United States Army Futures Command
Founded24 August 2018[2]
Country United States
Branch United States Army
TypeArmy command
Garrison/HQAustin, Texas
Motto(s)"Forge the future"[1]
Websitewww.army.mil/futures
Commanders
Commanding general[5]GEN James E. Rainey[3]
Deputy Commanding Generals[5]LTG Richard R. Coffman
LTG D. Scott McKean[4]
Command Sergeant Major[5]CSM Brian A. Hester
Deputy to the Commander[5]SES William "Willie" Nelson
Insignia
Distinctive unit insignia[1]
Beret flash

The United States Army Futures Command (AFC) is a United States Army command that runs modernization projects[a] for the Army. It is headquartered in Austin, Texas.

The AFC was created in 2018 as a peer of Forces Command (FORSCOM), Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC), and Army Materiel Command (AMC).[6][7] While the other commands focus on readiness to "fight tonight", AFC aims to improve future readiness for competition with near-peers.[8][9][10]

It is supported by the United States Army Reserve Innovation Command (75th Innovation Command).[11]

History

See also: Reorganization plan of United States Army § Four Army commands

2018

General Mark Milley, then Army Chief of Staff, helped establish the Army Futures Command.[12] Its first commander was by General John Murray,[13] formerly the Army's G-8.[a]

Over his four-year term as the Army's chief of staff, Milley, working with top service officials, shifted billions of dollars into modernization programs and based the new command in Austin, Texas, an area known for its innovative, technology-focused workforce. [1] The Army gave the command's chief and the leaders of new groups, dubbed "cross-functional teams", the authority to manage requirements and the leeway to direct dollars.

At its founding, Futures Command was focused on six priorities:[Note 1] Long-range precision fires, Next Generation Combat Vehicle, Future Vertical Lift platforms, a mobile & expeditionary Army network, air and missile defense capabilities,[14] and soldier lethality.

Murray announced plans to stand up an Army Applications Lab[Note 2] to accelerate acquisition and deployment of materiel to the soldiers, including by using artificial intelligence (AI). [15][16]

Murray also said he would hire a chief technology officer for AFC.[17][18]

A fundamental strategy was formulated, involving simultaneous integrated operations across domains.[19][20] This strategy involves pushing adversaries to standoff,[b] [23][22] by presenting them with multiple simultaneous dilemmas.[24][25][c] A goal is that by 2028, the ability to project rapid, responsive power across domains will have become apparent to potential adversaries.[26][27][d]

2019

AFC declared its full operational capability in July 2019,[28][29] after an initial one-year period.[30] The FY2020 military budget allocated $30 billion for the top six modernization priorities over next five years.[31] The $30 billion came from $8 billion in cost avoidance and $22 billion in terminations.[31][32] More than 30 projects[33][34] were envisioned to become the materiel basis needed for overmatching any potential competitors in the 'continuum of conflict' over the next ten years[35][36] in multi-domain operations (MDO).[37]

From an initial 12 people at its headquarters in 2018, AFC grew to 24,000 people across 25 states and 15 countries in 2019.[38] research facilities and personnel (including ARCIC and RDECOM) moved from other commands and parts of the Army such as the United States Army Research Laboratory.[39]

2022

In 2022, Army leaders projected that 24 of the top-35 priority modernization programs would be deployed by fiscal 2023.[40]

Shift to multi-domain operations (MDO)

Multi-domain operations (MDO): Friendly forces (denoted in black)[41] operating in multi-domains (gray, yellow, light blue, dark gray, and dark blue)—Space, Cyber, Air, Land, and Maritime respectively—cooperate across domains,[e] working as an integrated force against adversaries (denoted in red). These operations will disrupt these adversaries, and present them multiple simultaneous dilemmas,[c] to encourage adversaries to return to competition rather than continue a conflict.[37][42][43]

In 2018, Secretary of the Army Ryan McCarthy said Futures Command would have three areas of focus:[44]

  1. Futures and Concepts: assess gaps (needs versus opportunities,[45] given a threat).[44] Concepts for realizable future systems (with readily harvestable content)[46][47]: for definitions of terms, such as '6.3'  will flow into TRADOC doctrine, manuals, and training programs.[a]
  2. Combat Development: stabilized concepts.[46][47] Balance the current state of technology and the cash-flow requirements of the defense contractors providing the technology, that they become deliverable experiments, demonstrations, and prototypes, in an iterative process of acquisition.[48][f][g] (See Value stream)
  3. Combat Systems: experiments, demonstrations, and prototypes.[49] Transition to the acquisition, production, and sustainment programs of AMC.[50][h][e]

Army Secretary Mark Esper said that the 2018 administrative infrastructure for the Futures and Concepts Center (formerly ARCIC) and United States Army Combat Capabilities Development Command (CCDC, now called DEVCOM, (formerly RDECOM)) remains in place at their existing locations.[54] What has changed or will change is the layers of command (operational control, or OPCON)[55] needed to make a decision.[54] He said, "You've got to remain open to change, you've got to remain flexible, you've [got] to remain accessible. That is the purpose of this command."[54][56] See § Army of 2040

Cross-Functional Teams (CFTs)

The command uses cross-functional teams to reform the acquisition process.[57][58]

Overmatch of the capability of a competitor or adversary is one of the goals of AFC. More specifically, the imposition of multiple simultaneous dilemmas upon a competitor or adversary is a goal of the US Army: to get into a position of relative advantage.[9] By 2021, Army leadership recognized that new Army formations (the multi-domain operations task force —MDTF)[59] had the ability to simultaneously compete with, and also threaten an adversary, with its new capability, across domains (space, cyber, disinformation) of the conflict continuum.[60]: min 30:45 [c] By 2022 or 2023, a new concept for command and control (JADC2) will have been largely prototyped.[61] In 2023 a new CFT was stood up for Contested Logistics.[62][63] Planning[a][64] for the Army of 2040 is underway.[65]

McCarthy characterized a Cross-Functional Team (CFT) as a team of teams, led by a requirements leader, program manager, sustainer and tester.[66] Each CFT must strike a balance for itself amid constraints: the realms of requirements, acquisition, science and technology, test, resourcing, costing, and sustainment. A balance is needed in order for a CFT in order to produce a realizable concept before a competitor achieves it.[67] The Army Requirements Oversight Council (AROC) itself serves as a kind of CFT,[a] operating at a higher level[68][69][70][71][72][73] as response to Congressional oversight, budgeting, funding, policy, and authorization for action.[46][47][74][75][76][77][78] CFTs for materiel and capabilities were first structured in a task force, in order to de-layer the Army Commands.[67][79] Each CFT addresses a capability gap, which the Army must now match for its future: there can be a Capability Development Integration Directorate (CDID), for each CFT.[Note 1] Initially, the CFTs were placed as needed; eventually they might each co-locate at a Center of Excellence (CoE) listed below. For example, the Aviation CoE at Fort Rucker, in coordination with the Aviation Program Executive Officer (PEO), also contains the Vertical Lift CFT and the Aviation CDID. Modernization reform is the priority for AFC, in order to achieve readiness for the future.

The CFTs will be involved in all three of AFC's elements: Futures and concepts, Combat development, and Combat systems.[80] "We were never above probably a total of eight people" —BG Wally Rugen, Aviation CFT.[81] Four of the eight CFT leads have now shifted from dual-hat jobs to full-time status. Each CFT lead is mentored by a 4-star general.[81]

Although AFC and the CFTs are a top priority of the Department of the Army, as AFC and the CFTs are expected to unify control of the $30 billion-dollar modernization budget,[82][29] "The new command will not tolerate a zero-defects mentality. 'But if you fail, we'd like you to fail early and fail cheap,' because progress and success often builds on failure." —Ryan McCarthy[83] Holland notes that prototyping applies to the conceptual realm ('harvestable content') as much as prototyping applies to the hardware realm.[46][47]

Murray, in seeking to globalize AFC,[84] embedded U.S. military allies into some of the CFTs.[85][29]

A 2019 Government Accountability Office (GAO) report[86] cautions that lessons learned from the CFT pilot[67] are yet to be applied; Holland notes that this organizational critique applies to prototyping hardware, a different realm than concept refinement ("scientific research is a fundamentally different activity than technology development").[46][47] Also in 2019 the GAO recommended that the government establish a process to ensure that CFTs implement their intended business reforms; however by 2021 the office of the Chief Management officer (CMO) had been disestablished.[87][88]

Joint collaboration on modernization

Multi-domain operations (MDO)[e] span multiple domains: cislunar space, land, air, maritime, cyber, and populations.[89]: minute 17:45 [90][91][92] Echelons above brigade (division, corps, and theater army) engage in a continuum of conflict. —This illustration is from The MDO Concept, TRADOC pamphlet 525-3-1.[j]

The Secretaries of the Army, Air Force, and Navy meet regularly to take advantage of overlap in their programs:[95][96][64]

Multi-Domain Operations (MDO); Joint warfighting concept (JADC2)

Partners

Project Convergence is a campaign of learning to aggressively pursue an Artificial Intelligence and machine learning-enabled battlefield management system.[i]

AFC has given research funding to more than 300 colleges and universities[29] with one-year program cycles.[145] "We will come to you. You don't have to come to us," Murray said on 24 August 2018"[30]: minute 6:07 ,[146]

Multiple incubator tech hubs are available in Austin,[147] especially Capital Factory, with offices of Defense Innovation Unit (DIU) and AFWERX (USAF tech hub).[148]

AI
Software

Futures Command will stand up Army Software Factory in August 2021, to immerse Soldiers and Army civilians of all ranks in modern software development, in Austin.[176][177][178][179][180] Similar in spirit to the Training with industry program, participants are expected to take these practices back with them, to influence other Army people in their future assignments, and to build up the Army's capability in software development. The training program lasts three years, and will produce skill sets for trainees as product managers, user experience and user interface designers, software engineers, or platform engineers.[176] The Al Work Force Development program and this Software Factory will complement the Artificial Intelligence Task Force.[177][181]

AFC is seeking to design signature systems in a relevant time frame according to priorities[Note 1] of the Chief of Staff of the Army (CSA).[80] AFC will partner with other organizations such as Defense Innovation Unit Experimental (DIUx) as needed.[185][186] If a team from industry presents a viable program idea to a CFT, that CFT connects to the Army's requirements developers, Secretary Esper said, and the program prototype is then put on a fast track.[51] The Secretary of the Army has approved an Intellectual Property Management Policy, to protect both the Army and the entrepreneur or innovator.[187][188]

Data

For example, the Network CFT and the Program Executive Office Command, Control, Communications—Tactical (PEO C3T) hosted a forum on 1 August 2018 for vendors to learn what might function as a testable/deployable[189] in the near future.[190][114][191] A few of the hundreds of white papers from the vendors, adjudged to be 'very mature ideas', were passed to the Army's acquisition community, while many others were passed to United States Army Communications-Electronics Research, Development and Engineering Center (CERDEC) for continuation in the Army's effort to modernize the network for combat.[192] Although some test requirements were inappropriately applied, the Command post computing environment (CPCE) has passed a hurdle.[193][194][195]

While seeking information, the Army is especially interested in ideas that accelerate an acquisition program —in for example the Future Vertical Lift Requests for Information (RFIs): "provide a detailed description of tailored, alternative or innovative approaches that streamlines the acquisition process to accelerate the program as much as possible" (4 April 2019);[196] in January 2020 the current Optionally manned fighting vehicle (OMFV) solicitation was cancelled when the OMFV's requirements added up to an unobtainable project;[197] in February 2020 Futures command was soliciting the industry for do-able ideas for an OMFV,[197] whereas in August 2022 Army Network modernization was the target for being speeded-up.[198]

Search for capabilities

In the Army's search for capabilities, 6th ASA(ALT) Bruce Jette initiated xTechsearch to reward private innovators.[199] The program is ongoing.[l]

The COVID-19 pandemic triggered the Army to run an xTechsearch Ventilator Challenge; entrants can submit their ideas online for immediate consideration and a possible cash prize to encourage participation for a $100,000 prize and possible Army contract.[201] In 1964 Henrik H. Straub of Harry Diamond Labs, a predecessor to CCDC Army Research Laboratory, invented the Army Emergency Respirator (now termed a 'ventilator' in current terminology).[202] This ventilator is one application of the fluidic amplifier (a 1957 Harry Diamond Labs invention), which allows the labored breathing of the patient to control the flow from an externally purified air stream, to augment the air flow into a patient's lungs.[202]

TRX Systems won an xTechsearch award for technology which allows navigation in a GPS-denied environment, an A-PNT priority. The award was delayed by the COVID-19 pandemic, which allowed the company more time for business development.[203]

Air-launched effects (ALEs)

Air-launched effects (ALEs) are drones which are launched from the Army's helicopters.[204] In swarms, ALEs promise to multiply the combat effectiveness of the Army's helicopters;[204] single ground-launched drones have already been used in combat during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance. ALEs have been used as munitions, as in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflicts.[205][206] From 1 May to 18 May 2023 at Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) the Aviation CFT made progress in its effort to share data with its partners; the event concentrated on the data-sharing necessary to support JADC2 at the scale needed to support the distances encountered in the Indo-Pacom theater; this extends the reach of the Future Attack Reconnaissance Aircraft (FARA).[207]

Robotic combat vehicles (RCVs)
Robotic combat vehicle (RCV)
Project Origin unmanned ground vehicle (UGV), at Joint Multinational Readiness Center, Hohenfels, Germany[208][209][210]

In 2021 candidate Robotic combat vehicles (RCVs), both medium and light RCVs, along with surrogate heavy RCVs (modified M-113s) and proxy manned control vehicles (MET-Ds) were to marshal at Camp Grayling MI to test a company-sized tele-operated / unmanned formation.[211] The light RCVs had their autonomous driving software installed in November and December 2020.[211] The robotic vehicle formation begins a shakeout in April 2021. The RCVs (and the software, which is common to all 18 vehicles) enters ATEC (Army Test and Evaluation Command) safety testing through May 2022.[211] Live-fire drills are scheduled to conclude in August 2022.[211][126] By October 2021 experiments with RCVs, in concert with drones for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR), were underway.[212][210][206]

By June 2022 Army RCVs had demonstrated some of their disruptive capabilities,[208] in preparation for Project Convergence 2022. Autonomous capabilities, for example in resupply by unmanned helicopters, by the US, Australia, and UK were demonstrated at PC22.[213]: min 25:30 [214][215][216]

In May 2023 Army Futures Command disclosed concepts for Robotic combat platoons,[217] akin to the Collaborative combat aircraft of the Air Force. These robotics concepts integrate the ethics policies[218][219] of the Defense Department as part of mission command.[220] See §Internet of Military Things

AFC events

By 13 October 2021 the 40th Chief of Staff of the Army could announce that the majority of the Army's Futures Command's 31 signature systems,[221] and the four rapid capability projects of the § Rapid Capabilities and Critical Technologies Office would be fielded by fiscal year 2023 (FY2023)[222][f][g]

By 2022, Futures Command was conducting the third annual iteration of Project Convergence (PC22), experiments and joint tests of 300 technologies by the Department of Defense and its allies and partners.[61][237][238] The next Project Convergence is likely to be PC24 at the earliest.[239][240] In addition the RCCTO's § LRHW[223] will not deploy by 1 October 2023.

Acquisition

See United States Army Acquisition Corps
DoD (2007) Acquisition process denoting Milestones A, B, C along a timeline. When a milestone has been met, the triangle then points downward, at this time. Otherwise the milestone is planned, but not yet met at this time.

Futures Command partners with the ASA(ALT),[241][58] who, in the role of the Army Acquisition Executive (AAE),[242] has milestone decision authority (MDA)[49][243] at multiple points in a Materiel development decision (MDD).[244] Thus, from the perspective of AFC, which seeks to modernize, they consolidate the relevant expertise into the relevant CFT. The CFT balances the constraints needed to realize a prototype, beginning with realizable requirements, science and technology, test, etc. before entering the acquisition process (typically the Army prototypes on its own and, as of 2019, initiates acquisition at Milestone B in order to have the Acquisition Executive, with the concurrence of the Army Chief of Staff, decide on production as a Program of Record at Milestone C).[245] Next, refine the prototype to address the factors needed to pass the Milestone decisions A, B, and C which require Milestone decision authority (MDA) in an acquisition process.[245] This consolidation of expertise thus reduces the risks in a Materiel development decision (MDD), for the Army to admit a prototype into a program of record.) The existing processes (as of April 2018) for a Materiel development decision (MDD) have been updated to clarify their place in the Life Cycle of a program of record:[242][244][46] over 1200 programs/projects were reviewed;[246] by October 2019, over 600 programs of record have been moved from the acquisition (development for modernization) phase to the sustainment phase (for mature projects, to continue their manufacture and fielding to the brigades).[246] An additional life cycle management action is underway, to re-examine which of these projects/programs should be divested.[246] (Surplus materiel might well go to the Security Assistance Command, perhaps to Foreign Military Sales.)

The emphasis remains with Futures Command, which selects programs to develop.[246] In order to achieve its mission of achieving overmatch,[247][97][45] each Futures Command CFT partners with the acquisition community.[248] This community (the Army acquisition workforce (AAW)) includes an entire Army branch (the Acquisition Corps),[249][250][251][252][253] U.S. Army Acquisition Support Center (USAASC), Army Contracting Command, .[244] The Principal Military Deputy to the ASA(ALT) is also deputy commanding general for Combat Systems, Army Futures Command,[242] and leads the Program Executive Officers (PEO); he has directed each PEO who does not have a CFT to coordinate with, to immediately form one, at least informally.[254]

The current acquisition system has pieces all throughout the Army. ... There's chunks of it in TRADOC and chunks of it in AMC and then other pieces. So really all we're trying to do is get them all lined up under a single command…..from concept, S&T, RDT&E, through the requirements process, through the beginnings of the acquisition system—Milestone A, B, and C....aligned under that same commander. ... We will finally achieve… unity of command —Secretary Esper.[44]

The PEOs work closely with their respective CFTs.[248] The list of CFTs and PEOs below is incomplete.[Note 1] Operationally, the CFTs offer "de-layering" (fewer degrees of separation between the echelons of the Army—Rugen estimates two degrees of separation),[81] and provide a point of contact (POC) for Army reformers[45] interested in adding value in the midst of constraints to be balanced while modernizing.[81] "... and if we're really good, we'll continue to adapt. Year over year over year." —Secretary Esper[30]: minute 19:00 [255] (See Value stream.)

Prototyping and experimentation

"Our new approach is really to prototype as much as we can to help us identify requirements, so our reach doesn't exceed our grasp. ... A good example is Future Vertical Lift: The prototyping has been exceptional." —Secretary of the Army Mark Esper.[256][g] The development process will be cyclic,[257] consisting of prototype, demonstration/testing, and evaluation,[51] in an iterative process designed to unearth unrealistic requirements early, before prematurely including that requirement in a program of record.[29][243]

AFC activities include at least one Cross-functional team, its Capability development integration directorate (CDID),[258]: Para. 2b  and the associated Battle Lab,[258]: Para. 2b  for each (Army Center of Excellence (CoE)) respectively. Each CDID and associated Battle Lab work with their CFT[56] to develop operational experiments and prototypes to test.

ASA(ALT), in coordination with AFC, has dotted-line relationships between its PEOs and the CFTs. In particular, the Rapid Capabilities and Critical Technologies Office of ASA(ALT) has a PEO who is charged with developing experimental prototype 'units of action' for rapid fielding to the Soldiers. The prototypes are currently for Long range hypersonic weapons, High energy laser defense, and Space, as of June 2019,[259][260][261] Speed and range are the Army capabilities which are being augmented,[262][263][120][264] with spending on these capabilities tripling between 2017 and 2019.[265]

Tests are run by JMC and White Sands Missile Range, which hosts ATEC.[266] As United States Army Test and Evaluation Command (ATEC) reports directly to the Army Chief of Staff,[7] the test support level from ATEC[267] is to be specified by the CFT,[56] or PEO.[268] Fort Bliss and WSMR together cover 3.06 million acres, large enough to test every non-nuclear weapon system in the Army inventory.[269]: minute 1:26:00  JMC runs live developmental experiments to test and assess MDO concepts or capabilities that support the Army's six modernization priorities which are then analyzed by The Research and Analysis Center, denoted TRAC based out of Fort Leavenworth,[56] or AMSAA, denoted the Data Analysis Center at APG. CCDC, now called DEVCOM (formerly RDECOM, at APG) includes the several Army research laboratory locations (ARLs),[270] as well as research, development and engineering centers (RDECs) listed:[258][56][255]

In internal partnerships, CCDC, now called DEVCOM (formerly RDECOM) has taken Long range precision fires (LRPF) as its focus in aligning its organizations (the six research, development and engineering centers (RDECs), and the Army Research Laboratory (ARL)); as of September 2018, RDECOM's 'concept of operation' is first to support the LRPF CFT,[271] with ARDEC. AMRDEC is looking to improve the energetics and efficiency of projectiles. TARDEC Ground Vehicle Center is working on high-voltage components for Extended range cannon artillery (ERCA) that save on size and weight.[271] Two dedicated RDECOM people support the LRPF CFT, with reachback support from two dozen more at RDECOM.[272] In January 2019 RDECOM was reflagged as CCDC; General Mike Murray noted that CCDC will have to support more Soldier feedback, and that prototyping and testing will have to begin before a project ever becomes a program of record.[273][255]

Although the Army Research Laboratory has not changed its name, Secretary Esper notes that the CCDC objectives supersede the activities of the Laboratory;[56][46][47] the Laboratory remains in its support role for the top-six priorities for modernizing combat capabilities.[Note 1]

Acquisition specialists are being encouraged to accept lateral transfers to the several research, development and engineering centers (RDECs), where their skills are needed: Ground vehicle systems center (formerly TARDEC, at Detroit Arsenal. Michigan), Aviation and missile center (formerly AMRDEC, at Redstone Arsenal), C5ISR center (formerly CERDEC, at Aberdeen Proving Ground), Soldier center (formerly NSRDEC, Natick, MA), and Armaments center (formerly ARDEC, at Picatinny Arsenal) listed below.[274]

AFC branch locations

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A simulation used to put leadership teams in a situation akin to a Combat Training Center rotation, "an intellectually and emotionally challenging environment that forgives the mistakes of the participants"[275][276] In a role-playing session; a trainer (not seen) must tell the virtual Soldier what the Soldier is not doing correctly. Trainers using this program show a 40% increase in their knowledge of the Sexual Harassment/Assault Response & Prevention policy.[277] These simulations are created at Army Research Laboratory (ARL) West, and ICT, Playa Vista, CA
CCDC Army Research Laboratory Neuroscience Big Data: over ten years of EEG data, comprising over 1,000 recording sessions (The Cognition and Neuroergonomics Collaborative Technology Alliance)[278]

The following activities for Futures Command are at 23 locations.[279] (A US Army center of excellence (CoE), or TRADOC Center of Excellence, can be co-located near a CFT, along with the associated Capability Development Integration Directorate (CDID) and "Battle Lab") The interrelation between AFC and TRADOC can be seen by the role of a TRADOC Capability manager, who is responsible for DOTMLPF, and reports to the TRADOC commander.[m]

Need for modernization reform

Between 1995 and 2009, $32 billion was expended on programs such as the Future Combat System[325] (2003-2009), with no harvestable content by the time of its cancellation.[326] As of 2021, the Army had not fielded a new combat system in decades.[327][102][328][329][35][243]

23rd Secretary of the Army Mark Esper has remarked that AFC will provide the unity of command and purpose needed to reduce the requirements definition phase from 60 months to 12 months.[330][8][55] A simple statement of a problem (rather than a full-blown requirements definition) that the Army is trying to address may suffice for a surprising, usable solution. —General Mike Murray, paraphrasing Trae Stephens[331]: minute 41:50 [332] (One task will be to quantify the lead time for identifying a requirement; the next task would then be to learn how to reduce that lead time.—Gap analysis )[30]: minute 11:00 [333][334][255] Process changes are expected.[333][46] The development process will be cyclic, consisting of prototype, demonstration/testing, and evaluation, in an iterative process designed to unearth unrealistic requirements early, before prematurely including that requirement in a program of record. The 6th ASA(ALT) Bruce Jette[248] has cautioned the acquisition community to 'call-out' unrealistic processes which commit a program to a drawn-out failure,[335] rather than failing early, and seeking another solution.[336]

Secretary Esper scrubbed through 800[337] modernization programs to reprioritize funding[338] for the top six modernization priorities,[82] which will consume 80% of the modernization funding,[339] of eighteen systems.[339] IVAS was slowed during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine in March 2022.[n] Secretary McCarthy had cautioned that a stopgap 2019 Continuing resolution (CR) would halt development of some of the critical modernization projects.[359][360] Realistically, budget considerations will restrict the fielding of new materiel to one Armor BCT per year;[361] at that rate, updates would take decades.[361][352] The Budget Control Act (BCA) expires in 2022.[362][363] The "night court" budget review process realigned $2.4 billion for modernization away from programs which were not tied to modernization or to the 2018 National Defense Strategy.[364] The total FY2021 budget request of $178 billion is $2 billion less than the enacted FY2020 budget of $180 billion.[364][365]

The CIO/G6 has targeted Futures Command (Austin) in 2019 as the first pilot for "enterprise IT-as-a-service"-style service contracts; General Murray now (July 2019) has a sensitive compartmented information facility in his headquarters, as a result of this pilot.[28] Two other locations are to be announced for 2019. Six to eight other pilots are envisioned for 2020. However, 288 other enterprise network locations remain to be migrated away from the previous "big bang" migration concept from several years ago, as they are vulnerable to near-peer cyber threats.[366][269]: minute 16:50  The CIO/G6 emphasizes that this enterprise migration is not the tactical network espoused in the top six priorities (a 'mobile & expeditionary Army network').[366][367]

  1. After AFC, the following G6 service contracts are high priority:[366]
  2. The Combat Training Centers (Fort Irwin, Fort Polk, and Grafenwöhr)
  3. TRADOC and its Centers of Excellence (CoEs)
  4. The power projection bases from which deployments spring

By February 2020 the 37th Vice Chief of Staff could assess that Army modernization was perceptibly speeding up.[368]

Silos

Milley said AFC would reach out into the community to learn,[29] and that Senator John McCain's frank criticism of the acquisition process had spurred reform.[30]: minute 7:30 [8]

AFC soldiers would blend into Austin by not wearing their uniforms to work side by side with civilians in the tech hubs, Milley said in August 2018.[29][369][30]: minute 6:20 

Secretary Esper said he expected failures as AFC learned how to reform the acquisition and modernization process;[30]: minute 18:20  In 2018, officials said the Network CFT and PEO had detected a process failure in the DOT&E requirements process: some test requirements were inappropriately applied.[193][370]

In the Department of Defense, the materiel supply process was underwritten by the acquisition, logistics, and technology directorate of the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), with a deputy secretary of defense (DSD) to oversee five areas, one of them being acquisition, logistics, and technology (ALT).[371] ALT is overseen by an under secretary of defense (USD).[372] (Each of the echelons at the level of DSD and USD serve at the pleasure of the president, as does the secretary of defense (SECDEF).) The Defense Acquisition University (DAU) trains acquisition professionals for the Army as well.

In 2016 when RDECOM reported to AMC (instead of to AFC, as it does as of 2018), AMC instituted Life cycle management command (LCMC)[248] of three of RDECOM's centers for aviation and missiles, electronics, and tanks:[373] AMRDEC,[374] CERDEC,[375][376] and TARDEC[377] respectively, as well as the three contracting[378] functions for the three centers.[335]

This Life Cycle Management (formulated in 2004)[379][380] was intended to exert the kind of operational control (OPCON)[55] needed just for the sustainment function (AMC's need for Readiness today),[335] rather than for its relevance to modernization for the future, which is the focus of AFC. AFC now serves as the deciding authority when moving a project in its Life Cycle, out of the Acquisition phase and into the Sustainment phase.[246][243][a]

During to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Acquisition Executive and the AFC commander created a COVID-19 task force to try to project supplier problems 30, 60, and 90 days out. In 2020, they tracked 800 programs and 35 priorities.[381]

Relevance for modernization

The CFTs,[Note 1] must balance requirements, acquisition, science and technology, test, resourcing, costing, and sustainment.[67][66]

TRADOC's Mission Command CoE uses the Doctrine, Organization, Training, Materiel, Leadership and education, Personnel and Facilities (DOTMLPF) method of mission planning.[55][382] DOTMLPF will be used for modernization of the Army beyond materiel alone, which (as of 2019) is the current focus of the CFTs.[383][288] The updated modernization strategy, to move from concept to doctrine as well, will be unveiled by summer 2019.[383] DOTMLPF (doctrine, organization, training, materiel, leadership and education, personnel, and facilities) itself is planned as a driver for modernization.[8][383] The plan is to have an MDO-capable Army by 2028,[d] and an MDO-ready Army by 2035.[383][101]

In 2018, McConville said TRADOC, ASA (ALT), and AFC are tied together in this process.[384] The ASA(ALT) will coordinate the acquisition portion of modernization reform with AFC.[258]: Para. 1c [58][243] He also said AFC will have to be "a little bit disruptive [but not upsetting to the existing order]" in order to institute reforms within budget in a timely way.[385]

Congress has given the Army Other Transaction Authority (OTA),[386][Note 2] which allows the PEOs to enter into Full Rate Production quicker by permitting the services to control their own programs of record, rather than DoD.[254] This strips out one layer of bureaucracy as of 2018.[254][387][125] MTA (middle tier acquisition authority) is another tool available to Program Managers and Contracting Officers.[388][389]

Besides the AFC CFTS, the Army Requirements Oversight Council (AROC)[390][391][392] could also play a part in acquisition reform;[393][394] as of September 2018 the Deputy Chief of Staff G-8 (DCS G-8), who leads AROC and JROC (Joint Requirements Oversight Council) has aligned with the priorities of AFC.[395] The DCS G-8 is principal military advisor to the ASA (FM&C).[242]

In addition, the Program Executive Officers (PEOs) of ASA (ALT) are to maintain a dotted-line relationship[Note 1] (i.e., coordination) with Futures Command.[248][44]

There is now a PEO for Rapid Capabilities, to get rapid turnaround. The Rapid Capabilities Office (RCO)'s PEO gets two program managers, one for rapid prototyping, and one for rapid acquisition, of a capability.[396] The Rapid capabilities office (RCO) does not develop its own requirements; rather, the RCO gets the requirements from the Cross-functional team (CFT).[397] Rapid Capabilities (RCO) was headed by Tanya Skeen as PEO RCO[248] but Skeen moved to DoD, in late 2018.[398] In 2019 RCO became the Rapid Capabilities and Critical Technologies Office (RCCTO)[399] Redstone Arsenal, headed by LTG L. Neil Thurgood,[260] lately of ASA (ALT)'s Army Hypersonics office.[261][117]

Progress toward MDO

By 2021 the Army's 40th Chief of Staff could lay out Waypoint 2028, and Aimpoint 2035 for the Army.[26][27]

At Picatinny Arsenal in September 2020 a XM1299 Extended Range Cannon Artillery self-propelled howitzer with an AI kill chain used a hypervelocity munition to intercept a cruise missile surrogate.[400]

The Army G8 is monitoring just how producible (Milestone C) the upcoming materiel will be; for the moment, the G8 is funding the materiel.[34][243] Follow-up on Modernization reviews is forthcoming, on a regular basis, according to the G8.[401][402][403]

The progress in the top six priorities (long-range precision fires, Next Generation Combat Vehicle, Future Vertical Lift platforms, a mobile & expeditionary Army network, air & missile defense capabilities,[o] and soldier lethality) being:[Note 1][50][h][35][51][52][22][21]

Long Range Precision Fires

The AFC's Long Range Precision Fires (LRPF) CFT aims to "deliver cutting-edge surface-to-surface (SSM) fires systems that will significantly increase range and effects over currently fielded US and adversary systems."[406]

In 2018, its five major programs were:

Long-Range Hypersonic Weapon training with All-up-round in its canister, 7 Oct 2021

The kill chains will take less than 1 minute, from detection of the target, to execution of the fires command;[415] these operations will have the capability to precisely strike "command centers, air defenses, missile batteries, and logistics centers" nearly simultaneously.[416][r][418][419]

The current M109A6 "Paladin" howitzer range is doubled in the M109A7 variant.[429]: minute 3:07 [430] An operational test of components of the Long range cannon was scheduled for 2020.[431] The LRC is complementary to Extended range cannon artillery (ERCA),[431][432] the M1299 Extended Range Cannon Artillery howitzer.[400] Baseline ERCA is to enter service in 2023.[433][421][434] Investigations for ERCA in 2025: rocket-boosted artillery shells:[271] Tests of the Multiple launch rocket system (MLRS) XM30 rocket shell have demonstrated a near-doubling of the range of the munition, using the Tail controlled guided multiple launch rocket system, or TC-G.[435] The TRADOC capability manager (TCM) Field Artillery Brigade - DIVARTY has been named a command position.[m]

The LRHW has been named 'Dark Eagle'[467] The first LRHW battery will start to receive its first operational rounds in early FY2023; all eight rounds for this battery will have been delivered by FY2023.[468][409] By then, the PEO Missiles and Space will have picked up the LRHW program, for batteries two and three in FY'25 and FY'27, respectively.[468] Battery one will first train, and then participate in the LRHW flight test launches in FY'22 and FY'23.[468][c][469] In February 2023 5th Battalion, 3rd Field Artillery Regiment (5-3 LRFB) —1st MDTF's long-range fires battalion— deployed the LRHW to Cape Canaveral, a distance of 3100 miles.[470][411]

Mobile, Expeditionary Network

In Fiscal Year 2019, the network CFT will leverage Network Integration Evaluation 18.2[471] for experiments with brigade level scalability.[472] By 2022, 4 separate network Capability Sets were in-process, simultaneously ('21, '23, '25, and '27).[473]

Integrated Tactical Network (ITN) "is not a new or separate network but rather a concept"—PEO C3T.[474][475][476] Avoid overspecifying the requirements for Integrated Tactical Network[50][h][474][477][478][341][479][480][481] Information Systems Initial Capabilities Document. Instead, meet operational needs,[482][472][18] such as interoperability with other networks,[483][269]: minute 26:40 [481] and release ITN capabilities incrementally.[484][50][474]

Air, Missile Defense

Air, Missile Defense (AMD):[526][527][528][14][529][530] In 2022 plans for FY2023 cruise missile defense were underway.[531] [532]

Schematic 6-layer Air Defense dome, one of multiple arrays linked by Integrated Air and Missile Battle Command System (IBCS)
High Energy Laser Tactical Vehicle Demonstrator
High Energy Laser Tactical Vehicle Demonstrator (HEL-TVD) 2019

A contract for the U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command/Army Forces Strategic Command's High Energy Laser Tactical Vehicle Demonstrator (HEL TVD) laser system, a 100 kilowatt laser demonstrator for use on the Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles, was awarded 15 May 2019 to Dynetics-Lockheed.[533][260] A 300 kilowatt laser demonstrator (HEL-IFPC) effort supersedes the HEL TVD (after the critical design review).[534][535][536][537] System test at White Sands Missile Range in 2023.[533]

[538][539][540][528][541][542][543][544]

Soldier lethality

  1. Soldier Lethality:[552][553][358][554]
    • Next Generation Squad Weapon Program: Expect 100,000 to be fielded to the Close Combat Force:[555][t] Infantry, Armor, Cavalry, Special Forces, and Combat engineers. Tests at Fort Benning in 2019. —Chief of Staff Milley[557]
    • Nine thousand systems, with two drones apiece are being purchased over a three-year period for the 9-man infantry squads heading to Afghanistan.[558]
    • Integrated Visual Augmentation System (IVAS) —an augmented reality display— allows soldiers to use multiple sensors to fight.[478] IVAS was put on hold in March 2022, with Congress budgeting $349 million in favor of drones instead.[340] An initial IVAS buy was approved in September 2022 after a six month hold.[341] An improved IVAS is being sought after finding that some soldiers are being physically affected from wearing the goggles.[559]
    • Enhanced night vision goggles (ENVG)-B, will be fielded to an Armor brigade combat team (ABCT) going to South Korea in October 2019[560][555][561]
      • A CCDC program which instrumented a battalion with sleep monitors, Redibands, and smartwatches to detect exertion, detected soldiers with elevated heart rates, indicating the beginnings of a streptococcus infection. This condition was detected by the medics, and would have impacted the battalion, detected before deploying to Afghanistan.[562]
    • Synthetic training environment (STE)—a CFT devoted to an augmented reality system[293][563] to aid planning, using mapping techniques, even at squad level[564][565][232] will begin fielding by 2021.[566][144][567] In October 2019 the Synthetic Training Environment (STE) prototype is being used by Special Operations for planning actual missions.[568][295] Development for the Synthetic Training Environment (STE) is to be accelerated to meet MDO and JADC2 training demands.[569]
  2. On the battlefield of the future, where no headquarters is safe for long, the commander's task is:[570]: p.87 
    • "Avoid being detected and targeted".[195]
    • "Work through and survive attacks".[195]
    • "Rapidly recover from losses".
    • Thus the commander has to be continuously aware of the current status (that is: alive or not) of the deputy commander (and the staff) so that the mission can be completed.

Enterprise campaign planning

In 2019 DoD planners are exercising Doctrine, organization, training, materiel, leadership and education, personnel, and facilities (DOTMLPF) in planning, per the National Defense Strategy (NDS),[571] in the shift from counterinsurgency (COIN) to competition with near-peer powers.[571] The evaluations from planners' scenarios will be determining materiel and organization by late 2020.[571][101][572][573]

Futures Command is formulating multiyear Enterprise campaign plans, in 2019.[574][286] The planning process includes Army Test and Evaluation Command (ATEC), AFC's cross-functional teams (CFTs), Futures and Concepts (FCC), Combat Capabilities Development Command (CCDC), and Army Reserve's Houston-based 75th Innovation Command. At this stage, one goal is to formulate the plans in simple, coherent language which nests within the national security strategic documents.[574][575][576][216][577][578] By October 2022 Field Manual 3-0 could state that The Army Operating Concept was that 'Multi-domain Operations are at the root of all Army operations',[579]: § 1-11, p.1-3 [580]: minute 28:09 to 36:00 

Futures

AFC faces multiple futures,[581] both as threat and opportunity. The Army's warfighting directive, viz., "to impose the nation's political will on its enemy" —Chief of Staff Milley, is to be ready[8] for multiple near-term futures.[582] Under Secretary McCarthy notes that Gen. Murray functions as the Army's Chief Investments Officer[17] (more precisely, its "chief futures modernization investment officer").[242]: Section 4 [Note 2][45] Funding for the top six priorities could mean that existing programs might be curtailed.[583][243]

In the top six priorities:

XM1113 extended range artillery round, shown here at a range demonstration, uses a rocket-assist motor
  1. LRPF Long range precision fires[q][584][585]
  2. NGCV Next generation combat vehicle[595][145]
    • Much smaller and lighter ground combat vehicles, optionally unmanned[298] (Dedicated short-range communications for robotic vehicles[596]
      Small Multipurpose Equipment Transport (S-MET) candidate robotic mules for transporting infantry squad equipment[597]
      • If robotic combat vehicles (RCVs) do not need to be manned, neither would they need to be armored (see Uran-9); use of sensors and batteries could replace the armor.[598][599] Soldiers have learned to remotely operate the weapons on such RCVs in several days;[598] the CCDC RCV Center and CFT are placing RCV prototypes and the Soldier's vehicle prototypes in company-level scenarios in Europe, in 2020 and forward.[598] Modified Bradley Fighting Vehicles and M113s at Fort Carson went through unit-level operations to gain experience with RCVs in July and August 2020.[600] Future breaching operations will be affected in detail by the robotic breaching concept, according to the panel at the AUSA October 2020 meeting.[601][602]
      • In October 2020 the Army's Chief of Staff reminded the force that "The time is now" to modernize for the future, including how the Army develops the systems themselves;[603][604][26] if a soldier can now use IVAS to shoot around corners and hit the target, if soldiers and their units can use STE (synthetic training environment) to depict the mission's terrain and train for the mission before the conflict occurs, if deploying robotic reconnaissance vehicles at the time of the mission can smoke out defenses before committing manned combat vehicles against those defenses, then even light vehicles can transport soldiers in conflict, and precision fires can neutralize threats against those soldiers in a conflict. STE can depict these scenarios.[603]: min 14:01 [605][606]
    • Robotic warfare, as a concept or capability at the Joint Corps echelon, was demonstrated at the operational level using Joint Warfighting assessment (JWA) 18.1 in April 2018.
      • JWA 19 (April–May 2019): I Corps, at Joint base Lewis-McChord, is getting modernization training on the robotic complex breaching concept (RCBC),[607] and the command post computing environment (CPCE)[608] from Joint modernization command (JMC) training staff.[609]
      • Create decisive lethality:[610][611][126] Robotic experiments[612][613]
        • Jen Judson reports that Lt. Gen. Eric Wesley is proposing that the brigades begin to electrify their vehicles using hybrid,[614] or all-electric propulsion.[615][616][u]
        • Smaller brigades and stronger division-level maneuver, with robotic aerial reconnaissance vehicles, robotic combat vehicles (RCVs), and long-range precision fires (LRPFs) are under consideration.[624][209]
        • Modified M2 Bradleys (MET-Ds) and other RCVs operating at Fort Carson, and in Europe have used robotic software to operate the vehicles, for both logistics and also for combat maneuver.[625] As of August 2020, the RCVs are able to perform limited waypoint navigation; multiple vehicles can be controlled by one human operator.[625]
  3. FVL[626] "Our new approach is really to prototype as much as we can to help us identify requirements, so our reach doesn't exceed our grasp. ... A good example is Future Vertical Lift: The prototyping has been exceptional." —Secretary of the Army Mark Esper[256]
    • The Future Attack Reconnaissance Aircraft (FARA) scout helicopter prototypes are to be designed to fly along urban streets, to survive air defenses.[627] Five design vendors were selected, with downselect to two for prototyping by February 2020.[627]
    • These aircraft are envisioned as platforms for utilizing sensor networks to control and enable weapons delivery, as demonstrated in a 2019 experiment.[628][629] In preparation for FVL platforms, the FVL CFT demonstrated a 2020 Spike non-line of sight missile launch from an Apache gunship at Yuma Proving Ground, for extended range capability;[630] a forward air launch of an unmanned sensor aircraft (UAS) from a helicopter was demonstrated at YPG as well.[631]
  4. Mobile & Expeditionary Network[570] / MDO Multi-domain operations[19][361]
    • In the battlefield of the future, where nowhere is safe for long, "you will miss opportunities to get to positions of advantage if you don't synthesize the data very quickly"—LTG Wesley (AI for multi-domain command and control: MDC2)[107][632][98] "Finding and engaging high-value relocatable ground systems within rapid timelines" is the Air Force's operational objective in this JADC2 exercise (December 2019) —Eliahu Norwood, Greg Grant, and Tyler Lewis.[633]
      • ISR (intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance)[k][d] needs to match the range of the upcoming LRPF (Long range precision fires) and thousand-nautical-mile missile standoff capability of the Army.[634] Soldiers on the ground are now able to receive satellite ISR.[635][636]
    • Cybersecurity[637][638][639][640] RAND simulations show Blue losses[100]
    • Cyber warfare[641] / urban warfare[101][642][643][644][645] / Underground warfare / Multi-domain combined maneuver[646][126][647] Robotic swarms are a tactic under consideration.[648][288][649][98]
    • Assured Positioning, Navigation and Timing (A-PNT)[90][650][651] Zephyr, a solar-powered drone successfully stayed aloft at Yuma Proving Ground for nearly 26 days, at times descending to 55,000 feet to avoid adverse weather conditions, while remaining well above the altitudes flown by commercial aircraft, and landing per plan in the summer of 2018, to meet other testing commitments.[652] A 2022 test of Zephyr S began on 15 June 2022; as of 22 July 2022 the drone was still flying at 70,000 feet in the stratosphere, and has broken its previous non-stop record.[653] However on 19 August, after 64 days, Zephyr S lost 20,000 feet of altitude, before suddenly plummeting at high speed in a presumed crash at YPG. Zephyr yielded over 1500 hours of stratospheric data during the mission. This surpasses Airbus' goal of 60 days of unmanned service, which included international flight from Arizona to Belize, and back.[654] Zephyr would have broken the world record for continuous flight, had it lasted just a few more hours.[655][656][657] In April 2021 a Vanilla UAS demonstrated 45 hour 23 minute unrefueled flight from Point Mugu to the Pacific Fleet's (PACFLT) UxS IBP 2021 exercise.[658][659]
      • An A-PNT event was scheduled at WSMR for August 2019
      • Prototype jam-resistant GPS kits are being fielded to 2nd Cavalry Regiment in US European Command (EUCOM) before year-end 2019.[257] More than 300 Strykers of the 2nd Cavalry Regiment are being fitted with the Mounted Assured Precision Navigation & Timing System (MAPS), with thousands more planned for EUCOM.[664]
      • A Modular Open Systems Approach (MOSA) to Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT) is under development.[665][116][191]
        • Low Earth orbit satellites for Assured Positioning, Navigation and Timing—"When you look at the sheer number of satellites that go up and the reduced cost to do it, it gives us an array of opportunities on how to solve the problems" in A-PNT[666]
      • CCDC Army Research Laboratory (ARL) researchers have proposed and demonstrated a way for small ground-based robots with mounted antennas to configure phased arrays, a technique which usually takes a static laboratory to develop. Instead the researchers used robots to covertly create and focus a highly directional parasitic array (see Yagi antenna).[667]
      • CCDC Army Research Laboratory (ARL): ARL's Army Research Office is funding researchers at University of Texas at Austin, and University of Lille who have built a new 5G component using hexagonal boron nitride which can switch at performant speeds, while remaining 50 times more energy-efficient than current materials—the "thinnest known insulator with a thickness of 0.33 nanometers".[668]
      • CCDC Army Research Laboratory (ARL): ARL's Army Research Office (ARO) is seeking diamond colloids, microscopic spheres which can assemble bottom-up into promising structures for laser action.[669]
      • Newly developed materials with nanoscale trusses could serve as armor or coatings.[670]
      • A demonstration of proof of concept allows Soldiers to communicate their position using a wearable tracking unit. The technology allows soldiers (or robots) to prosecute a fight even indoors or underground, even if GPS were lost during a NavWar.[203]
  5. Air, Missile Defense[585][104][105][541] is being reframed, as more integrated.[671][672][673]
      • Integrated Air and Missile Battle Command System (IBCS)[674] award, including next software build.[675][104]

[105] $238 million also funds initial prototypes of the command and control system for fielding in FY22.[528]

        • Hypersonic glide vehicle launch preparations,[125] beginning in 2020, and continuing with launches every six months.[117]
        • At Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake an FVL CFT-sponsored demonstration of interconnected sensors handed-off the control of a glide munition which had been launched from a Grey Eagle unmanned aircraft system (UAS). During the flight of that munition, another group of sensors picked up a higher-priority target; another operator at the Tactical Operations Center (TOC) redirected the glide munition to the higher-priority target and destroyed it.[628][676][677] See: § Air-launched effects
    1. Indiscriminate use of thousands of offensive missiles against Ukraine "shows we should expect these weapons to become a common feature of 21st-century conflict" —unnamed DoD official, 27 October 2022.[678][679][680]
    2. Contested logistics are needed for Ukraine's Army, in a time span of months as of April 2022.[681][682][683] As a test of its assumptions on contested logistics, the 2023 exercises for IndoPacom will test its prepositioned stocks.[684] The CG of Army Materiel Command is taking the lead for contested logistics.[685]
  1. Soldier lethality
    • Sensor-to-shooter prototype for multi-domain battle, 2019 operational assessment: Air Force RCO / Army RCO / Network CFT[122][123][124]
    • Night vision goggles thermal polarimetric camera.[686] Integrated Visual Augmentation System (IVAS)[687][688][689][690][478][691][692][693][694] The Synthetic Training Environment (STE) is available to some of the troops outfitted with IVAS.[695] Christine Wormuth, 25th Secretary of the Army, has identified the Army's work on a Common operating picture (COP) as foundational for the operation of the Joint services.[696][697][698]
    • CCDC ARL researchers are developing a flexible, waterproof, lithium-ion battery of any size and shape, for soldiers to wear; the electrolyte is water itself. In 2020 the batteries were engineering prototypes; by 2021 soldiers will wear the battery for themselves for the first time.[699]
      • CCDC ARL and DoE's PNNL are examining the solid-electrolyte-interphase (SEI) as it first forms during the initial charging of a Lithium-ion battery. They have found an inner SEI (thin, dense, and inorganic—most likely lithium oxide) between the copper electrode, and an outer SEI which is organic and permeable—a finding which will be useful when building future batteries.[700]
    • CCDC ARL and MIT researchers are formulating atomically thin materials to be layered upon soldiers' equipment and clothing for MDO information display and processing.[701]
    • Integrated, wearable cabling for capabilities such as IVAS, NGSW, or Nett Warrior are under development;[702] the potential exists to reduce 20 pounds of batteries to half that weight.[703]
    • CCDC ARL is undertaking an Essential research program (ERP) in the processes underlying additive manufacturing (3D printing), which is applicable to munitions.[704]
    • Natick Soldier RDEC has awarded an Other Transaction Authority (OTA) contract to prototype soldier exoskeletons which augment human leg strength under harsh conditions.[705][706][707][708]
    • DEVCOM Chem Bio Center (CBC) is developing sensors to detect possible hazardous contamination.[709]
    • Plans for the Infantry Squad Vehicle (ISV) are underway.[710][711] An ISV is meant to be airdropped for a squad of nine paratroopers.[712] The GM design was selected; first unit is expected at 1/82nd AB division in February 2021.[713][714]
      • Assured pointing, navigation and tracking (A-PNT) devices are being miniaturized, with increased redundant positioning sources. This aids wearability.[662][50]: pp220-3 [h]
      • In September 2019 in the Maneuver CoE's Battle Lab at Fort Moore, OneSAF simulations[715] of a platoon augmented by UAS drones, ground robots, and AI were able to dislodge a defending force 3 times larger, repeatedly. But by current doctrine, a near-battalion would have been required to accomplish that mission.[715]

Waypoint 2028 and the Army of 2030

For the period 2022 to 2028,[26][27] the Army defined a path for defining Corps-level Large scale combat operations (LSCO): in multi-domain operation,[716] that the Corps be the Unit of Employment;[717] the Division echelon to be the Unit of Action; Brigades are Units for Close combat. Divisions are purpose-built designs: [718] [719] Joint forcible entry airborne, and air assault; [720] Standard armor, and light;[721] and Armor Reinforced (formerly Penetration) divisions.[718][722][723] [724][725] [726]

By 2022 the 25th Secretary of the Army, Christine Wormuth was able to announce the top six areas for the Army of 2030:[727][728]: minute 43:30  1) improved Intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR); 2) "Coordination at greater speed";[c] 3) "Win the Fires fight"; 4) §concealment[729][730] via improved mobility and reduced signature; 5) "talk often and quickly";[575][i] and 6) logistics.[727][731][26][27] [732][717] [62] [733]

Army of 2040

By October 2022 the 25th Secretary of the Army, Christine Wormuth could charge the 2nd commander of Futures Command with proponency[a] for the Army of 2040.[734][728]: minute 51:00 [731][735][736] Futures Command hosted the inaugural Army Future Readiness Conference in Austin 13–15 December 2022, covering the design of the Army of 2040.[737] The conference was a synchronization meeting for AFC, AMC, TRADOC, FORSCOM, and Headquarters Department of the Army. The meeting was to support the Army Campaign Plan and to execute the ReARMM readiness model in future synchronization meetings.[737] A series of working groups, using the techniques of DOTMLPF to focus future meetings is underway.[737][738][739][740] A new Army Operating Concept (v. 1.0) for the Army of 2030 to 2040 is next on the agenda. Planning for the Army of 2040 is underway.[65][741] As of 2023 version 1.0 will be driven by experimentation and will be a working document.[65][a]

Headquarters (HQ)

AFC's headquarters is based in Austin, Texas where it spreads across three locations totaling 75,000 ft2;[146] One location is a University of Texas System building at 210 W. Seventh St. in downtown Austin, on the 15th and 19th floors; the UT Regents were not going to charge rent to AFC until December 2019.[742][743] The command began initial operations on 1 July 2018.[744]

Value stream

In a hearing before Congress' House Armed Services Committee, the AFC commander projected that materiel will result from the value stream below, within a two-year time frame,[58] from concept to Soldier. The commanding general is assisted by three deputy commanders.

  1. Science and technology (S&T: discovery / collection of ideas with usable effects)[Note 3][746]
  2. Experiments (Testing of a system to a known expectation of effects, or else observation of that system, in the absence of a specific expectation of effects)
  3. Concepts development[45] (Development of a relevant idea about that system)[290][285]
  4. Requirements development (Development of the terms and conditions for that system)[23]

... what I do think you will see is some of the capabilities the cross-functional teams are working will be in production and being delivered and in the hands of soldiers in the next two years" —Gen. John "Mike" Murray (2018).[58]

Army Chief of Staff Milley is looking for AFC to attain full operational capability (FOC) by August 2019.[30][36][86][756] By 2022 the Army's unclassified Multi-Domain Operations concept[e] (which had been initially formulated by Futures Command) was disclosed to the public.[26][27]

List of commanding generals

LTG James E. Rainey assumes command of AFC from LTG James M. Richardson on 4 October 2022.

On 16 July 2018, Lieutenant General John M. Murray was nominated for promotion and appointment as Army Futures Command's first commanding general.[757] and his appointment was confirmed on 20 August 2018[758] and he assumed command during the official activation ceremony of AFC on 24 August 2018, in Austin, Texas.[146] Murray relinquished command of AFC on 3 December 2021.[759][74][75][752][76][77][78] Lieutenant General James E. Rainey (later promoted to general on 7 October 2022)[760] became AFC's second commanding general on 4 October 2022.[a]

No. Portrait Name and rank Took office Left office Term length
1
John M. Murray
General
John M. Murray
24 August 20183 December 20213 years, 101 days
-
James M. Richardson
Lieutenant General
James M. Richardson
Acting
3 December 20214 October 2022305 days
2
James E. Rainey
General
James E. Rainey
4 October 2022Incumbent1 year, 224 days

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j The CG,AFC is responsible for Force design (in the style of TRADOC's G357,[761] but applied to Force modernization, rather than training).[68] The Army's Force management model begins with a projection of the Future operating environment, in terms of resources: political, military, economic, social, information, infrastructure, physical environment, and the time available to bring the Current army to bear on the situation.[762] The AROC serves as a discussion forum of these factors.[68]
    • The Army G-8 and G-3/5/7 sit on the Army Requirements Oversight Council (AROC), chaired by the Chief of Staff of the Army (CSA).[763]: diagram on p.559 [68][762]
    • The relevant strategy is provided by the Army's leadership to guide Army staff.[763]
    • The resources are "dictated by Congress".[762]
    • A DOTMLPF analysis models the factors necessary to change the Current force into a relevant Future force.
    • A JCIDS/ACIDS[764] process identifies the gaps in capability between Current and Future force.
    • A Force design to meet the materiel gaps is underway.
    • An organization with the desired capabilities (manpower, materiel, training) is brought to bear on each gap.
      • AR 5-22(pdf) lists the Force modernization proponent for each Army branch, which can be a CoE or Branch proponent leader.
      • Staff uses Synchronization meetings[765]: minute 8:29  before seeking approval —HTAR Force Management 3-2b: "Managing change in any large, complex organization requires the synchronization of many interrelated processes".[763]: p.3-1 
    • A budget request is submitted to Congress.
    • Approved requests then await resource deliveries which then become available to the combatant commanders.
  2. ^
    In standoff,[21] adversaries attempt to project protected areas against each other.[22] Within these protected areas, friends are deemed safe, but foes who attempt penetration are endangered by the capabilities of the allies arrayed against them. Outside these protected areas, adversaries compete for control, by projecting their power.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (November 22, 2019) SecArmy's Multi-Domain Kill Chain: Space-Cloud-AI Army Multi-Domain Operations Concept, December 2018 slide from TRADOC pamphlet 525-3-1 (Dec 2018).
    Multi-domain operations (MDO) span multiple domains: cislunar space, land, air, maritime, cyber, and populations.
    • In September 2020 an ABMS Onramp demonstrated a specific scenario, which can be illustrated by the 5 red numbered bullet points from the slide in TRADOC pamphlet 525-3-1:
    1. Competition— No overt hostilities are yet detected. Blue bar (force projection) is in standoff against red bar (threat).
    2. Strategic Support area— National assets (blue) detect breaching of standoff by adversary (in red).
    3. Close area support— blue assets hand-off to the combatant commands, who are to create effects visible to the adversary (in red).
    4. Deep maneuver— blue combatant actions dis-integrate adversary efforts (per TRADOC pamphlet 525-3-1: "militarily compete, penetrate, dis-integrate, and exploit" the adversary); —Operational and Strategic deep fires create effects on the adversary. Adversary is further subject to defeat in detail, until adversaries perceive they are overmatched (no more red assets to expend).
    5. Adversary retreats to standoff. The populations perceive that the adversary is defeated, for now. (Compare to Perkins' cycle, 'return to competition', in which deterrence has succeeded in avoiding a total war, in favor of pushing an adversary back to standoff (the red threat bar). Blue force projection still has overmatched red threat.)
  4. ^ a b c d As informed by lessons learned in light of the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine
  5. ^ a b c d e The Army's unclassified Multi-Domain Operations (MDO) concept is "the combined arms employment of capabilities from all domains that create and exploit relative advantages to defeat enemy forces, achieve objectives and consolidate gains during competition, crisis, and armed conflict".[53]
  6. ^ a b Andrew Eversden (17 Dec 2021) Here's the Army's 24 programs in soldiers' hands by 2023
    1. Precision Strike Missile (§ PrSM)
    2. Extended Range Cannon Artillery (ERCA)
    3. Long-Range Hypersonic Weapon (§ LRHW) will not deploy by 1 Oct 2023.[223]
    4. Mid-range capability (§ MRC) missile, also called Strategic Mid-Range Fires (SMRF)[224]
    5. Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV)
    6. Robotic Combat Vehicle (§ RCV)
    7. Mobile Protective Firepower (§ MPF)
    8. Future Unmanned Aircraft Systems/ Future Tactical Unmanned Aircraft System (FUAS)/(FTUAS)[225][226]
    9. Integrated Tactical Network (§ ITN) unified with § echelons above brigade, and the multi-domain task forces
    10. Common Operating Environment: Command Post Computing Environment[227]/Mounted Computed Environment (CPCE)/(MCE) See Common operational picture
    11. Command Post Integrated Infrastructure (CPI2)
    12. Mounted Assured Positioning, Navigation, and Timing System (MAPS)[228][229]
    13. Dismounted Assured Positioning, Navigation, and Timing System (DAPS)[228]
    14. Maneuver-Short Range Air Defense (M-SHORAD) using high-energy lasers
    15. Indirect Fires Protection Capability: Iron Dome
    16. Lower Tier Air and Missile Defense Sensor (§ LTAMDS)[230] - Patriot radar replacement
    17. Army Integrated Air and Missile Defense (§ IBCS)
    18. Directed Energy Maneuver-Short Range Air Defense (DE M-SHORAD)[231] High energy lasers
    19. Next Generation Squad Weapon (NGSW)
    20. Integrated Visual Augmentation System (IVAS)
    21. Enhanced Night Vision Goggle – Binocular (ENVG-B)
    22. Reconfigurable Virtual Collective Trainer (RVCT) - Synthetic training environment
    23. IVAS Squad Immersive Virtual Trainer (SiVT) - Synthetic training environment
    24. One World Terrain/ Training Management Tools/ Training Simulation Software (OWT) / (TMT) / (TSS) - Synthetic training environment,[232]
    [221][222][233] [234]
  7. ^ a b c In Future Vertical Lift, FARA and FLRAA are projected to be prototyped by 2028, with fielding by 2030.[196][235] The OMFV prototype is projected for 2025.[236]
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h ASA(ALT) (2018) Weapon Systems Handbook update Page 32 lists how the Weapon Systems Handbook is organized. 440 pages.
    • By Modernization priority
    • By Acquisition or Business System category (ACAT or BSC). The Weapon systems in each ACAT are sorted alphabetically by Weapon system name. Each weapon system might also be in several variants (Lettered); a weapon system's variants might be severally and simultaneously in the following phases of its Life Cycle, namely—°Materiel Solution Analysis; °Technology Maturation & Risk Reduction; °Engineering & Manufacturing Development; °Production & Deployment; °Operations & Support
    • ACAT I, II, III, IV are defined on page 404.[49][35][51][52][21]
  9. ^ a b c Colin Clark (18 Feb 2020) Gen. Hyten On The New American Way of War: All-Domain Operations (ADO)
    • "A computer-coordinated fight": in the air, land, sea, space, cyber, and the electromagnetic spectrum (EMS)
      • "forces from satellites to foot soldiers to submarines sharing battle data at machine-to-machine speed"
    • "it's the ability to integrate and effectively command and control all domains in a conflict or in a crisis seamlessly"—Gen. Hyten, Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs
      • All-Domain Operations (ADO) use global capabilities: "space, cyber, deterrent [the nuclear triad (for mutually assured destruction in the Cold War, an evolving concept in itself)], transportation, electromagnetic spectrum operations, missile defense"
  10. ^ a b c Echelons above brigade (division, corps, and theater army) engage in a continuum of conflict.[i] [c][93]: minute 17:45 [94]
  11. ^ a b c When used in multi-domain operations, I2CEWS denotes Intelligence, Information, Cyber, Electronic Warfare, and Space. See: ISR, or Intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance, and National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
  12. ^ The 2020 xTechSearch top ten semifinalists (who will each receive $120,000) are:[200]
    • Bounce Imaging, for a tactical throwable camera (self-orienting, pointable camera)
    • GeneCapture, for deployable medical tests
    • Inductive Ventures, for magnetic braking of helicopters
    • IoT/AI, for hardware IoT AI devices
    • LynQ Technologies, for a GPS beacon
    • KeriCure, for wound care
    • MEI Micro, for Micro Electronic-Mechanical System Inertial Measurement Unit (assured position, navigation, and timing—A-PNT)
    • Multiscale Systems, for meta-material
    • Novaa, for single-aperture antennas ( multi-band rather than 1 dedicated antenna per application)
    • Vita Inclinata, stabilized anti-spin hoisting for pulling injured people on a stretcher into a hovering helicopter
    [199]
  13. ^ a b "That's pretty important because that gives him (Dunwoody) the authority to do what needs to be done across the Army with the myriad responsibilities that he has," Shoffner said." Dunwoody becomes a direct report to the TRADOC commander —Tribune staff (22 August 2019) Colonel named division artillery director
  14. ^ Even with an increased 2022 defense budget to $782 billion, deployment of Integrated Visual Augmentation System (IVAS) was put on hold, in favor of drone countermeasures.[340] By September 2022 the ASA(ALT) announced a final testing step for IVAS would take place in October.[341] (The Budget Control Act was to have restricted funds by 2020.)[342][343][344][345][346][347][348][349][350][31][32][351][352][353] but was overtaken by the §events in Ukraine in 2022.[354][355][233][356][357][358][excessive citations]
  15. ^ In January 2018 Lt. Gen. James H. Dickinson broached the possibility of both strategic fires and air/missile defense capabilities being in the same unit.[404][405]
  16. ^ In late FY2023 18 ERCA prototypes will undergo a one-year operational assessment at Fort Bliss.[407]
  17. ^ a b c d Munitions such as PrSM will need to fire and then move, at targets on the move.[424][425]
  18. ^ "[HIMARS] is used to destroy critical communications nodes, command posts, airfields, and important logistics facilities".—Mick Ryerson (Major General, Australian Army, retired)[417]
  19. ^ The Senate Appropriations Committee is cutting an Army component of the FY23 Presidential Budget Request which funds a CS'23 network capability.[508]
  20. ^ The DoD Close Combat Lethality Task Force is hosting the Artificial Intelligence for Small-Unit Maneuver working group in order to foment relationships with OUSD(R&E), the Chief Digital and Artificial Intelligence Office (CDAO), and the Army, Marines, and Special Operations cells for close combat.[556]
  21. ^ Perhaps using other mobile power plants (2020), using TRISO fuel[617] (2022)—Idaho National Laboratory will assemble a Project Pele transportable nuclear reactor, and test it for up to three years;[618] if test performance warrants it, this type of reactor will generate a nominal 2 MWe (1 to 5 MWe— megaWatts, electrical) for up to 3 years, for isolated areas such as the Arctic, or for an island;[619] the reactor will be gas-cooled;[620][621][622] the fuel will be high-assay low-enriched uranium (HALEU);[623] experiments for handling the nuclear fuel will be performed at Idaho National Labs Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT), or the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) during the three year test period.[622] Mobile Microreactor startup testing at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC), or at the Critical Infrastructure Test Range Complex (CITRC).[622] Assembling, operating, and disassembling, and transporting the Mobile Microreactor at the MFC, or at the CITRC.[622] Transporting the disassembled mobile microreactor to temporary storage at the Radioactive Scrap and Waste Facility (RSWF), or at the Outdoor Radioactive Storage Area (ORSA).[622] Potentially conducting mobile microreactor and spent nuclear fuel post-irradiation examination (PIE) and disposition at Idaho National Lab.[622] Produce reliable electrical power on a CITRC electrical grid that is separate from the public utility grid at Idaho National Lab.[622]
  22. ^ The Combat Systems Directorate[747] was to be led by the ASA(ALT)'s Principal Military Deputy [749][750] (Principal Military Deputy (PMILDEP) to the ASA(ALT)) [242]: AD2018-15, 6b:PMILDEP will additionally be AFC director, Combat Systems [254] who will produce those developed solutions and seek feedback.[49][751] In 2022, AD2018-15 was rescinded by Army Directive AD2022-07,[70] which in turn is subject to rescission 180 days after passage of FY2023 NDAA.[75][752]
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i The capabilities as prioritized by the Chief of Staff, will use subject-matter experts (SMEs) in the realms of requirements, acquisition, science and technology, test, resourcing, costing, and sustainment, using CFTs for:
    1. Improved long-range precision fires (artillery):—(Fort Sill, Oklahoma) Lead: BG John Rafferty ... PEO Ammunition (AMMO)
    2. Next Generation Combat Vehicle—(Detroit Arsenal, Warren, Michigan) Lead: BG Geoffrey Norman ... PEO Ground Combat Systems (GCS)
    3. Vertical lift platforms—(Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama) Lead: BG Wally Rugen ... PEO Aviation (AVN)
    4. Mobile and expeditionary (usable in ground combat) communications network (Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland)
      1. Network Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence—Lead: BG Jeth Rey ... PEO Command Control Communications Tactical (C3T)
      2. Assured Position Navigation and Timing—(Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama) Lead: William B. Nelson, SES
    5. Air and missile defense—(Fort Sill, Oklahoma) Lead: BG Brian Gibson, ... PEO Missiles and Space (M&S)
    6. Soldier lethality
      1. Soldier Lethality—(Fort Moore, Georgia) Lead: BG Larry Q. Burris, Jr. ... PEO Soldier
      2. Synthetic Training Environment—(Orlando, Florida) Lead: BG William Glaser ... PEO Simulation, Training, & Instrumentation (STRI)
    • Above, 'dotted line' relationship (i.e., coordination) is denoted by a ' ... '
  2. ^ a b c d e f Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. Army Applications Lab: (23 October 2018) Army Futures Command Wants YOU (To Innovate)
    • —Adam Jay Harrison's list for types of Funding Authority
  3. ^ As an example, any number of effects can be weaponized (see p.1 The New York Times 2 September 2018 "Invisible strikes may be cause of envoy's ills", describing the Microwave auditory effect), or else countered. Hypersonic vehicles are a countermeasure to ballistic missiles.

References

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  2. ^ Joe Lacdan, Army News Service (27 August 2018) Establishment of Army Futures Command marks a culture shift
  3. ^ "About - U.S. Army Futures Command". U.S. Army. Retrieved 3 December 2021.
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  5. ^ a b c d Army Futures Command: Meet Our Leadership
  6. ^ Source: Organization, United States Army. For detail, see AR10-87
  7. ^ a b Army Commands, Army Service Component Commands, and Direct Reporting Units ARN2541_AR10-87_WEB_Final.pdf section 20-2a, p.27
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    1. 'Scientific research is a fundamentally different activity than technology development';
    2. Incorporate 'scientific research into "Appendix C: Functional Concepts" and specify pathways for technology development';
    3. Buy into the 'fail fast' mentality;
    4. '6.3-funded projects to produce knowledge (technical data) that can be consumed by requirements developers as opposed to PMs';
    5. Use 'evidence-based requirements process' (early hypothesis testing) with citations for evidence:
      • All projects will be executed in no less than two increments.
      • No new requirements once an increment is started.
    6. Summary: 'advances on the battlefield requires comprehensive, coordinated changes in the entire acquisition system';
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        1. Backbone layer for data transport downward to the long-range precision fires
        2. Custody layer for missiles' trajectories, whether friendly or threat
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    3. SHOT, which is also software, tracks each target on a custody list, correlating each target's current location, signature, and threat assessment, with a list of candidate fires countermeasures, ranked by capability, range to the target, kill radius, etc. "SHOT then computes the optimal match of weapons to targets", and passes the list to AFATDS.
    4. Human commanders choose whether to fire, or not, from the list of fires assets (Nelson notes that ERCA and Grey Eagle drones are to be added to the list of fires assets—currently M777 howitzers and MLRS 270 rocket launchers in the upcoming tests, August 2020).
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  140. ^ Colin Demarest (11 Jul 2022) Pentagon's secret JADC2 plan 'evolving', official says, as lawmakers seek audit "The oversight will inform future support and is not meant to be punitive".
  141. ^ Valerie Insinna (17 Jul 2022) Air Force's sixth-gen fighter downselect 'not all that far away,' says Kendall Air Force's Next Generation Air Dominance (NGAD) will have a private company as prime contractor, but the US government will probably be the prime contractor for integrating efforts involving collaborative combat aircraft (drones), NGAD, and AIM-260 Joint Advanced Tactical Missile. —USAF Secretary Frank Kendall
  142. ^ Travis Sharp, CSBA (20 Oct 2022) JADC2 spending is sprawling. DoD should keep watch, but Let It Go. Planning, Programming, Budgeting & Execution Process (PPBE) ~ $2.2 billion to $2.6 billion in FY2023 for 30 initiatives in JADC2.
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  156. ^ Gary Sheftick (13 August 2019) AI Task Force taking giant leaps forward Coordinating with: NREC, Talent management task force, the CFTs, and DOD's Joint AI Center
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  166. ^ Theresa Hitchens (20 August 2020) AI Slays Top F-16 Pilot In DARPA Dogfight Simulation The AI systems are eventually to serve as wingmen for human commanders.
  167. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (12 August 2020) Deloitte Wins $106M JAIC Contract To Build AI Toolkit
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  169. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (3 Sep 2020) AI's Data Hunger Will Drive Intelligence Collection Army's Chief data officer: In the Future, "every Soldier is a Chief data officer"
  170. ^ Kelsey Atherton (14 August 2020) DARPA Trains AI To Understand Humans – In Minecraft
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  180. ^ USAF Assistant Secretary of Acquisition, Chief Software Office (19 Dec 2019) SpaceCAMP USAF Software Factory
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    • RFI posted on the Federal Business Opportunities, 4 April
    • Contract award: fourth quarter of FY21
    • preliminary design review (PDR) second quarter of FY23
    • first flight in the third quarter of FY24
    • critical design review (CDR) in the fourth quarter of FY24
    • fielding to first unit in second quarter of FY30
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  200. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (20 March 2020) "xTechSearch: Army Picks Top 10 Tech Innovators" breakingdefense.com
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  204. ^ a b Andrew Eversden (2 May 2022) Army stretches little wings with desert mini-drone swarm tests
  205. ^ Brenden Devereaux (22 Apr 2022) LOITERING MUNITIONS IN UKRAINE AND BEYOND
  206. ^ a b Ben Watson (6 May 2022) Defense One Radio, Ep. 99: The role of drones in Russia's Ukraine invasion
  207. ^ Ashley Rocque (19 May 2023) At Edge 23, the US Army and international partners break down data-sharing barriers
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  218. ^ Colin Clark (13 Jul 2021) SecDef Austin Commits US To ‘Responsible AI’ 28th SecDef
  219. ^ Valerie Insinna and Aaron Mehta (26 May 2022) Updated autonomous weapons rules coming for the Pentagon: Exclusive details DoD directive 3000.09
  220. ^ Colin Demarest (18 Aug 2023) Don’t ditch soldiers for machines, combine them, Rainey says
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  227. ^ Jaspreet Gill (14 Jan 2022) Army 'well on its way' to first OCONUS cloud in Indo-Pacific
  228. ^ a b Alternative PNT & Area Protection DAPS
  229. ^ Andrew Eversden (Feb. 2, 2022 at 12:09 PM ET update) Here's the Army's 24 programs in soldiers' hands by 2023 Updated by AFC
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  236. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (10 April 2020) Army Revamps OMFV Bradley Replacement For Russian Front OMFV digital designs by 2023, prototypes by 2025, operational by 2028
  237. ^ Jason Cutshaw (5 Dec 2022) Experiment demos Army space capabilities to test 300 technologies
  238. ^ Megan Eckstein and Colin Demarest (8 Dec 2022) Project Overmatch: US Navy preps to deploy secretive multidomain tech
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  251. ^ A sample career path here: Aviation Engineering director to SES
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  303. ^ a b Army Multi-Domain Targeting Center (16 July 2019) Target Mensuration Only TMO
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  305. ^ Mitch Meador, Fort Sill Tribune (August 27, 2020) Lawton Fort Sill welcomes 'Fires Five,' families
  306. ^ Karen Flowers, Fort Sill Tribune (4 September 2020) Air defense Army Capability Manager gets new director
  307. ^ Intelligence CoE - no information on its CDID
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  309. ^ Sustainment CoE CDID not found[permanent dead link]
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  316. ^ Andrew Eversden (25 Oct 2021) Army Seeks 'Cutting Edge' Network-Aided PNT Technologies For Battle
  317. ^ Theresa Hitchens (1 Nov 2021) Sandia's Atomic 'Avocado' Could Allow GPS-Free PNT
  318. ^ Tobias Naegele (27 Nov 2022) Q&A: The New Chief of Space Operations on Empowering the Force "one B-2 hits 80 independent targets because of GPS".—Gen. B.Chance Saltzman, Space Force
  319. ^ RCCTO is located in Huntsville (26 August 2019): RCCTO- About us
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  327. ^ Thomas E. Ricks (MARCH 2, 2015)Why hasn't the Army's regular acquisition process produced anything in decades? --Future of War conference.
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  332. ^ Trae Stephens (6 Jun 2022) Rebooting the arsenal of democracy 4 principles for the new defense companies
  333. ^ a b c Federal News Radio Army has picked a location for its new Futures Command, but now comes the hard part
  334. ^ Association of the United States Army (AUSA): Scott R. Gourley (Friday, 13 January 2017) CLOSING THE CAPABILITIES GAP: SEVEN THINGS THE ARMY NEEDS FOR A WINNING FUTURE
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  336. ^ Bruce Jette, Building the Army of the future
  337. ^ Hannah Wiley (6 April 2018) Program cuts likely under Army secretary's new Futures Command
  338. ^ Jen Judson (17 July 2018) US Army asks Congress to shift millions in FY18 dollars. What's behind the request?
  339. ^ a b David Vergun (5 September 2018) Richardson confirmed as Futures Command deputy commander
  340. ^ a b Andrew Eversden (11 Mar 2022) Congress puts $349M for IVAS 'on hold,' but Army sees major boost to counter drones FLRAA, JLTVs, and Strykers got an increase, as well as the 6 modernization priorities.
  341. ^ a b c Niamh Cavanagh (3 Sep 2022) U.S. Army approves order for thousands of Microsoft combat goggles Total value is expected to be $21.9 billion over the next 10 years.
  342. ^ Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (28 March 2018) CHIPS Articles: Army Secretary defines goals for coming decade—modernization, Futures Command
  343. ^ Jeff Martin (15 October 2018) How did the Army find $25 billion for new equipment? video
  344. ^ Daniel Gouré (18 October 2018) Can Trump Rebuild The Military As Deficits Balloon?
  345. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (26 October 2018) Joint Experiments Will Pick Budget Winners & Losers: Dunford Task is to cut $33 Billion from 2020 budget
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  348. ^ PAUL MCLEARY (26 October 2018) Trump Orders DoD To Take Surprise $33B Budget Cut 2020 DoD budget cut from $733 billion to $700 billion
  349. ^ PAUL MCLEARY (14 November 2018) The Pentagon's First-Ever Audit: A Big Disappointment?
  350. ^ Wesley Morgan (9 December 2018) Trump reverses course, tells Pentagon to boost budget request to $750 billion
  351. ^ PAUL MCLEARY (23 July 2019) Esper Confirmed As SecDef; Budget Deal Leaves DoD Spending Flat Next Year
  352. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (15 January 2020) Army To Navy: Hey, We Already Get Less $$ Than You Army: 26.6%; Navy: 28.7%; Air Force: 28.5%; Other: 16.3%
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  354. ^ Thomas Brading, Army News Service (19 February 2020) Army leaders save $1.2 billion to fund modernization push After a set of 'Night court' cuts
  355. ^ Mark Cancian (15 May 2020) Huge Deficit = Defense Budget Cuts? Maybe Not A 5% cut would be $35 billion across DoD in 2021; FY2021 defense budget will likely be passed during a time of free-spending in Congress.
  356. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (9 June 2020) Army Study Asks: How Much Modernization Can We Afford?
  357. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (10 June 2020) Army Ponders What To Cut If Budget Drops: Gen. Murray
  358. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (4 Dec 2020) NDAA: Conference Cuts New Army Tech, Pluses Up Old Cuts in IVAS, OMFV, AMPV, IFPC. Increases in Stryker, Lasers, UASs. Top 6 modernization prorities are unscathed.
  359. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (24 October 2019) Sec. Army Interview: 'We Have To Get This Budget Deal'
  360. ^ (22 November 2019) SecArmy looks toward FY21 budget as continuing resolution impacts priorities CR avoids shutdown until 20 December 2019.
  361. ^ a b c Todd South, Military Times (8 May 2019) 4 things the general in charge of the Army's newest command says are needed to win the wars of the future
  362. ^ Amy McCullough (7 Feb. 2020) What to Look for in the 2021 Budget Request
  363. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (10 February 2020) Army Boosts Big Six 26%, But Trims Bradley Replacement FY2021 budget request
  364. ^ a b FY2021 budget request: Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (13 February 2020) Army budget request eyes $2B boost for modernization
    • $10.6 billion for modernization in 2021 request, up from $8.5 billion in 2020
      • LRPF: $1700 million
      • FVL: $514 million
      • OMFV: $328 million
      • MPF: $135 million
      • LTAMDS: $376 million
      • IFPC $236 million
  365. ^ Mark Cancian and Adam Saxton (14 February 2020) 2021 Budget Spells The End of US Force Expansion Reduced topline $740.5 billion; Army remains at 31 BCTs, 5 SFABs, and 11 CABs.
  366. ^ a b c Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (5 March 2019) Army Bets Big On Service Contracts To Fix Aging IT
  367. ^ Maj. Gen. Randy S. Taylor, CECOM (8 July 2019) Sustaining data delivery on the future Army network Halt, fix pivot (WIN-T)| ITN: Integrated Tactical Network | IEN: Integrated Enterprise Network
  368. ^ Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (7 February 2020) Vice chief of staff: Speed of modernization no longer at 'glacial pace'
  369. ^ Joyce M. Conant, ARL Public Affairs (19 Feb 2016) ARL West hires its first employee, meet Dr. Benjamin T. Files
  370. ^ Shelby Oakley (26 June 2019) GAO Defends Annual Weapons Review: Let's Look at All the Facts GAO reply
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  373. ^ Dennis Via, CG AMC (6 April 2016) AMC announces Mission Command alignment
  374. ^ AMRDEC (10 April 2018) AMRDEC Industry days Archived 29 August 2018 at the Wayback Machine
  375. ^ Ms. Andricka Thomas (CECOM) (23 December 2009) About CECOM LCMC
  376. ^ Megan Paice (26 July 2018) From RDECOM to CECOM
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  378. ^ Ed Worley (2 November 2018) ACC celebrates 10 years of enabling readiness, modernization Contracting officers are embedded with every CFT
  379. ^ Kern Life Cycle Management Command (LCMC) 2004
  380. ^ Ed Worley (1 October 2018) Two contracting centers achieve full operational capability
  381. ^ Jon Harper (3 April 2020) COVID-19 NEWS: Army Trying to Mitigate Disruptions for Top Modernization Programs
  382. ^ Mission Command Center of Excellence (MCCoE)
  383. ^ a b c d Connie Lee (3/26/2019) NEWS FROM AUSA GLOBAL: Army Fleshing Out Updated Modernization Strategy
  384. ^ "Lauren C. Williams (21 Aug 2018) PEO structure survives Army Futures reorg, for now". Archived from the original on 1 September 2018. Retrieved 1 September 2018.
  385. ^ Sydney Freeberg (6 September 2018) 'A Little Bit Disruptive': Murray & McCarthy On Army Futures Command
  386. ^ Acqnote AcqNotes (17 Jan 2017) Other Transaction Authority (OTA) Guide – 17 Jan 2017
  387. ^ Paul McCleary (31 December 2018) Amidst Turmoil, Pentagon Persists On Acquisition Reform: Ellen Lord
  388. ^ Mr. Kinsey Kiriakos (ASA (ALT)) (20 November 2019) Army Acquisition Leaders Must "Speak Truth To Power" MTA and OTA
  389. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (27 Feb 2023) Rapid updates, flexible authorities key for modern combat, says Army acquisition chief Use DOD Instruction 5000.87 for Software Pathway (SWP) acquisition process, under middle tier acquisition authority.
  390. ^ Jen Judson (10 Oct 2018) Army in final stages of hashing out Stryker lethality requirements at an AROC council in January 2019
  391. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (14 December 2018) Army Bradley Brigade Will Get Israeli Anti-Missile System: Iron Fist
  392. ^ Lt. Gen. John M. Murray, deputy chief of staff, G-8 (8 September 2016) Modernization vital to joint force success
  393. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (27 August 2018) Can Army Futures Command Overcome Decades Of Dysfunction?
  394. ^ HQ Dept of the Army (22 July 2011) Army Acquisition Policy Archived 22 April 2021 at the Wayback Machine Army Regulation 70–1
  395. ^ Devon L. Suits (19 September 2018) New G-8 embraces streamlining tech acquisition
  396. ^ Jen Judson (26 March 2018) The next Army program executive office will be the Rapid Capabilities Office
  397. ^ Jen Judson (7 Oct 2018) Army Rapid Capabilities Office realigned to focus on top modernization priorities
  398. ^ RCCTO (2019) About Us
  399. ^ RCO RCCTO (2019) Army Rapid Capabilities and Critical Technologies Office
  400. ^ a b c d Freedberg Jr., Sydney J. (6 March 2020), "New Army Cannon Doubles Range; Ramjet Ammo May Be Next", Breaking Defense
  401. ^ Joe Lacdan (19 September 2019) G-8: Army operations in the Pacific crucial to future battlefield success Follow-up on Modernization Reviews is forthcoming, on a regular basis.
  402. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (20 September 2019) Congress' Budget Gridlock Threatens Army Hypersonics G8 is posing a heuristic to get beyond delay in NDAA (national defense authorization act) for 2020 (get Army funding by calendar year-end)
  403. ^ Follow-up FY2021 Budget Request: Thomas Brading, Army News Service (5 March 2020) Hypersonic tests, modernization top Army budget request for funding of the top 6 modernization priorities; progress on the spend plan for tests of the prototypes vs actual spending
  404. ^ Jason B. Cutshaw, USASMDC/ARSTRAT Public Affairs (30 January 2018) SMDC leader addresses national missile defense community
  405. ^ Center for Strategic & International Studies (CSIS) (28 Jan 2018) Distributed Defense: New Operational Concepts for Integrated Air and Missile Defense 2:40:56 James H. Dickinson SMDC
  406. ^ Army Futures Command "Long Range Precision Fires CFT". Army Futures Command. U.S. Army. Retrieved 9 February 2022.
  407. ^ Maureena Thompson, Army Futures Command (1 June 2022) Army programs promote strength, agility of Long Range Precision Fires
  408. ^ Jen Judson (23 May 2022) US Army terminates Strategic Long-Range Cannon science and technology effort
  409. ^ a b c d e Andrew Feickert, Specialist in Military Ground Forces, Congressional Research Service. (updated 23 May 2022) The U.S. Army's Long-Range Hypersonic Weapon (LRHW) Report IF11991, with references to related reports
  410. ^ Frank Wolfe (27 Feb 2023) U.S. Army to Field First Long Range Hypersonic Weapon Battery This Fall, Wormuth Says
  411. ^ a b Emre Kelly, Florida Today (6 Mar 2023) Department of Defense scrubs hypersonic missile test at Cape Canaveral Space Force Station
  412. ^ a b c Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (6 November 2020) Army Picks Tomahawk & SM-6 For Mid-Range Missiles Tomahawk (missile) and SM-6 (RIM-174 Standard ERAM)
  413. ^ Feickert, Andrew (16 March 2021). "U.S. Army Long-Range Precision Fires: Background and Issues for Congress". Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  414. ^ Emma Helfrich (6 Dec 2022) First Land-Based Tomahawk And SM-6 Launcher Delivered To Army RCCTO
  415. ^ Theresa Hitchens "ABMS Demo Proves AI Chops For C2", breakingdefense.com, 3 September 2020
  416. ^ Dan Gouré (2 Dec 2020) Army's Newest Long-Range Fires System Isn't New, But It Will Be Effective
  417. ^ Tim Lister and Oren Liebermann, CNN (14 Jul 2022) Ukraine's new US rockets are causing fresh problems for Russia
  418. ^ Todd South (20 Aug 2020) Army missile defenders defeat cruise and ballistic missiles nearly simultaneously The test created terabytes of data to be queried.
  419. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (22 Mar 2021) Army Missiles, Missile Defense Race Budget Crunch To 2023
  420. ^ a b Caitlin O'Neill, APNT CFT Public Affairs (23 August 2019) APNT CFT Hosts First Annual Assessment Exercise
  421. ^ a b c Todd South (11 Mar 2020) The Army is 'making artillery great again' Press conference.
  422. ^ Ben Wolfgang (22 Dec 2020) Army's long-range cannon hits target 43 miles away
  423. ^ a b c Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (10 December 2019) Direct Hit: Army Test-Fires Lockheed Precision Strike Missile EXCLUSIVE
  424. ^ Todd South (20 Sep 2022) Army missile teams will add robots and multi-payload rockets —Hunter Blackwell, CCDC Aviation and Missile Center (AvMC)
  425. ^ US Army AvMC (16 Jun 2021) Video: Autonomous missile launcher destroys enemy threats AvMC concept video —autonomous multi-domain launcher (AML): Jen Judson (16 Jun 2021) US Army fires autonomous launcher in Pacific-focused demo AML demo at Fort Sill utilized a HIMARS launcher and the AML
  426. ^ Joe Lacdan, Army News Service (22 Aug 2023) Army successfully fires Tomahawk missiles from MRC system 1st MDTF, Navy PEO Unmanned Aviation and Strike Weapons Office
  427. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (12 Mar 2021) Joint World Warms Up To Army Long-Range Missiles Capabilities of MDTF
  428. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (12 May 2021) Army Discloses Hypersonic LRHW Range Of 1,725 Miles; Watch Out China
  429. ^ Defense Updates U.S ARMY's EXTENDED RANGE CANNON ARTILLERY CREATES WORLD RECORD | HITS TARGET AT 43 MILES or 70 KM !
  430. ^ David Vergun, Army News Service (13 September 2018) Cross-functional teams already producing results, says Futures Command general, House Armed Services Sub-committee hearing, 13 September 2018
  431. ^ a b Nancy Jones-Bonbrest, Army Rapid Capabilities Office (20 September 2018) Army doubles cannon range in prototype demo
  432. ^ Defense updates (14 Dec 2018) EXTENDED RANGE CANNON ARTILLERY OF U S ARMY- FULL ANALYSIS 5:00 clip. XM1113 shell and XM657 propellant on XM907
  433. ^ a b c Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (21 Oct 2020) LRPF: Army Missiles, Cannon Face Big Tests In '21
  434. ^ US Army (27 May 2020) Excalibur Round Precision Hit From 65 kilometers at U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground
  435. ^ Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (8 May 2019) Army demonstrates extended ranges for precision munitions
  436. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (16 Apr 2021) ERCA: Army Contracts To Help New Cannon 'Fire Faster'
  437. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (27 January 2020) Artillery Seeks Robot Ammo Haulers Field Artillery Autonomous Resupply
  438. ^ Paul McLeary (19 July 2019) Army Readies Long-Range Missile Tests—Post INF
  439. ^ a b David Sanger and Edward Wong The New York Times (2 August 2019) US ends cold war missile treaty, to counter arms buildup by China. p.A7
  440. ^ Paul McCleary (12 Dec 2019) US Busts INF Wall With Ballistic Missile, Puts Putin & Xi On Notice
  441. ^ NATIONAL DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION ACT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2020 Senate report 116-48
  442. ^ Brendan Deveraux (28 Jan 2022) WHY INTERMEDIATE-RANGE MISSILES ARE A FOCAL POINT IN THE UKRAINE CRISIS
  443. ^ Jen Judson (25 Mar 2020) Raytheon exits precision strike missile competition
  444. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (19 Mar 2020) PRSM: Lockheed Long-Range Missile Passes Short-Range Stress Test 3 layers of LRPF are scheduled to enter service in limited numbers in 2023; also explains its relationship to Future vertical lift (FVL) and Mobile & expeditionary network
  445. ^ Andrew Eversden (1 October 2021) Lockheed Martin's Precision Strike Missile Enters Next Phase with Army
  446. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (30 Apr 2020) Army: Lockheed PrSM Missile Aces Third Flight Test
    • 2023 goal is to deliver 30 PrSMs with 500 km range
    • 2025 goal is to use multi-mode seekers against moving targets
    • Use open architecture to allow multiple vendors to offer upgrades
    • Provide extended range (beyond 650-700 km) within the existing HIMARS MLRS form factor
  447. ^ Andrew Eversden (3 May 2027) The Army could get its next-gen Precision Strike Missiles in FY27
  448. ^ Ashley Rocque (20 Apr 2023) Here are 3 future missiles INDOPACOM says it needs to challenge China
  449. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (08 September 2020) Army Seeks New Mid-Range Missile Prototype By 2023 1000 mile missile needed.
  450. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (14 October 2020) Army Asks Hill For New Mid-Range Missile $$$ ASAP: Thurgood Fund the Mid-Range Capability (MRC) with 2020 Above Threshold Reprogramming (ATR).
  451. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (13 October 2020) China, Russia Threats To Drive What Army Keeps & Cuts: Gen. Murray TRAC needs to produce its reports in 3 months or faster.
  452. ^ Loren Thompson (12 Apr 2021) Air Power Advocates Are Attacking Army Long-Range Strike Plans. Here's Why They're Wrong.
  453. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (23 October 2020) DARPA's Hypersonic OpFires Aims For Army 1,000-Mile Missile
  454. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (13 November 2018) Beyond INF: Countering Russia, Countering China (Analysis)
  455. ^ a b Mike Stone (13 Jul 2022) U.S. successfully tests pair of Lockheed hypersonic missiles
  456. ^ John Vandiver (18 Jul 2022) DARPA scores success with hypersonic missile launch from Marine Corps truck
  457. ^ a b Ryan Pickrell (5 June 2019) The US Army says it will have hypersonic missiles and laser weapons ready for combat in less than 4 years
  458. ^ Bill Greenwalt (13 Dec 2021) New defense budget commission could be last hope for fixing DoD spending.
  459. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (28 Feb 2020) Army Ramps Up Funding For Laser Shield, Hypersonic Sword In FY2021 HELs funding is up 209 percent; LRHW funding is up 86 percent. RCCTO spending is $1 billion in 2021.
  460. ^ Corey Dickstein (3 March 2020) Army to fire two hypersonic test shots this year, McCarthy says
  461. ^ Nancy Jones-Bonbrest, Army Rapid Capabilities and Critical Technologies Office (RCCTO) (12 February 2020) Virtual Reality helps Soldiers shape Army hypersonic weapon prototype LRHW
  462. ^ Nathan Strout (29 Apr 2022) Army Futures Command learning from Russia's invasion of Ukraine Satellite "sensors also need to be better integrated with Army systems, to the point that satellite data can be downlinked directly to the battlefield".—Willie Nelson, Deputy Asst Sec Army
  463. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (26 January 2018) $86,000 + 5,600 MPH = Hyper Velocity Missile Defense
  464. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (10 September 2020) Target Gone In 20 Seconds: Army Sensor-Shooter Test
  465. ^ Matthew Cox (5 Aug 2020) Army to Speed Up Testing of Planned Hypersonic Missile
  466. ^ Nancy Jones-Bonbrest, Army Rapid Capabilities and Critical Technologies Office (16 February 2021) Speeding ahead: Hypersonics team stays on track to deliver despite pandemic
  467. ^ Theresa Hitchens "'Confident' Of 2023 Fielding Goal, Army Dubs Hypersonic Weapon 'Dark Eagle'", breakingdefense.com, 11 August 2021
  468. ^ a b c Andrew Eversden (15 Oct 2021) First Live Hypersonic Missile Rounds To Be Delivered to Army Unit Next Year
  469. ^ Patrick Tucker (21 Oct 2022) The Military's Network Warfare Experiment Scaled Up This Year
  470. ^ 1st Lt. Richard Parlato (30 March 2023) 1st Multi-Domain Task Force Deploys the Army’s First Long-Range Hypersonic Weapon System
  471. ^ PEO C3T 30 May 2018
  472. ^ a b Justin Eimers, PEO C3T (3 October 2018) Network Cross-Functional Team, acquisition partners experimenting to modernize tactical network In 2018 MG Bassett became (Program Executive Office Command Control Communications-Tactical) PEO C3T)
  473. ^ a b Colin Demarest (28 Apr 2022) US Army wraps review of 'future battlespace' network tools
  474. ^ a b c d PEO C3T (2018) Integrated Tactical Network "is not a new or separate network but rather a concept"
  475. ^ a b PEO C3T Peo3ct.Army.mil (2021) Networking the Soldier ARMY NETWORK CAPABILITY SET MODERNIZATION. 18 pp
  476. ^ Walker, Gleason, and Ayer Peo3ct (7 Jul 2021) Global network super highway postures Army for multi-domain operations Global Agile Integrated Transport (GAIT) is a network design: RHN regional hub network, DoD Teleport Sites, 150 Gait points of presence (POPs)
  477. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (18 November 2019) New Army Network 'A Revolution' For Airborne: Commander ITN full brigade Network equipment: PEO slide showing connectivity from BCT command post, down to Fire Team leaders cell phones; use each soldiers' IVAS goggles to locate each paratrooper
  478. ^ a b c Kathryn Bailey, PEO C3T Public Affairs (19 November 2019) The Army's tactical network empowers advanced goggle platform IVAS is under STP 2-- "In July 2020, STP 3 will fully integrate the ITN with IVAS"
  479. ^ Jared Serbu (24 August 2018) Army experimenting with SOF-tested equipment while building long-term tactical network plan
  480. ^ U.S. Army PEO C3T (30 April 2019) Profile: Program Executive Office for Command, Control and Communications-Tactical (PEO C3T)
  481. ^ a b Mark Pomerleau (1 April 2019) How the Army will sustain its tactical network of the future ITN to take advantage of Tobyhanna depot. 5-3-1 model
  482. ^ Mark Pomerleau (21 Jan 2020) What a deployment to the Middle East means for testing a new Army network An operational deployment begun 1 Jan 2020, which won't be instrumented, will provide some Soldier feedback, but instrumented testing is deferred until after redeployment.
  483. ^ Joe Lacdan, Army News Service (25 October 2018) Interoperability a key focus in building the Army's future network
  484. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (3 April 2019) Multi-Domain Networks: The Army, The Allies & AI: Incremental ITN Capability sets '21, '23, '25
  485. ^ a b Claire Heininger and Amy Walker (26 Apr 2022) 'The backbone of everything we do:' Army advances new communications network baseline
  486. ^ Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (21 June 2019) New tech, accessibility to improve Army tactical networks
  487. ^ Amy Walker, PEO C3T (18 June 2019) Modernizing the Network
  488. ^ Maj. Gen. Cedric T. Wins, U.S. Army Combat Capabilities Development Command (22 July 2019) CCDC's road map to modernizing the Army: the network 4th in a series
  489. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (29 August 2019) The Fraying Edge: Limits Of The Army's Global Network
  490. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (27 August 2019) Uncle Sam Wants YOU To Compete For Army Network Upgrade: CS 21 Multiple Expeditionary Signal Battalion – Enhanced (ESB-E) network hardware sets are being fielded simultaneously to individual companies in the 50th Expeditionary Signal Battalion of 35th Signal Brigade/82nd Airborne Division in 2020, to allow maximum testing.
  491. ^ Amy Walker, PM Tactical Network, PEO C3T (4 December 2019) Global network design unifies Army modernization efforts GAIT: worldwide network mesh—CS21
  492. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (21 Sep 2020) 'Improvised Mode': The Army Network Evolves In Project Convergence used a mesh network—50th Expeditionary Signal Battalion—Enhanced (ESB-E) was able to improvise a MEO satellite link in June 2020, to complete the link from JBLM to YPG
  493. ^ Thomas Spoehr (13 November 2020) Project Convergence: Its Success Could Draw Army Astray Risks-- Opfor, Allies & Joint participation, EW jamming, PrSM launches, JADC2, Joint Forces command is a cautionary example.
  494. ^ Thomas Brading, Army News Service (12 February 2021) Army scales up joint capabilities as Project Convergence grows
  495. ^ a b c Andrew Eversden (15 Oct 2020) US Army's tactical network team tests new unified data fabric in Yuma
  496. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (17 Nov 2020) Project Rainmaker: Army Weaves 'Data Fabric' To Link Joint Networks CCDC C5ISR built Project Rainmaker to weave together a data fabric which is foundational to JADC2
  497. ^ FY19 Army Programs (2018) Distributed Common Ground System – Army (DCGS-A) capability drop 1, 2018
  498. ^ Andrew Eversden (6 Oct 2021) Army Awards Palantir $823M Contract For Enterprise 'Data Fabric' DCGS-A Distributed Common Ground Systems-Army capability drop 2
  499. ^ Claire Heninger and US Army (29 Oct 2021) Bridging the gap: Army weaves data fabric at Project Convergence 21
  500. ^ Kathryn Bailey, PEO C3T Public Affairs (17 October 2018) New players bring novel approaches to the Army's network modernization goals
  501. ^ Nancy Jones-Bonbrest, Army Rapid Capabilities Office (8 November 2018) Cutting through the noise: Army, industry work together to speed up signal detection
  502. ^ Sydney J. FREEDBERG JR. (19 November 2018) Can Army Afford The Electronic Warfare Force It Wants?
  503. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (20 May 2021) Paratroopers Pioneer New Army Network, Tactics HMS Manpack and Leader radios, ITN CS '21, can use variable height antenna drones, MUOS constellation: for tactical satellite communications —Andrew Eversden (24 Sep 2021) Army Drops Nearly $350M For New Radios After Two Years of Testing
  504. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (4 May 2021) Army Network Upgrade Seeks Fast Data For JADC2
  505. ^ Kathryn Bailey, PEO C3T Public Affairs (25 January 2022)Army's integrated network rolls on with Stryker vehicles
  506. ^ Jaspreet Gil (10 Jun 2022) Army CIO: FY23 is 'year of inflection' for digital transformation CIO Raj Iyer: "Iyer said that the overall budget is 'almost flat' going from FY22 to FY23".
  507. ^ Colin Demarest (1 Apr 2022) US Army picks L3Harris and Thales for radio modernization replaces SINCGARS
  508. ^ Jaspreet Gill (2 Aug 2022) In Army, worry follows Senators' proposed cuts to network, comms upgrades: Official Cuts to CS'23 layer will affect upcoming CS'25 capability
  509. ^ Andrew Eversden (9 Jun 2021) Army says 2025 tactical network will make JADC2 a reality
  510. ^ Andrew Eversden (29 Sep 2021) New Army Pilot Program To Test Armored Brigade Mobile Communications N-CFT and PEO C3T are cooperating on CS'25, using 12 M1068 mobile command posts as test vehicles.
  511. ^ Amy Walker, Project Manager Tactical Network, PEO C3T, public affairs (20 December 2022) Future operating environment, strategic need fuel Army's network design goals CS'25, CS'27 goals for Army of 2030
  512. ^ a b Colin Demarest (16 May 2023) US Army preps for fresh mobile communications experiment
  513. ^ Brad Williams (21 Sep 2021) DoD Spending On JADC2 Jumps, With Increased Focus On Interoperability: Report a cautionary note on stovepiped systems —Billy Fabian
  514. ^ Theresa Hitchens (11 Aug 2021) JROC's Next Target: 'Integrated Air & Missile Defense' IAMD will eventually be subject to a JROC capability review —John Hyten. JADC2 will thus have to be harmonized with IAMD.
  515. ^ a b c d e Sydney Freedberg, Jr. (5 May 2023) Keep moving or die: Army will overhaul network for rapid maneuver in big wars "The Army has nixed future 'Capability Set' upgrade packages for brigade networks in favor of smaller, more frequent updates, with the most complex technology reserved for division and corps HQs".
  516. ^ a b Andrew Eversden (23 Sep 2021) Top Army General: Network Modernization 'Never Going To Stop'
  517. ^ CIO and G-6 (8 Oct 2021) The Army Unified Network Plan: ENABLING MULTI-DOMAIN OPERATIONS
  518. ^ Ellen Summey, PEO EIS (1 July 2019) Army Leader Dashboard, creating insight-driven decisions
  519. ^ Lizette Chapman (13 December 2019) Palantir Wins New Pentagon Deal With $111 Million From the Army HR, supply chain, et al.
  520. ^ Billy Mitchell (DEC 26, 2019) Inside Palantir's support of the Army's massive data problem
  521. ^ Capt. Matthew Visser (30 Jul 2022) Reinventing Modern Deployment: Soldiers leverage Army Vantage to make data-driven decisions
  522. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (29 July 2020) Army Future Ops Depend On Cloud – But Not On JEDI
  523. ^ Kelsey Atherton (7 August 2020) Pentagon Code Library Will Support Multiple Clouds
  524. ^ U.S. Army Public Affairs U(3 June 2020) Two Army Installations selected for 5G testing and experimentation
  525. ^ Andrew Eversden (15 Dec 2021) Tactical cloud coming to Army's Multi-Domain Task Forces in 2022
  526. ^ AARON MAK (MAY 12, 2019) Report: Missile System and Surveillance Plane Funding Will Go Towards the Border Wall slate.com
  527. ^ Jason Cutshaw (SMDC/ARSTRAT) (22 March 2019) Army's senior air defender talks future of air, missile defense
  528. ^ a b c d Gary Sheftick, Army News Service (13 March 2019) FY20 budget to boost air & missile defense
  529. ^ Justin Katz (26 Apr 2022) Lockheed sending first five A4 radars to Army next month "Army's Q-53 counterfire target acquisition radar and the Air Force's new long-range radar" 2023 delivery
  530. ^ Jen Judson (27 Apr 2022) US Army plan to replace Patriot interceptors gets a jolt in FY23 budget request Budget request for FY2023: Abbreviated Concept Development Document (ACDD) in FY24. Down select: 2QFY2023–4QFY2025. Concept Development Document by 1QFY24. Rapid capability development phase begins 1QFY25.
  531. ^ Jen Judson (18 Jul 2022) Pentagon plan for homeland cruise missile defense taking shape
  532. ^ Ashish Dangwal (25 Sep 2023) Patriot Missile: Another Country In Chinas Backyard Could Get US Defense System As Tensions Mount With Beijing
  533. ^ a b Jen Judson "Dynetics-Lockheed team beats out Raytheon to build 100-kilowatt laser weapon". Defense News. 16 May 2019. Retrieved 25 December 2021.
  534. ^ Ashley Rocque (20 Jul 2023) Lockheed secures $221M Army deal for high-powered air defense laser prototype IFPC-HEL to work with IFPC Inc 2, to integrate with [Army Integrated Air and Missile Defense] AIAMD
  535. ^ Sydney J Freedberg (5 August 2019) New Army Laser Could Kill Cruise Missiles Demonstrator lasers in test 2023, with fielding in 2024
  536. ^ a b Claire Heininger, U.S. Army (1 August 2019) Army awards laser weapon system contract RCCTO has awarded Other Transaction Authority (OTA) contract 26 July 2019 for $203 million to two subcontractors, for prototype high energy lasers (HELs) for MSHORAD
  537. ^ Daniel Wasserbly (14 October 2019) AUSA 2019: Lockheed Martin weighs options for achieving a 250-300 kW air-defence laser Addresses IFPC requirements
  538. ^ Joe Lacdan (22 October 2018) Army to fuse laser technology onto air defense system
  539. ^ Sydney J Freedberg (17 Sep 2020) Lockheed Aims For Laser On Fighter By 2025
  540. ^ Jen Judson (11 Oct 2018) Army nearing strategy on way ahead for Indirect Fire Protection Capability
  541. ^ a b Sydney J Freedberg Jr.Iron Dome Doesn't Work For Army: Gen. Murray: Interoperability with IBCS is critical, breakingdefense.com, 5 March 2020
  542. ^ Anna Ahronheim (9 MARCH 2020) US Army: Iron Dome cannot be integrated into our air defense systems: Iron Dome offers 12 launchers, two sensors, two battle management centers and 240 interceptors, but US Army's IAMD needs access to Iron Dome Source Code for interoperability w/ IFPC, IBCS
  543. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (9 March 2020) New Missiles Must Work With IBCS Network: Bruce Jette (Exclusive) Each shooter must accept targeting data and firing commands from IBCS, at brassboard level at least
  544. ^ Jen Judson (24 Aug 2021) Here's who the US Army has tapped to build an enduring capability to counter drones and cruise missiles defensenews.com
  545. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (23 Apr 2021) Army Fields First Anti-Aircraft Strykers In Just 3 Years breakingdefense.com
  546. ^ Gary Sheftick, Army News Service (2 July 2019) Army rebuilding short-range air defense Manpad training for 19K MOS using synthetic training environment (STE)
  547. ^ Nancy Jones-Bonbrest (10 Aug 2021) Army advances first laser weapon through Combat Shoot-Off Soldier-centered design
  548. ^ Jared Keller (12 Aug 2021) The Army's first laser weapon is almost ready for a fight
  549. ^ Kris Osborn (1 Feb 2023) Army Strykers Destroy Attacking Drones & Mortars With 50kw Laser
  550. ^ Sputnik (25 Jan 2023) US Reaches Key Milestone On Laser Air Defense; Lockheed Martin Confirms DEIMOS Demonstration Success 50kW laser
  551. ^ Andrew Eversden (26 Oct 2021) Army Awards Laser Weapon Contract To Boeing, General Atomics Team
  552. ^ MG John George "CCDC's Road Map to Modernizing the Army: Soldier lethality". www.army.mil. Retrieved 14 December 2021. Sixth in a series
  553. ^ Argie Sarantinos-Perrin, CCDC Public Affairs (29 March 2019) CCDC technology to increase Soldier readiness in multi-domain operations: capabilities by 2023
  554. ^ Robert Purtiman (21 September 2018) Lethality Cross-Functional Team bringing next generation technologies to Soldiers ENVG-B, Next Generation Squad Weapons, and the Adaptive Soldier Architecture
  555. ^ a b Bridgett Siter, Communications Director, Soldier Lethality CFT (10 September 2019) Soldier Lethality team delivers first big win for AFC Enhanced night vision goggle - binocular (ENVG-B) significantly aids marksmanship by the Close Combat Force
  556. ^ Alexander Gago (8 Aug 2022) Close Combat Lethality Task Force hosts Artificial Intelligence for Small Unit Maneuver working group
  557. ^ David Vergun (8 October 2018) Next-generation squad weapon to be very capable, lethal, says Army chief of staff
  558. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (17 June 2019) Army Buys 9,000 Mini-Drones, Rethinks Ground Robots
  559. ^ Ashley Roque (27 Dec 2022) With war in Europe, us Army replenished weapons, pushed modernization: 2022 in Review IVAS 1.2 sought
  560. ^ "Army to field new night vision goggles". www.army.mil. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  561. ^ AFC (21 Nov 2019) Soldier feedback driving Army modernization used 10 soldier touchpoints
  562. ^ Todd South (11 Oct 2021) This Army program prevented disease outbreak in a unit deploying to Afghanistan MASTR-E —Measuring and Advancing Soldier Tactical Readiness and Effectiveness
  563. ^ Joe Lacdan (3 June 2019) Army testing synthetic training environment platforms Reconfigurable Virtual Collective Trainer-Air (RVCT-A), -Ground (RVCT-G), and 3-D terrain database (One World)
  564. ^ Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (22 March 2018) Synthetic training environment to enhance Soldier lethality
  565. ^ US Army "One World Terrain to allow Soldiers to train anywhere". www.army.mil. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  566. ^ The Army Strategy 2018
  567. ^ Insinna, Valerie; Kahwaji, Riad; "Let The (War) Games Begin: Army Buying High-Tech Training Sims". Breaking Defense. 15 May 2019. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  568. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (13 October 2019) Special Ops Using Army's Prototype 3D Maps On Missions: Gervais
  569. ^ Yasmin Tadjdeh (1 Dec 2020) I/ITSEC NEWS: Army Accelerates Synthetic Training Environment Development
  570. ^ a b c Scott McKean (14 Jul 2021) AFC Pamphlet 71-20-9 Army Futures Command Concept for Command and Control - Pursuing decision dominance AFCC-C2 is the future communications network. 14 Jul 2021 see: FUTURES AND CONCEPTS CENTER resources
  571. ^ a b c McLeary, Paul (16 April 2019). "Esper: Chinook & JLTV 'Designed For a Different Conflict'". Breaking Defense. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  572. ^ Joe Lacdan (25 September 2019) More joint efforts likely as the Army prepares for multi-domain operations A speedup in tempo, as driven by the CFTs is needed, according to Lt. Gen. Wesley
  573. ^ "Clearly define roles, responsibilities and processes in order to identify the right efforts and get ahead of need." —William B King (AMC) (18 February 2020) Conference focuses on Army modernization, equipping Soldiers Equipping Enterprise (AMC) + Modernization Enterprise (AFC)
  574. ^ a b Phil Fountain, U.S. Army Futures Command (7 August 2019) Army Futures Command charts a campaign plan No uniforms
  575. ^ a b Gen. David Goldfein and Gen. Jay Raymond (28 Feb 2020) America's future battle network is key to multidomain defense JADC2: " We cannot yet share data in a seamless and simultaneous way between the Army, Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps or the Space Force"
  576. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (14 Oct 2020) Army Seeks Open Architecture For All Air & Ground Systems: Jette In the spirit of MOSA, JADC2, & Project convergence:
    • Army Common Operating Environment (COE)
    • C5ISR/EW Modular Open Suite of Standards (CMOSS)
    • Future Air-Borne Capability Environment (FACE)
    • Integrated Sensor Architecture (ISA)
    • Sensor Open Systems Architecture (SOSA)
    • Vehicle Integration for C4ISR/EW Interoperability (VICTORY)
  577. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (13 Nov 2020) QinetiQ Delivers Armed Scout Robot To Army: RCV-L uses UGV Interoperability Profile
  578. ^ Katherine Spivey and Wendy Wagner-Smith (19 May 2021) Positioning Yourself as a Plain Language Editor
  579. ^ Headquarters, Department of the Army (1 October 2022) FM 3-0 OPERATIONS 280 pages
  580. ^ AUSA 2022 (10 Oct 2022) AUSA Contemporary Military Forum: Army 2030 - Preparing Today for Tomorrow's Fight Office of the Chief of Public Affairs
  581. ^ Futurology (22 May 2020) The World in 2050 CCDC is actually working on realizing some of these possibilities. See below
  582. ^ AUSA, ILW selected papers, David Perkins, moderator (24 October 2018) ILW Launches Landpower Education Forum 4 views
  583. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (8 October 2018) Army Moves $25B To Big Six, From New Tanks To 6.8mm Rifle
  584. ^ Breaking Defense A series on: Army Strategic Fires
  585. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (28 May 2019) Beyond INF: An Affordable Arsenal Of Long-Range Missiles? INF Treaty likely to expire in August 2019
  586. ^ Loren Thompson (7 Aug 2020) Army breakthroughs in Long-range fires raise novel questions about targeting, organization, and command about SLRC, a long-barrelled cannon which uses GPS-guided munitions
  587. ^ Matthew Cox (14 September 2018) The Army is developing a new strategic cannon to devastate targets over 1,000 miles away
  588. ^ a b Sean Gallagher (10/15/2019) Bringing in the big gun: Army paves way for "strategic cannon"
  589. ^ Eric Kowal (August 27, 2020) By Improving Artillery Shells, Picatinny Engineers Seek to Greatly Extend Range of Cannon Artillery
  590. ^ Richard P. Hansen, Scranton Army Ammunition Plant (August 19, 2020) Scranton Army Ammunition Plant Manufactures and Ships Large-Caliber Ammunition Metal Parts
  591. ^ Monica K. Guthrie, LRPF communications director (9 October 2019) Army Futures Command gains new general
  592. ^ Daniel Cebul (8 Oct 2018) Army looks to a future of integrated fire
  593. ^ Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (24 October 2019) TITAN system being developed to tie 'deep sensing' to long-range fires For use in I2CEWS battalion of a Multi-domain task force
  594. ^ Sandra Erwin (19 April 2021) U.S. Army approves plans for a future 'tactical space layer' "tactical space layer will be integrated with an existing ground station called Tactical Intelligence Targeting Access Node (TITAN)"
  595. ^ Todd South (14 Jul 2021) Tanks are here to stay: What the Army's future armored fleet will look like
  596. ^ Mark Gardiner The New York Times (Friday 21 Sep 2018) p.B4
  597. ^ Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (4 June 2020) Small robotic mule, other unmanned ground systems on the horizon
  598. ^ a b c Sean Kimmons, Army News Service (11 July 2019) Soldiers to operate armed robotic vehicles from upgraded Bradleys (Mission Enabler Technologies-Demonstrators, or MET-Ds)
  599. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (14 October 2019) Army Robots Go Rolling Along – Ahead Of Schedule Robotic combat vehicles in "Four Years, Three Phases, Three Weight Classes"
  600. ^ Mandy Mayfield (2 Oct 2020) Army Puts Robotic Combat Vehicles Through Paces
  601. ^ USACE (6 Oct 2020) Future Combined Arms Breaching Technology to be highlighted at AUSA 2020
  602. ^ Office of the Chief of Public Affairs (10.13.2020) AUSA 2020 Warriors Corner - Future Combined Arms Breaching Enabled by Technology
  603. ^ a b David Craig (26 Oct 2020) The Time Is Now to Transform America's Army Chief of Staff Gen. James C. McConville
  604. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (27 July 2020) Two Men & A Bot: Can AI Help Command A Tank? 2-man crews in MET-Ds have proved they can maneuver without a commander.
  605. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (18 Dec 2020) OMFV: Army Wants Your Weird Ideas For Bradley Replacement Multiple forms of the OMFV are a possibility. Modular Open Systems Approach (MOSA) is a requirement so that systems can be upgraded in a modular fashion. OMFV to be compatible with STE capabilities.
  606. ^ EditorDavid (1 Aug 2022) Will the US Army, Not Meta, Build an 'Open' Metaverse? STE to connect systems for combined arms and joint training
  607. ^ Daniel Lafontaine, CCDC (21 May 2019) Army Futures leveraging mission command for effective Soldier, robot teams
  608. ^ Devon L. Suits (26 July 2018) CERDEC unveils more than a dozen new technologies for mission command CPCE COE MCE
  609. ^ Maj. Rich Marsh, Joint Modernization Command (14 February 2019) JMC sets the stage for largest annual modernization exercise
  610. ^ Jen Judson (9 October 2018) The Army's future tank may not be a tank Buy back size, weight, and power
  611. ^ Economist.com (12 Sep 2020) Tanks have rarely been more vulnerable Taiwan would have an advantage defending.
  612. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (11 September 2019) Titan Robot Test-Fires Javelin Anti-Tank Missile Remote-controlled test-fires of FGM-148 Javelin antitank missiles from unmanned ground vehicle
  613. ^ David Miller (20 August 2020) The Future of Unmanned Ground Systems in the Operational Environment names 7 countries using UGSs
  614. ^ NANCY JONES-BONBREST (16 July 2020) ARMY AWARDS CONTRACT FOR HYBRID ELECTRIC PROTOTYPE
  615. ^ Jen Judson (17 Mar 2020) US Army ventures down path to electrify the brigade
  616. ^ Major Matthew Wood (Nov 2019) The Future of Hybrid and Electric Technology for Army Archived 23 March 2020 at the Wayback Machine Australian Defence Force
  617. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (8 April 2020) New TRISO Nuclear Mini-Reactors Will Be Safe: Program Manager DoD project: 3 competing designs (1-year contracts, with a possible 1 year follow-on) for 1 prototype of an inherently safe reactor (no meltdowns). Fuel rods are composed of spheres: three layers of uranium, carbon, silicon carbide—TRISO has been tested to be safe at 3200°F, hotter than the melting point of steel. A molten salt reactor is a possibility.
  618. ^ Jaspreet Gill (13 Apr 2022) Idaho National Labs to build Pentagon's mobile 'nuclear microreactor'
  619. ^ Todd South (15 Apr 2022) Pentagon to build nuclear microreactors to power far-flung bases Ft Greeley
  620. ^ DoD SCO (13 Apr 2022) DoD to Build Project Pele Mobile Microreactor and Perform Demonstration at Idaho National Laboratory
  621. ^ Jeff Waksman (Mar 2020) Project Pele Overview
  622. ^ a b c d e f g DoD Office of the Secretary, SCO (15 Apr 2022) Record of Decision for the Final Construction and Demonstration of a Prototype Mobile Microreactor Environmental Impact Statement
  623. ^ BWX Technologies (BWXT) (9 Jun 2022) BWXT to Build First Advanced Microreactor in United States for Project Pele
  624. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (6 Nov 2020) Army Wants Smaller Brigades, Stronger Divisions & Lots O' Robots First contact with the enemy to be unmanned. Lists a portfolio of Common robotic systems (CRSs)
  625. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (7 August 2020) Robots & Puddles: Surprises From Army RCV Test
  626. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (26 Mar 2020) FVL Q&A: 7 Leaders On The Future Of Army Aviation Nicknamed "6-pack+1";
    1. Commander, Aviation Center of Excellence (CoE)
    2. Commander, Aviation Life Cycle Management Command (LCMC)
    3. Director, Aviation directorate, Deputy Chief of Staff G3/5/7
    4. Commander, Aviation Special Operations Command (USASOAC)
    5. Deputy PEO, Aviation
    6. SES, Aviation and Missile Command
    7. Director, FVL CFT
  627. ^ a b Cooper, Scott (23 April 2019). "FARA: Army Awards 5 Design Contracts; Winner Enters Production in 2028". Breaking Defense. Retrieved 22 December 2021.
  628. ^ a b Gary Sheftick, Army News Service (9 September 2019) Smart sensor network helps redirect missile The GBU-69 was redirected; FARA is slated to replace AH-64 in subsequent A3I experiments
  629. ^ Dan Gouré (29 Feb 2020) Finally, There Is a Solution to the Problem of Flying in Degraded Visual Environments: Terrain awareness and warning systems (TAWS)
  630. ^ David Craig (6 April 2020) Future Vertical Lift Conducts a Demonstration of the Spike NLOS Missile System
  631. ^ Kerensa Crum CCDC Aviation & Missile Center Public Affairs (30 March 2020) CCDC Aviation, Missile Center highlights forward-launched UAS technology
  632. ^ Anthony Small, U.S. Army Futures Command (13 March 2019) Futures Command highlights changes, new structure at SXSW
  633. ^ Eliahu Norwood, Greg Grant, and Tyler Lewis, MITRE (December 2019) A new battle command architecture for multi-domain operations: countering peer adversary power projection Tie-in to MDC2, MDO
  634. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (11 March 2020) Army Won't Build Recon Satellites: Lt. Gen. Berrier
    1. MDO-driven modernization priorities for ISR (intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance)
      • Terrestrial Layer System (TLS)
      • Aerial ISR
        • Gray, Blue, and Red (targeted) force tracking
      • TITAN-level communications
  635. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (23 September 2020) Pushing Data 'From Space To Mud': Project Convergence
  636. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (28 Apr 2021) Army Artillery's AI Gets Live-Fire Exercises In Europe, Pacific APNT: Timing for TITAN terminal prototype in 2022
  637. ^ NPR on the GAO report: GAO-19-128 Bill Chappell NPR (9 October 2018) Cyber Tests Showed 'Nearly All' New Pentagon Weapons Vulnerable To Attack, GAO Says
  638. ^ United States Government Accountability Office (GAO) GAO-19-128 (October 2018) report on weapon system vulnerabilities
  639. ^ David Vergun (24 September 2018) Cybersecurity: 'Remain vigilant, be accountable, stand ready' Army major general says
  640. ^ ARL Public Affairs (6 September 2018) Army research takes proactive approach to defending computer systems Moving target defense (MTD)
  641. ^ Shane Harris (27 March 2019) Palantir Wins Competition to Build Army Intelligence System
  642. ^ Joe Lacdan (05.24.2018) Warfare in megacities: a new frontier in military operations "No amount of planning, study or preparation can prepare a military unit for the unique rhythm of a major city or what Townsend labeled the 'flow'."
  643. ^ Timothy L. Rider (22 November 2019) Multinational partners find New York ideal to test urban warfare technologies Fort Hamilton hosted Contested Urban Environment Strategic Challenge 2019 (CUE 19) on 24 July 2019
  644. ^ John Spencer (14 November 2016) The Most Effective Weapon on the Modern Battlefield is Concrete
  645. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (13 Apr 2021) Army Needs Armor For City Fights: Gen. McConville
  646. ^ David Vergun, Army News Service (10 September 2018) Multi-domain operations to exploit enemy vulnerabilities, say Army leaders
  647. ^ Army ALT Magazine, Commentary (20 March 2019) Driving the Future
  648. ^ Dan Lafontaine, CCDC C5ISR Center Public Affairs (4 September 2019) Army looks to enhance mission command with robotic swarms
  649. ^ Carol Scheina, CCDC C5ISR Center Public Affairs (September 8, 2020) Abrams demonstration proves concept for enterprise-level system health monitoring
  650. ^ ARL Public Affairs (16 October 2018) Researchers develop technique to locate robots, Soldiers in GPS-challenged environments
  651. ^ Joe Lacdan, Army News Service (10 June 2019) Army leaders: Space tech crucial to future combat
  652. ^ Mark Schauer (ATEC) (12 February 2019) Unmanned aircraft stays aloft for nearly 26 days above U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground Zephyr
  653. ^ Andrew Eversden (2022) After setting ultra-endurance record, Army Zephyr drone keeps flying, whether it wants to or not
  654. ^ Nicholas Slayton (21 Aug 2022) After 64 days, the Army's drone that wouldn't die has died [Updated]
  655. ^ Riley Pickett (21 Aug 2022) The Airbus Zephyr Comes Crashing Down In Arizona
  656. ^ Lee Ferran (23 Aug 2022) Army's ultra-endurance Zephyr drone comes down after 'unexpected termination' over Arizona desert "First flight over water", the first "direct downlink while outside of U.S. airspace" and the "longest duration (7 days) utilizing satellite communications — including from a military base in the UK"
  657. ^ Christina MacKenzie (13 Jan 2023) France considering options for 'unexploited' higher airspace region HAO is 'higher airspace operations' e.g. Zephyr
  658. ^ UASWeekly.com (29 Apr 2021) UxS IBP: Multi-Day Maritime Demonstration for Vanilla UAS
  659. ^ Ryan White (27 Apr 2021) SM-6 successfully hits a target with the help of Unmanned Systems USS John Finn (DDG 113) during UxS IBP 21
  660. ^ "Assured Positioning, Navigation and Timing Cross Functional Team Assessment Exercise, 1-16 Aug 2019, WSMR". rfpdb.com.
  661. ^ Positioning, Navigation and Timing Assessment Exercise (PNTAX)
  662. ^ a b Koester, Jonathan (4 September 2019). "Army, JMC assess new navigation, positioning systems. Wearable A-PN". fortissbugle.com. Joint Modernization Command Public Affairs. Archived from the original on 4 September 2019. Retrieved 30 September 2023. (Fyi: the "original" link at "fortblissbugle.com" is now a gaming site. Only use the archive link.)
  663. ^ Mark Pomerleau (28 March 2019) If GPS goes out, the Army now has a requirement for that
  664. ^ Thomas Brading, Army News Service (7 October 2019) Army fields anti-jam GPS, plans for thousands more by 2028
  665. ^ Dan Lafontaine, CCDC C5ISR Center Public Affairs (17 June 2019) Futures Command looks to enable plug-and-play PNT across Army platforms
  666. ^ Gary Sheftick, Army News Service (10 March 2020) Army looks to leverage 'low Earth orbit' satellites: LEO satellites orbit 100-1200 miles above Earth
  667. ^ CCDC Army Research Laboratory (29 August 2019) Army scientists discover a new way for robots to exchange directed messages
  668. ^ Kim, M., Pallecchi, E., Ge, R. et al. (2020) Analogue switches made from boron nitride monolayers for application in 5G and terahertz communication systems. Nature Electron https://doi.org/10.1038/s41928-020-0416-x
  669. ^ Todd South (20 Nov 2020) New Army research breakthrough could lead to more powerful lasers
    • David J. Pine is investigator for ARO, using colloids of microscopic spheres which can assemble bottom-up into promising structures.
    • Mingxin He, Johnathon P. Gales, Étienne Ducrot, Zhe Gong, Gi-Ra Yi, Stefano Sacanna, & David J. Pine (23 Sep 2020) Colloidal diamond
  670. ^ U.S. Army DEVCOM Army Research Laboratory Public Affairs (19 Jul 2021) New material could mean lightweight armor, protective coatings
  671. ^ Jen Judson (27 March 2019) Army debuts missile defense framework in move to counter drones, hypersonic threats
  672. ^ Paul McLeary (17 January 2019) Missile Defense Review a Multi-Billion IOU to White House
  673. ^ Miles Brown (5 July 2019) Aviation, missile commander addresses workforce CG Todd Royar's statement of his expectations
  674. ^ PROGRAM EXECUTIVE OFFICE MISSILES AND SPACE (2018) Army Integrated Air and Missile Defense (IAMD) Program Overview Archived 23 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  675. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (1 October 2018) Army Awards Northrop $289M For IBCS Missile Defense Network
  676. ^ Dan Gouré (20 Mar 2020) SOCOM Has Solved the Military's 'Tower of Babel' Problem
  677. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (25 February 2020) Future Vertical Lift: Army's Aerial Vanguard LRPF will be the prime customer for the AI targeting data provided via FVL. The Joint force is also a consumer of this data, provided by FVL's manned or unmanned missions.
  678. ^ Mallory Shelbourne and Sam LaGrone (27 October 2022) Nuclear Sea-Launched Cruise Missile Has 'Zero Value', Latest Nuclear Posture Review Finds SLCM(N) would have fielded in 2035. Hence cancellation.
  679. ^ Valerie Insinna (6 May 2022) After DoD’s $1.5B move, Army and Marines rush to buy new Javelins, Stingers 250 microprocessors in each Javelin —Jim Taiclet
  680. ^ Marcus Weisgerber (1 May 2023) Defense Business Brief: Supply-chain headaches; Missile-making bump; Revolving-door figures; and more "Annual production of the PAC-3 interceptor will rise from 450 to 550; Javelin anti-tank missile, from 2,000 to more than 3,500; and GMLRS, from 10,000 to 14,000"
  681. ^ Marcus Weisgerber (26 Apr 2022) It Will Be Years Before Raytheon Can Build New Stinger Missiles:"The U.S. has been sending its Stingers to Ukrainian forces battling Russia." Aid was being sent by Feb 2022, at the latest.
  682. ^ Dan Grazier (27 Apr 2022) Let a Stinger be a Stinger. A new design isn't needed.
  683. ^ Kevin Baron (31 Mar 2023) Ukraine Victory Unlikely This Year, Milley Says Victory not impossible, just unlikely in the near term, 2023.
  684. ^ Ashley Roque (31 Mar 2023) Army to use Pacific Pathways to test assumptions about ‘contested logistics,’ prepositioned stocks
  685. ^ Jen Judson (31 Mar 2023) Army Materiel Command boss says logistics are key to future warfare
  686. ^ ARL (24 September 2018) New Army technology guides Soldiers in complete darkness
  687. ^ Andrew Eversden (18 Oct 2021) Army Says Next-Gen AR Goggles Delayed Over Field Of View Issues
  688. ^ Joe Lacdan (13 May 2019) Augmented reality training on the horizon to give Soldiers edge in combat allows repetition, for training
  689. ^ Tom McKay (6 April 2019) The Army Just Gave a Press Demo of Microsoft's HoloLens 2 Military Prototype
  690. ^ Bridgett Siter (19 November 2019) Soldiers test new IVAS technology, capabilities with hand-on exercises IVAS: 1 Soldier Touchpoint (STP) STP is becoming rapid acquisitions methodology for AFC
  691. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (13 December 2019) Soldiers, Coders Surprise Army Brass By Changing IVAS Goggles FOV is turning out to be more important to the infantrymen than the range of the goggles
  692. ^ Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (9 December 2019) Third IVAS evaluation slated for July Soldier Touchpoint successfully increased IVAS FOV to 80 degrees while range of the goggles was still at 900 meters, from thermal nightsight capability
  693. ^ Thomas Brading, Army News Service (10 February 2020) New technology recognizes faces in the dark, far away Combines night vision with facial recognition
  694. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (5 October 2020) From 'Frankengoggle' To Battle-Ready: Army IVAS waterproof IVAS
  695. ^ Adam Stone (30 Sep 2021) US Army makes headway on Synthetic Training Environment
  696. ^ Andrew Eversden (1 Dec 2021) Wormuth: Here's the Army's role in a Pacific fight
  697. ^ Immersive Ops (15 Nov 2021) Immersive Wisdom briefs Secretary of the Army at Project Convergence '21 on future of Army operations centers 3D Virtual Operations Center software platform
  698. ^ Caitlin M Kenney (1 Dec 2021) Army Would Have 5 'Core Tasks' in a Pacific Conflict
  699. ^ Thomas Brading, Army News Service (6 February 2020) Army scientists on verge of nearly unbreakable battery First announced in 2015
  700. ^ U.S. Army CCDC Research Laboratory Public Affairs (5 February 2020) Army scientists look inside batteries with a molecular eye CCDC ARL "teamed with researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory" (PNNL)
  701. ^ CCDC Army Research Laboratory March 2020) Researchers imagine devices without cords or batteries[permanent dead link] Molybdenum disulphide
  702. ^ Dan Lafontaine, C5ISR Center Public Affairs (4 May 2020) In modernization push, Army researches integrated power cables for Soldiers uses technology from Foreign Comparative Testing program (FCT)
  703. ^ Dan Lafontaine, C5ISR Center Public Affairs (17 Jan 2020) Army boosts Soldier battery power for greater lethality, mobility by using silicon-based anodes
  704. ^ U.S. Army CCDC Army Research Laboratory Public Affairs (25 February 2020) Additive manufacturing to provide Soldiers with cutting-edge munitions They "printed the world's first 3-D hybrid microcontroller circuit on a hemisphere that survived high G environments".
  705. ^ NSRDEC Public Affairs (15 October 2018) Natick's exoskeleton work is a powerful step toward the future of Soldier lethality
  706. ^ RDECOM Soldier Center, Public Affairs Office (23 January 2019) Soldier Center partners with industry experts to advance exoskeleton technologies
  707. ^ Harvard (17 Sep 2018) Multi-joint Personalized Exosuit Breaks New Ground video clip
  708. ^ David Roza (26 Aug 2022) The Army wants exoskeletons so soldiers can defeat their worst enemy: Lower back pain Assistive technology adds 3 pounds of equipment, but stabilizes lower back
  709. ^ Jerilyn Coleman (28 Apr 2022) DEVCOM teams explore low-cost, lightweight sensors for warfighter use Chem Bio Center (CBC) sensors to detect possible hazardous contamination
  710. ^ Thomas Brading, Army News Service (29 August 2019) Army closer to delivering new infantry squad vehicle (ISV)
    • 9 Soldiers of an infantry squad will maneuver in an ISV
    • Plans to purchase 649 prototypes were approved in February 2019
    • 3 industry leaders have been named (23 Aug. 2019), to deliver ISV prototypes
      1. Oshkosh Defense/Flyer,
      2. GM Defense, and
      3. SAIC/Polaris
    • Prototypes are due for initial assessment at Aberdeen Test Center 13 November 2019 through December 2019
    • At Fort Bragg a second round of operational testing by Soldiers will be performed on the candidate ISV prototypes
    • Downselect to one vendor is expected 2nd Quarter of FY2020
  711. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (8 October 2019) Who Will Build 651 Parachuting Trucks For The Army? 2 air-drop-able prototypes from each vendor due 13 November 2019,
  712. ^ Kyle Mizokami (13 Oct 2019) Meet the Army's New Airborne Trucks
  713. ^ GM Defense LLC (8 Aug 2020) US Army Selects GM Design for Infantry Squad Vehicle
  714. ^ Ashley Roque (5 Apr 2023) US Army waves green flag for Infantry Squad Vehicle full-rate production
  715. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (19 December 2019) AI & Robots Crush Foes In Army Wargame
  716. ^ Army University Press (Dec 2021) WayPoint in 2028 – Multidomain Operations 14:00 Lt Gen Theodore Martin, Commander of the Combined Arms Center at Fort Leavenworth, KS
  717. ^ a b Caitlin Kenny (10 Oct 2022) Divisions, Corps to Replace Brigades As Army's Wartime Formation Of Choice "Brigades that operated largely independently in Iraq and Afghanistan will fight as part of larger units in future conflicts, officials said".
  718. ^ a b (2 Feb 2023) How the Army 2030 Divisions Fight (Formerly Known as WayPoint 2028)
  719. ^ Todd South (11 Apr 2022) The Army's transformation begins with these new units
  720. ^ Joint Publication 3-18 (Validated 9 July 2021) Joint Forcible Entry Operations JP-3-18
  721. ^ Mark Cancian (11 Apr 2022) The Army's transformation begins with these new units Waypoint Divisions unitsOfAction=Airborne 82ndAB, AirAssault 101stAA, PenetrationDiv 1stAD 1stCD 1stID 34thID, HeavyDivABCTs, LightDivIBCTs
  722. ^ LTC Nathan Jennings (26 Apr 2022) CONSIDERING THE PENETRATION DIVISION: IMPLICATIONS FOR MULTI-DOMAIN OPERATIONS AUSA
  723. ^ Ethan Sterenfeld (12 Apr 2022) Army will realign ABCTs to create National Guard penetration division 34th ID
  724. ^ Jonathan Koester (13 Apr 2022) Future Penetration Division focus of Joint Warfighting Assessment 22
  725. ^ Battle Order (Sep 2022) Transforming U.S. Armor Divisions For Future War 20:45
  726. ^ Adrian Bonenberger (17 Jul 2023) Army Shift from Brigades Back to Divisions Raises Concerns Among Retired Generals Abrams, Nash, others
  727. ^ a b Andrew Eversden (15 Sep 2022) Wormuth: Here are the 6 areas the Army must be prepared for in 2030
  728. ^ a b Christine Wormuth, 25th Secretary of the Army (10 Oct 2022) AUSA 2022 Opening Ceremony hour 0:37:50 to 1:05:41
  729. ^ Patrick Tucker (14 Sep 2022) Ukraine War Offers Clues to Future War, Joint Chiefs Chairman Says
  730. ^ The Economist (30 Nov 2022) What is the war in Ukraine teaching Western armies? "It shows the importance of dispersal, firepower and stockpiles"
  731. ^ a b Joe Lacdan, Army News Service (24 Oct 2022) Army of 2030: Collaboration key to Army modernization
  732. ^ US Army Public Affairs (10 Oct 2022) AUSA Contemporary Military Forum: Army 2030 - Preparing Today for Tomorrow's Fight Gen. McConville, Gen.(Ret) Perkins, DepUnderSec Diaz, Gen. Rainey, LTG Beagle, Prof. Greer (SAMS)
  733. ^ TRADOC (13 Apr 2022) The Operational Environment and the Changing Character of Warfare TP 525-92
  734. ^ Signal (10 Oct 2022) The Army Takes an Extended View to 2040
  735. ^ Jaspreet Gill (19 Oct 2022) As Project Convergence tries new 'tech gateways', 2 AI algorithms to transition to programs of record Todd Army 2040
  736. ^ Parth Satam (15 Nov 2022) Decoding HIMARS' 'Design Philosophy', Latest Images Show Russia Could Be Analyzing Deadly US Rockets
  737. ^ a b c Maureena Thompson, Army Futures Command (3 January 2023) AFC hosts inaugural Army Future Readiness Conference
  738. ^ Jen Judson (8 Feb 2023) New Futures Command chief shifts main effort to designing Army of 2040
  739. ^ John Ferrari (2 Mar 2023) Congress can put Army modernization back on track "AEI's John Ferrari asks five important questions that the Army needs to answer before committing to high-dollar procurments [sic] during its modernization push".
  740. ^ Jen Judson (4 Apr 2023) The US Army moves to tweak its formations for future conflicts AFC to work with TRADOC
  741. ^ Joe Lacdan, Army News Service (19 May 2023) LANPAC 2023: Army faces most 'disruptive' period since World War II
  742. ^ University of Texas System (13 July 2018) University of Texas System to serve as home base for U.S. Army Futures Command
  743. ^ Ralph K.M. Haurwitz - American-Statesman Staff (10 August 2018) UT regents give Army's Futures Command free use of space temporarily Archived 10 August 2018 at the Wayback Machine
  744. ^ US Army "Army announces Austin as the home of new Army Futures Command". C-SPAN. 13 July 2018. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  745. ^ Army Futures Command FCC Leadership (20 February 2020). "Futures and Concepts Center". Futures and Concepts Center. Retrieved 20 February 2020.
  746. ^ BETSY WOODRUFF SWAN, ANDREW DESIDERIO, LARA SELIGMAN and ERIN BANCO (22 Apr 2021) Pentagon investigated suspected Russian directed-energy attacks on U.S. troops
  747. ^ a b Sydney Freedberg (10 Dec 2018) US Army's Brain Transplant: Futurists Move To Futures Command
  748. ^ CCDC Army Research Laboratory Public Affairs (29 April 2019) Army selects senior research scientist for terminal ballistics Fewer than 50 STs across the Army: An ST is a general-officer equivalent
  749. ^ Jen Judson (6 September 2018) Military deputy to US Army acquisition now has two bosses
  750. ^ Lt. Gen. Paul Ostrowski Bio
  751. ^ ASA(ALT) (20 September 2019) Army Acquisition Reform
  752. ^ a b Marcus Weisgerber (10 Nov 2022) Defense Business Brief: What a split Congress means for defense spending;... "on the lame-duck Congress' to-do list: Pass the fiscal 2023 defense appropriation by December and the National Defense Authorization Act". Passage of the NDAA starts the 180-day timer on AD 2022-07.
  753. ^ Myers (27 March 2018) Abrams: Army units will be tasked to work on each of Futures Command's priorities
  754. ^ Arpi Dilanian and Matthew Howard (18 July 2019) The Cheese Has Moved: An Interview With Lt. Gen. Paul Ostrowski
  755. ^ Ft Meade Soundoff! (19 July 2018) New site for Army Futures Command
  756. ^ Arpi Dilanian and Matthew Howard (1 October 2019) Bridging the gap to Army 2028: An interview with Gen. John "Mike" Murray
  757. ^ "PN2622—Lt. Gen. John M. Murray—Army". U.S. Congress. 16 July 2018. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  758. ^ Austin gets its general; Army Futures Command leader confirmed
  759. ^ Jen Judson (12 Jul 2021) Army Futures Command chief on what his team got right — and wrong — since its founding
  760. ^ "Promotion Ceremony iho LTG James E. Rainey". DVIDS. 7 October 2022. Retrieved 13 October 2022.
  761. ^ TRADOC Regulation 10-5-1 G357
  762. ^ a b c James Kennedy (2019) Force Management Model - Complete
  763. ^ a b c United States Army War College and Army Force Management School (2019-2020) How the Army Runs HTAR: A senior leader reference handbook which synthesizes "existing and developing National, Defense, Joint, and Army systems, processes, and procedures currently practiced"
  764. ^ James Kennedy (Aug 2022) JCIDS (ACIDS)
  765. ^ James Kennedy, CGSC (Jun 2022) AY22 Force Integration CGSC Weekly meetings on Change, Crisis, Competition, or Conflict. 50:31