sagami General Depot, Japan
52nd ADAB[16][17] 10th AAMDC Sembach, Germany
69th ADAB
69ADABdeSSI.svg
32nd AAMDC Fort Hood, Texas
100th Missile Defense Brigade (MDB)
100MissileDefBdeSSI.jpg
Army Space and Missile Defense Command / Colorado Army National Guard[18] Schriever Space Force Base, Colorado
108th ADAB
108 ADA BDE SSI.svg
32nd AAMDC Fort Bragg, North Carolina
164th ADAB
164th Air Defense Artillery Brigade.svg
Florida Army National Guard Orlando, Florida
174th ADAB
Insignia USA Army Brigade 174 ADA Bde SSI.svg
Ohio Army National Guard Columbus, Ohio
678th ADAB
US Army 678th Air Defense Artillery Brigade.png
263rd AAMDC Eastover, South Carolina

Army Battalions

A paratrooper with E Battery, 3–4th ADAR practices jumping from a 34-foot tower with the FIM-92 Stinger
A paratrooper with E Battery, 3–4th ADAR practices jumping from a 34-foot tower with the FIM-92 Stinger
Unit SSI Subordinate to Garrison Equipment
1st Battalion, 1st Air Defense Artillery Regiment (ADAR)
94thAAMDC.png
94th AAMDC Kadena Air Base, Japan MIM-104 Patriot
2–1st ADAR
35ADABdeSSI.svg
35th ADAB Camp Carroll, South Korea MIM-104 Patriot
3–2nd ADAR
31ADABdeSSI.svg
31st ADAB Fort Sill, Oklahoma MIM-104 Patriot
4–3rd ADAR
31ADABdeSSI.svg
31st ADAB Fort Sill, Oklahoma MIM-104 Patriot
3–4th ADAR
108-ADA-Bde-SSI.png
108th ADAB Fort Bragg, North Carolina MIM-104 Patriot, AN/TWQ-1 Avenger, FIM-92 Stinger
5–4th ADAR
10aamdc.png
10th AAMDC Ansbach, Germany AN/TWQ-1 Avenger, M-SHORAD
4–5th ADAR
69ADABdeSSI.svg
69th ADAB Fort Hood, Texas MIM-104 Patriot
5–5th ADAR
31ADABdeSSI.svg
31st ADAB Fort Sill, Oklahoma AN/TWQ-1 Avenger, C-RAM Counter Rocket Artillery and Mortar
2–6th ADAR
30ada-bde.gif
30th ADAB Fort Sill, Oklahoma AN/TWQ-1 Avenger, C-RAM Counter Rocket Artillery and Mortar
3–6th ADAR
30ada-bde.gif
30th ADAB Fort Sill, Oklahoma MIM-104 Patriot, THAAD Terminal High Altitude Area Defense
1–7th ADAR
108-ADA-Bde-SSI.png
108th ADAB Fort Bragg, North Carolina MIM-104 Patriot
5–7th ADAR
10aamdc.png
10th AAMDC Baumholder, Germany MIM-104 Patriot
1–43rd ADAR
11ADABdeSSI.svg
11th ADAB Fort Bliss, Texas MIM-104 Patriot
2–43rd ADAR
11ADABdeSSI.svg
11th ADAB Fort Bliss, Texas MIM-104 Patriot
3–43rd ADAR
11ADABdeSSI.svg
11th ADAB Fort Bliss, Texas MIM-104 Patriot
1–44th ADAR
69ADABdeSSI.svg
69th ADAB Fort Hood, Texas MIM-104 Patriot
2–44th ADAR
108-ADA-Bde-SSI.png
108th ADAB Fort Campbell, Kentucky AN/TWQ-1 Avenger, C-RAM Counter Rocket Artillery and Mortar
5–52nd ADAR
11ADABdeSSI.svg
11th ADAB Fort Bliss, Texas MIM-104 Patriot
6–52nd ADAR
35ADABdeSSI.svg
35th ADAB Suwon Air Base, South Korea MIM-104 Patriot, AN/TWQ-1 Avenger
1–62nd ADAR
69ADABdeSSI.svg
69th ADAB Fort Hood, Texas MIM-104 Patriot

Army Batteries

Unit SSI Subordinate to Garrison Equipment
A Battery, 2nd ADAR
11th BDE SSI.jpg
11th ADAB Fort Bliss, Texas THAAD Terminal High Altitude Area Defense
B Battery, 2nd ADAR
11th BDE SSI.jpg
11th ADAB Fort Bliss, Texas THAAD Terminal High Altitude Area Defense
D Battery, 2nd ADAR
35ADABdeSSI.svg
35th ADAB Osan Air Base, South Korea THAAD Terminal High Altitude Area Defense
E Battery, 3rd ADAR
11th BDE SSI.jpg
11th ADAB Andersen Air Force Base, Guam THAAD Terminal High Altitude Area Defense
A Battery, 4th ADAR
11th BDE SSI.jpg
11th ADAB Fort Bliss, Texas THAAD Terminal High Altitude Area Defense
E Battery, 62nd ADAR
69ADABdeSSI.svg
69th ADAB Fort Hood, Texas THAAD Terminal High Altitude Area Defense
B Battery, 62nd ADAR
69ADABdeSSI.svg
69th ADAB Fort Hood, Texas THAAD Terminal High Altitude Area Defense

National Guard Battalions

Unit SSI Subordinate to Garrison Part of Equipment
49th Ground-Based Midcourse Defense Battalion
100MissileDefBdeSSI.jpg
100th Missile Defense Brigade Fort Greely, Alaska Alaska Army National Guard Ground-Based Interceptor
1–174 Air Defense Artillery (ADA)
Insignia USA Army Brigade 174 ADA Bde SSI.svg
174th ADAB Cincinnati, Ohio Ohio Army National Guard AN/TWQ-1 Avenger
2-174 ADA
Insignia USA Army Brigade 174 ADA Bde SSI.svg
174th ADAB McConnelsville, Ohio Ohio Army National Guard AN/TWQ-1 Avenger
1–188 ADA
NDARNG-shoulder sleeve insignia.gif
Separate battalion Grand Forks, North Dakota North Dakota Army National Guard AN/TWQ-1 Avenger
1–204 ADA
66th Troop Command SSI - Mississippi ARNG.gif
Separate battalion Newton, Mississippi Mississippi Army National Guard AN/TWQ-1 Avenger
2-263 ADA
US Army 678th Air Defense Artillery Brigade.png
678th ADAB Anderson, South Carolina South Carolina Army National Guard AN/TWQ-1 Avenger
1–265 ADA
164th Air Defense Artillery Brigade.svg
164th ADAB Palm Coast, Florida Florida Army National Guard AN/TWQ-1 Avenger
3–265 ADA
164th Air Defense Artillery Brigade.svg
164th ADAB Sarasota, Florida Florida Army National Guard AN/TWQ-1 Avenger

Shipton award

The Shipton Award is named for Brigadier General James A. Shipton, who is acknowledged as the Air Defense Artillery Branch's founding father.[19] Shipton felt that the mission of antiaircraft defense was not to down enemy aircraft, but instead to protect maneuver forces on the ground: "The purpose of anti-aviation defense is to protect our forces and establishments from hostile attack and observation from the air by keeping enemy airplanes [sic] at a distance." The Shipton Award recognizes an Air Defense Artillery professionals for outstanding performance individual thought, innovation, and contributions that result in significant contributions or enhances Air Defense Artillery's warfighting capabilities, morale, readiness, and maintenance.

See also

References

  1. ^ US Department of Defense. DA PAM 670-1. 11 October 2017
  2. ^ "TIOH Air Defense Artillery branch page". Archived from the original on 16 March 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
  3. ^ Hamilton, John. Blazing skies: Air Defense Artillery on Fort Bliss, 1940–2009. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office. p. 279. ISBN 978-0-16-086949-5.
  4. ^ "Army Publishing Directorate". armypubs.army.mil.
  5. ^ Rinaldi, pp. 166–168
  6. ^ George Washington Cullum (1920). Biographical Register of the Officers and Graduates of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, N.Y.: 1–6810. Houghton, Mifflin. p. 624.
  7. ^ Rinaldi, p. 123
  8. ^ Berhow, pp. 437–442
  9. ^ "Coast Artillery Regiments 1–196 at CDSG" (PDF).
  10. ^ "National Guard Coast Artillery Regiments at CDSG" (PDF).
  11. ^ "Organized Reserve and Army of the United States Coast Artillery Regiments at CDSG" (PDF).
  12. ^ Bob MacDonald. "We Aim to Hit". California State Military Museum. California State Military Department. Retrieved 28 January 2012.
  13. ^ Stanton, pp. 434–481
  14. ^ "Air Defense Artillery" (PDF). Fort Sill. US Army Fires Center of Excellence. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
  15. ^ "94th Army Air & Missile Defense Command". Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
  16. ^ Pfc. Yesenia, Cadavid. "52nd Air Defense Artillery Brigade Activation Ceremony". US Army. Retrieved 8 October 2022.
  17. ^ "US Army's newest air defense brigade headquarters activates in Germany". United States European Command. Retrieved 8 October 2022.
  18. ^ "100th Ground-based Midcourse Defense Brigade". Colorado Army National Guard Official DoD Website. Colorado Army National Guard. Retrieved 3 August 2019.
  19. ^ Stiller, Jesse H. (2010). "ADA Branch: A Proud Heritage" (PDF). Air Defense Artillery Online. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 July 2014.