|Air Defense Artillery branch|
|Branch||United States Army|
|Role||Air and Missile Defense|
|Motto(s)||"First to Fire"|
|Anniversaries||17 November 1775- The Continental Congress elected Henry Knox "Colonel of the Regiment of Artillery"|
The Air Defense Artillery Branch is the branch of the United States Army that specializes in anti-aircraft weapons (such as surface to air missiles). In the U.S. Army, these groups are composed of mainly air defense systems such as the Patriot Missile System, Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD), and the Avenger Air Defense system which fires the FIM-92 Stinger missile.
The Air Defense Artillery branch descended from Anti-Aircraft Artillery (part of the U.S. Army Coast Artillery Corps until 1950, then part of the Artillery Branch) into a separate branch on 20 June 1968. On 1 December 1968, the ADA branch was authorized to wear modified Artillery insignia, crossed field guns with missile. The Branch Motto, "First To Fire", was adopted in 1986 by the attendees of the ADA Commanders' Conference at Fort Bliss. The motto refers to a speech given by General Jonathan Wainwright to veterans of the 200th Coast Artillery (Antiaircraft) stating they were the 'First to Fire' in World War II against the Empire of Japan.
According to the Army's Field Manual 3-01, the mission of Air Defense Artillery is "to protect the force and selected geopolitical assets from aerial attack, missile attack, and surveillance."
On 10 October 1917 an Antiaircraft Service in the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) was created at Arnouville-Les-Gonesse where an antiaircraft school was established. The antiaircraft units were organized as serially numbered battalions during the war, as follows:
In 1938 there were only six Regular Army and thirteen National Guard regiments, but by 1941 this had been expanded to 37 total regiments. In November 1942, 781 battalions were authorized. However, this number was pared down to 331 battalions by the end of the war. By late 1944 the regiments had been broken up into battalions and 144 "Antiaircraft Artillery Groups" had been activated; some of these existed only briefly.
The serially-numbered battalions in late World War II included the following types:
and in the 1950s:
On 9 March 1942 Antiaircraft Command was established in Washington D.C. and 1944 the AAA school was moved to Fort Bliss.
Army Air Defense Command ran from 1957 to 1974.
In 1991 the Patriot missile was heavily utilized during the Gulf War. After this short skirmish ended Air Defense has not been involved in any significant combat actions due to lack of enemy air assets and/or missile technology.
In 2010 the United States Army Air Defense Artillery School was moved from Fort Bliss to Fort Sill.
The following lists all units that make up the Army's Air Defense Artillery Branch.
|Command||SSI||Subordinate to||Garrison or Headquarters|
|10th Army Air and Missile Defense Command (AAMDC)||United States Army Europe||Kaiserslautern, Germany|
|32nd AAMDC||United States Army Forces Command||Fort Bliss, Texas|
|94th AAMDC||United States Army Pacific||Fort Shafter, Hawaii|
|263rd AAMDC||South Carolina Army National Guard||Anderson, South Carolina|
|11th Air Defense Artillery Brigade (ADAB)||32nd AAMDC||Fort Bliss, Texas|
|30th ADAB||Army Air Defense Artillery School||Fort Sill, Oklahoma|
|31st ADAB||32nd AAMDC||Fort Sill, Oklahoma|
|35th ADAB||Eighth United States Army / 94th AAMDC||Osan Air Base, South Korea|
|38th ADAB||94th AAMDC||Sagami General Depot, Japan|
|52nd ADAB||10th AAMDC||Sembach, Germany|
|69th ADAB||32nd AAMDC||Fort Hood, Texas|
|100th Missile Defense Brigade (MDB)||Army Space and Missile Defense Command / Colorado Army National Guard||Schriever Space Force Base, Colorado|
|108th ADAB||32nd AAMDC||Fort Bragg, North Carolina|
|164th ADAB||Florida Army National Guard||Orlando, Florida|
|174th ADAB||Ohio Army National Guard||Columbus, Ohio|
|678th ADAB||263rd AAMDC||Eastover, South Carolina|
|1st Battalion, 1st Air Defense Artillery Regiment (ADAR)||94th AAMDC||Kadena Air Base, Japan||MIM-104 Patriot|
|2–1st ADAR||35th ADAB||Camp Carroll, South Korea||MIM-104 Patriot|
|3–2nd ADAR||31st ADAB||Fort Sill, Oklahoma||MIM-104 Patriot|
|4–3rd ADAR||31st ADAB||Fort Sill, Oklahoma||MIM-104 Patriot|
|3–4th ADAR||108th ADAB||Fort Bragg, North Carolina||MIM-104 Patriot, AN/TWQ-1 Avenger, FIM-92 Stinger|
|5–4th ADAR||10th AAMDC||Ansbach, Germany||AN/TWQ-1 Avenger, M-SHORAD|
|4–5th ADAR||69th ADAB||Fort Hood, Texas||MIM-104 Patriot|
|5–5th ADAR||31st ADAB||Fort Sill, Oklahoma||AN/TWQ-1 Avenger, C-RAM Counter Rocket Artillery and Mortar|
|2–6th ADAR||30th ADAB||Fort Sill, Oklahoma||AN/TWQ-1 Avenger, C-RAM Counter Rocket Artillery and Mortar|
|3–6th ADAR||30th ADAB||Fort Sill, Oklahoma||MIM-104 Patriot, THAAD Terminal High Altitude Area Defense|
|1–7th ADAR||108th ADAB||Fort Bragg, North Carolina||MIM-104 Patriot|
|5–7th ADAR||10th AAMDC||Baumholder, Germany||MIM-104 Patriot|
|1–43rd ADAR||11th ADAB||Fort Bliss, Texas||MIM-104 Patriot|
|2–43rd ADAR||11th ADAB||Fort Bliss, Texas||MIM-104 Patriot|
|3–43rd ADAR||11th ADAB||Fort Bliss, Texas||MIM-104 Patriot|
|1–44th ADAR||69th ADAB||Fort Hood, Texas||MIM-104 Patriot|
|2–44th ADAR||108th ADAB||Fort Campbell, Kentucky||AN/TWQ-1 Avenger, C-RAM Counter Rocket Artillery and Mortar|
|5–52nd ADAR||11th ADAB||Fort Bliss, Texas||MIM-104 Patriot|
|6–52nd ADAR||35th ADAB||Suwon Air Base, South Korea||MIM-104 Patriot, AN/TWQ-1 Avenger|
|1–62nd ADAR||69th ADAB||Fort Hood, Texas||MIM-104 Patriot|
|A Battery, 2nd ADAR||11th ADAB||Fort Bliss, Texas||THAAD Terminal High Altitude Area Defense|
|B Battery, 2nd ADAR||11th ADAB||Fort Bliss, Texas||THAAD Terminal High Altitude Area Defense|
|D Battery, 2nd ADAR||35th ADAB||Osan Air Base, South Korea||THAAD Terminal High Altitude Area Defense|
|E Battery, 3rd ADAR||11th ADAB||Andersen Air Force Base, Guam||THAAD Terminal High Altitude Area Defense|
|A Battery, 4th ADAR||11th ADAB||Fort Bliss, Texas||THAAD Terminal High Altitude Area Defense|
|E Battery, 62nd ADAR||69th ADAB||Fort Hood, Texas||THAAD Terminal High Altitude Area Defense|
|B Battery, 62nd ADAR||69th ADAB||Fort Hood, Texas||THAAD Terminal High Altitude Area Defense|
|Unit||SSI||Subordinate to||Garrison||Part of||Equipment|
|49th Ground-Based Midcourse Defense Battalion||100th Missile Defense Brigade||Fort Greely, Alaska||Alaska Army National Guard||Ground-Based Interceptor|
|1–174 Air Defense Artillery (ADA)||174th ADAB||Cincinnati, Ohio||Ohio Army National Guard||AN/TWQ-1 Avenger|
|2-174 ADA||174th ADAB||McConnelsville, Ohio||Ohio Army National Guard||AN/TWQ-1 Avenger|
|1–188 ADA||Separate battalion||Grand Forks, North Dakota||North Dakota Army National Guard||AN/TWQ-1 Avenger|
|1–204 ADA||Separate battalion||Newton, Mississippi||Mississippi Army National Guard||AN/TWQ-1 Avenger|
|2-263 ADA||678th ADAB||Anderson, South Carolina||South Carolina Army National Guard||AN/TWQ-1 Avenger|
|1–265 ADA||164th ADAB||Palm Coast, Florida||Florida Army National Guard||AN/TWQ-1 Avenger|
|3–265 ADA||164th ADAB||Sarasota, Florida||Florida Army National Guard||AN/TWQ-1 Avenger|
The Shipton Award is named for Brigadier General James A. Shipton, who is acknowledged as the Air Defense Artillery Branch's founding father. Shipton felt that the mission of antiaircraft defense was not to down enemy aircraft, but instead to protect maneuver forces on the ground: "The purpose of anti-aviation defense is to protect our forces and establishments from hostile attack and observation from the air by keeping enemy airplanes [sic] at a distance." The Shipton Award recognizes an Air Defense Artillery professionals for outstanding performance individual thought, innovation, and contributions that result in significant contributions or enhances Air Defense Artillery's warfighting capabilities, morale, readiness, and maintenance.