Field Artillery
USA - Army Field Artillery Insignia.svg
Field Artillery branch insignia, featuring two crossed field guns
ActiveCreated 17 November 1775
Country United States
Branch United States Army
TypeCombat arms
Home stationFort Sill, Oklahoma, United States
Nickname(s)King of Battle
God of War
Red Leg
PatronSaint Barbara
Color  Scarlet[1]

The Field Artillery Branch is a combat arms branch of the United States Army that is responsible for field artillery.

Historical background

The U.S. Army Field Artillery branch traces its origins to 17 November 1775 when the Continental Congress, unanimously elected Henry Knox "Colonel of the Regiment of Artillery". The regiment formally entered service on 1 January 1776. During the 19th Century a total of seven Artillery regiments were formed which contained a mixture of "heavy" artillery companies and "light" artillery batteries. The light artillery batteries took the role of field artillery although they did not use that designation. The seven artillery regiments were designated as regiments of artillery and were not distinguished as being either "coast" or "field" artillery as was the practice in the 20th Century.

In the reorganization of the Army by the Act of 2 February 1901, the seven Artillery regiments were reorganized as the Artillery Corps. The Corps was split into 195 battery-sized units, called companies at the time, of Field Artillery and Coast Artillery. In 1907 the Artillery Corps was reorganized into the Field Artillery and the Coast Artillery Corps.[2] Although presently Field Artillery and Air Defense Artillery are separate branches, both inherit the traditions of the Artillery branch.

In 1907, the Field Artillery companies of the Artillery Corps were organized into six Field Artillery regiments. In 1916, as the United States was preparing for its eventual entry into World War I, these six regiments were supplemented by 15 more Field Artillery regiments. During World War I numerous other Field Artillery Regiments were organized in the National Guard and National Army, which were mobilized to supplement the Regular Army.

Lineage

In 1924 the Army organized the Coast Artillery Corps into regiments. The first seven regiments retained the lineage of the seven Artillery regiments which existed in the 19th Century. The Coast Artillery Corps was disbanded in 1950 and its units were consolidated with the Field Artillery in the Artillery branch. In 1968 the Artillery branch divided into Field Artillery and Air Defense Artillery branches with the newly formed 1st through 7th Air Defense Artillery regiments retaining the lineage of the seven 19th Century artillery regiments.

Although the oldest Artillery regiments in the Army are in the Air Defense Artillery branch, this is not necessarily the case for individual units below the regimental level. For example, the 1st Battalion of the 5th Field Artillery traces its lineage to the Alexander Hamilton Battery, formed in 1776, which is the oldest Artillery unit in the active United States Army and is the only Regular Army unit which can trace its lineage to the American Revolution.[3]

The oldest Field Artillery unit in the U.S. Army is 1st Battalion, 101st Field Artillery, Massachusetts Army National Guard, which traces its origins to December 1636. Originally an Infantry unit, it was reorganized as an Artillery unit in 1916.[4][5]

Mission statement

The mission of the Field Artillery is to destroy, defeat, or disrupt the enemy with integrated fires to enable maneuver commanders to dominate in unified land operations.[6]

History

The Field Artillery is one of the Army's combat arms, traditionally one of the three major branches (with Infantry and Armor). It refers to those units that use artillery weapons systems to deliver surface-to-surface long range indirect fire. Indirect fire means that the projectile does not follow the line of sight to the target. Mortars are not field artillery weapons; they are organic to infantry units and are manned by infantry personnel (US Army MOS 11C or USMC 0341).

The term field artillery is to distinguish from the Air Defense Artillery, and historically, from the U.S. Army Coast Artillery Corps (with the function of coastal defense artillery), a branch which existed from 1901–1950. In 1950, the two branches were unified and called simply Artillery, until Air Defense Artillery was made into a separate branch in 1968. The insignia of the Field Artillery branch is a pair of crossed field guns (19th-century-style cannon) in gold, and dates back to 1834.

The home of the Field Artillery and the Field Artillery School are at Fort Sill, Oklahoma.

Captain Harry S. Truman in 1918, the only "redleg" to become President
Captain Harry S. Truman in 1918, the only "redleg" to become President

Field artillery is called the "King of Battle". Conflicts in the 20th century saw artillery become exponentially more effective as indirect fire methods were introduced immediately prior to World War I. During World War I and World War II, field artillery was the single highest casualty-producing weapons system on any battlefield.

Soldiers from artillery units have often been used as infantry during both the Iraq War and the War in Afghanistan. While field artillery units have often performed admirably as infantry and accomplishing infantry missions, such use has led to atrophy of essential field artillery specific skills and tasks.[7]

Branch colors

Members of the Field Artillery are referred to as "redlegs" because during the Mexican American War, both Ringgold's Battery and Duncan's Battery were issued uniforms distinguished by scarlet stripes down the legs of their uniform pants, a practice continued through the Civil War and on dress uniforms even after WWI.

Scarlet was established as the Artillery Branch color along with crossed cannon branch insignia in the Regulations of 1833. Branch colors are found on the shoulder straps of officers wearing the blue dress uniform and on branch of service scarves authorized for wear with a variety of uniforms.[8][9]

Chief of Field Artillery

From 1920 to 1942, the Field Artillery corps was led by a branch chief who held the rank of major general.[10] This was in keeping with the Army's other major branches, including infantry, cavalry, and coast artillery.[11] Each chief was responsible for planning and overseeing execution of training, equipping, and manning within his branch.[11] From 1903 to 1908, one Chief of Artillery oversaw both field artillery and coast artillery.[11] After 1908, one general served as Chief of Coast Artillery.[11] After 1920, the Chief of Coast Artillery was joined by the Chief of Field Artillery.[11] The branch chief positions were eliminated in 1942, and their functions consolidated under the commander of the Army Ground Forces as a way to end inter-branch rivalries and enable synchronized and coordinated activities as part of World War II's combined arms doctrine.[12]

The Chiefs of Artillery included:

  1. Brigadier General Wallace F. Randolph, 1903–1904
  2. Brigadier General John Patten Story, 1904–1905
  3. Brigadier General Samuel M. Mills, 1905–1906
  4. Brigadier General Arthur Murray, 1906–1908 (became the first Chief of Coast Artillery)

The Chiefs of Field Artillery were:

  1. Major General William J. Snow, 1920–1927
  2. Major General Fred T. Austin, 1927–1930
  3. Major General Harry G. Bishop, 1930–1934
  4. Major General Upton Birnie Jr., 1934–1938
  5. Major General Robert M. Danford, 1938–1942

Publications

The professional journal of the Field Artillery is published at Fort Sill. Known as the Field Artillery Journal in 1911, it went through many name changes through Field Artillery in 1987. The journal merged with Air Defense Artillery in 2007 to become Fires.[13]

Current weapon systems

The U.S. Army employs five types of field artillery weapon systems:

Long Range Precision Fires

Long Range Precision Fires (LRPF) is a priority of the U.S. Army Futures Command (AFC). The aim is to modernize a suite of capabilities of the artillery.[a] LRPF appears to be a

Future Weapon Systems

Long Range Precision Fires (LRPF) CFT

According to AFC, the mission of the Long Range Precision Fires (LRPF) CFT is to "deliver cutting-edge surface-to-surface (SSM) fires systems that will significantly increase range and effects over currently fielded US and adversary systems."[28]

AFC's five major programs for LRPF are:

Based on Futures Command's development between July 2018 and December 2020, by 2023 the earliest versions of these weapons will be fielded:[34]

Long-Range Hypersonic Weapon training with All-up-round in its canister, 7 Oct 2021
Long-Range Hypersonic Weapon training with All-up-round in its canister, 7 Oct 2021

The kill chains will take less than 1 minute, from detection of the target, to execution of the fires command;[35] these operations will have the capability to precisely strike "command centers, air defenses, missile batteries, and logistics centers" nearly simultaneously.[34][d][37][38]

The current M109A6 "Paladin" howitzer range is doubled in the M109A7 variant.[50]: minute 3:07 [51] An operational test of components of the Long range cannon was scheduled for 2020.[52] The LRC is complementary to Extended range cannon artillery (ERCA),[52][53] the M1299 Extended Range Cannon Artillery howitzer.[54] Baseline ERCA is to enter service in 2023.[55][43][56] Investigations for ERCA in 2025: rocket-boosted artillery shells:[57] Tests of the Multiple launch rocket system (MLRS) XM30 rocket shell have demonstrated a near-doubling of the range of the munition, using the Tail controlled guided multiple launch rocket system, or TC-G.[58] The TRADOC capability manager (TCM) Field Artillery Brigade - DIVARTY has been named a command position.[e]

The LRHW has been named 'Dark Eagle'[91] The first LRHW battery will start to receive its first operational rounds in early FY2023; all eight rounds for this battery will have been delivered by FY2023.[92] By then, the PEO Missiles and Space will have picked up the LRHW program, for batteries two and three in FY'25 and FY'27, respectively.[92] Battery one will first train, and then participate in the LRHW flight test launches in FY'22 and FY'23.[92][Note 1][93]

Organization

In 1789 after the Revolution there was only one battalion of four companies of artillery. In 1794 a "Corps of Artillerists and Engineers" was organized, which included the four companies of artillery then in service and had sixteen companies in four battalions. In 1802 there was a reduction of the army. The Artillery were separated from the Engineers and the former formed into one regiment of 20 companies. In 1808 a regiment of ten companies called the "Regiment of Light Artillery" was formed. In 1812 two more regiments were added.

In 1821 four regiments were created from existing units on the following lines.

In 1901 the regimental organization of the US Army artillery was abolished, more companies were added, and given numerical designations.

In 1907 the Coast Artillery Corps was established as a separate branch, and the Field Artillery re-established regiments officially, although provisional regiments had existed since 1905.[94]

In 1916 Congress enacted the National Defense Act and 15 more regiments were authorized.

In 1917, following the American entry into World War I, the numbers from 1 through 100 were reserved for the Regular Army, from 101 through 300 for the National Guard, and 301 and above for the National Army. Under this system the 1st through 21st and 76th through 83d were organized in the Regular Army; the 101st through 151st, in the National Guard; and, the 25th through 75th, 84th and 85th, and the 301st through 351st in the National Army. Field Artillery Brigades, numbered 1st through 24th, 51st through 67th, and 151st through 172d, were also organized, with each brigade typically commanding three regiments; each division had one of these artillery brigades.[95]

A 1918 expansion added the 22d Field Artillery Regiment through the 39th Field Artillery Regiment with some exceptions, notably Philippine Scouts units.

The Coast Artillery Corps constantly reorganized the numbered companies until 1924, but during World War I created 61 artillery regiments from the numbered companies, for service (or potential service) with the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF); the 30th through 45th Artillery Brigades were also created to command groups of these regiments.[96] These regiments operated almost all US-manned heavy and railway artillery on the Western Front, and were designated, for example, 51st Artillery (Coast Artillery Corps (CAC)). Most of these were disbanded immediately after the war. The Coast Artillery also acquired the antiaircraft mission during the war, which was formalized a few years later. In 1924 the Coast Artillery Corps adopted a regimental system, and numbered companies were returned to letter designations. (In order to promote esprit-de-corps, the first 7 regiments were linked to the original 7 regiments of artillery). During 1943 most antiaircraft units lost their Coast Artillery designations, and the regiments were broken up into battalions. However, the antiaircraft branch remained nominally part of the Coast Artillery Corps. In late 1944 the Coast Artillery harbor defense regiments were inactivated or reorganized as battalions, which themselves were mostly disbanded in April 1945, with personnel transferred to the local Harbor Defense Commands. 977 Coast Artillery and antiaircraft battalions were created before the branch's demise in 1950.[97][98]

In 1943 an Army-wide (except infantry) reorganization created numerous serially numbered battalions, and most regiments were broken up into battalions. Also during World War II new designations were applied to some units, the "Armored Field Artillery Battalion" for self-propelled units and the "Parachute (or Glider) Field Artillery Battalion" for airborne units. A number of "Field Artillery Groups" were also created during the war.[99]

The Army Anti-Aircraft Command ARAACOM was created July 1950, and in 1957, ARAACOM was renamed to US Army Air Defense Command (USARADCOM). A new system, the U.S. Army Combat Arms Regimental System, or CARS, was adopted in 1957 to replace the old regimental system. CARS used the Army's traditional regiments as parent organizations for historical purposes, but the primary building blocks are divisions, and brigades became battalions. Each battalion carries an association with a parent regiment, even though the regimental organization no longer exists. In some brigades several numbered battalions carrying the same regimental association may still serve together, and tend to consider themselves part of the traditional regiment when in fact they are independent battalions serving a brigade, rather than a regimental, headquarters. From circa 1959 through 1971 antiaircraft units and field artillery units were combined with common parent regiments for lineage purposes, for example the "1st Artillery".

In 1968 the Air Defense Artillery Branch (United States Army) was split from the artillery, with the Regular Army air defense and field artillery regiments separating on 1 September 1971.

The CARS was replaced by the U.S. Army Regimental System (USARS) in 1981. US Artillery Structure 1989. On 1 October 2005, the word "regiment" was formally appended to the name of all active and inactive CARS and USARS regiments. So, for example, the 1st Cavalry officially became titled the 1st Cavalry Regiment.

During the Cold War the Field Artillery was responsible for all mobile ballistic missile weapons systems, including the Lance and Pershing II ballistic missiles.

Redlegs

See also

Notes and References

  1. ^ The proponent for the Field Artillery Branch is defined in §Army Regulation AR 5-22, and acts in concert with Army Staff. In Force modernization, Deputy Chiefs of Staff G-8 and G-3/5/7 sit on the Army Requirements Oversight Council (AROC), to advise the Chief of Staff of the Army (CSA).[14]: diagram on p.559 [15][16] The commander, AFC is responsible for Force design.[15]
    • The Army's Force management model begins with a projection of the Future operating environment, in terms of resources: political, military, economic, social, information, infrastructure, physical environment, and the time available to bring the Current army to bear on the situation.[16]
    • The AROC serves as a discussion forum of these factors.[15][17]
    • The relevant strategy is provided by the Army's leadership.
    • A DOTMLPF analysis models the factors necessary to change the Current force into a relevant Future force.
    • A JCIDS process identifies the gaps in capability between Current and Future force.
    • A Force design to meet the materiel gaps is underway.
    • An organization with the desired capabilities (manpower, materiel, training) is brought to bear on each gap.
      • AR 5-22(pdf) lists the Force modernization proponent for each Army branch, which can be a CoE or Branch proponent leader.
      • Staff uses a Synchronization meeting[18]: minute 8:29  before seeking approval —HTAR Force Management 3-2b: "Managing change in any large, complex organization requires the synchronization of many interrelated processes".[14]: p2-27 
    • A budget request is submitted to Congress.
    • The resources are "dictated by Congress".[16]
    • Approved requests then await resource deliveries which then become available to the combatant commanders.[19]
  2. ^ In late FY2023 18 ERCA prototypes will undergo a one-year operational assessment at Fort Bliss.[29]
  3. ^ a b c Munitions such as PrSM will need to fire and then move, at targets on the move.[46][47]
  4. ^ "[HIMARS] is used to destroy critical communications nodes, command posts, airfields, and important logistics facilities".—Mick Ryerson (Major General, Australian Army, retired)[36]
  5. ^ "That's pretty important because that gives him (Dunwoody) the authority to do what needs to be done across the Army with the myriad responsibilities that he has," Shoffner said." Dunwoody becomes a direct report to the TRADOC commander —Tribune staff (22 August 2019) Colonel named division artillery director
  1. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (November 22, 2019) SecArmy's Multi-Domain Kill Chain: Space-Cloud-AI Army Multi-Domain Operations Concept, December 2018 slide from TRADOC pamphlet 525-3-1 (Dec 2018).
    Multi-domain operations (MDO) span multiple domains: cislunar space, land, air, maritime, cyber, and populations.
    Multi-domain operations (MDO) span multiple domains: cislunar space, land, air, maritime, cyber, and populations.
    
    
  1. ^ US Department of Defense. DA PAM 670-1. 11 October 2017
  2. ^ Smith, Bolling W.; Gaines, William C. "Coast Artillery Organization: A Brief Overview" (PDF). Coast Defense Study Group. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 March 2014.
  3. ^ "1st Battalion, 5th Field Artillery Regiment (Alexander Hamilton Battery)". Lineage And Honors Information. US Army Center of Military History. 4 May 2009. Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  4. ^ Oldest Field Artillery Battalion Takes Charge at Camp Phoenix – DVIDS News
  5. ^ McKenney, Janice E. (2010). US Army Center of Military History (CMH) Publication 60–11, Army Lineage Series, Field Artillery, Part 2. Washington, DC: US Army Center of Military History. pp. 1019–1032.
  6. ^ ADRP 3-09 – Fires (PDF). Official Department of the Army Publications and Forms – Doctrine and Training Publications (C1 ed.). United States Department of Army. 8 February 2013. pp. 1–3. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
  7. ^ Sean MacFarland, Michael Shields, and Jeffrey Snow, "White Paper: The King and I: The impending Crisis in Field Artillery’s ability to provide Fire Support to Maneuver Commander (np:np): memo sent to the Chief of Staff of the Army, 2007. 1.
  8. ^ Army Regulation 670–1
  9. ^ Center of Military History Survey of US Army Uniforms, Weapons and Accoutrements
  10. ^ Taylor, John E.; Andrews, Patricia (1962). Preliminary Inventory of the Records of the Chiefs of Arms. Westminster, MD: Heritage Books. pp. 2–3. ISBN 9780788436499.
  11. ^ a b c d e Preliminary Inventory of the Records of the Chiefs of Arms, pp. 2–3.
  12. ^ Cameron, Robert S. (2008). Mobility, shock, and firepower: The Emergence of the U.S. Army's Armor Branch, 1917–1945. Washington, DC: Center of Military History, United States Army. p. 472. ISBN 978-0-16-079417-9.
  13. ^ "Fires". United States Field Artillery. Retrieved 9 March 2008.
  14. ^ a b United States Army War College and Army Force Management School (2019-2020) How the Army Runs HTAR: A senior leader reference handbook which synthesizes "existing and developing National, Defense, Joint, and Army systems, processes, and procedures currently practiced"
  15. ^ a b c Headquarters, Department of the Army (29 Jun 2021) Army Regulation 71–9 Force Management. Warfighting Capabilities Determination °1-6c, p.1) tasks for CG,AFC; °2-24 p.13) CG,AFC is a principal member of AROC, with 43 duties a through qq; °3-1 ch.3 pp20-21) AROC is a forum for requirements decisions (RDF); °4-1 p.24) CG,AFC is responsible for force design; °6-4 p39) figure 6-1 Deliberate staffing and review process; figures for more staffing and review processes follow.
  16. ^ a b c James Kennedy (2019) Force Management Model - Complete
  17. ^ Research, Development, and Acquisition AR 71–9 (2009) Warfighting Capabilities Determination Aug 15, 2019 update
  18. ^ James Kennedy, CGSC (Jun 2022) AY22 Force Integration CGSC Weekly meetings on Change, Crisis, Competition, or Conflict. 50:31
  19. ^ Caitlin Lee (23 Mar 2022) The US Military's Force Management Tug-of-War an allocation process
  20. ^ Jen Judson (8 Nov 2022) Lockheed talks results of US Army’s long-range munition shoot-off
  21. ^ Sydney Freedberg, Jr. (11 Sep 2018) Aiming The Army’s Thousand-Mile Missiles
  22. ^ Matthew Cox (14 September 2018) The Army is developing a new strategic cannon to devastate targets over 1,000 miles away
  23. ^ "The Army's dream of artillery that fires 1,000 miles is officially a dud". Task & Purpose, May 25, 2022. Retrieved 26 May 2022.
  24. ^ Sydney Freedberg, Jr. (March 23, 2018) Army Will Field 100 Km Cannon, 500 Km Missiles: LRPF CFT
  25. ^ Jared Serbu (August 2, 2018) Army has picked a location for its new Futures Command, but now comes the hard part
  26. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (20 Mar 2020) Hypersonics: Army, Navy Test Common Glide Body "The U.S. Navy and U.S. Army jointly executed the launch of a common hypersonic glide body (C-HGB), which flew at hypersonic speed to a designated impact point"
  27. ^ Theresa Hitchens (11 Aug 2021) ‘Confident’ Of 2023 Fielding Goal, Army Dubs Hypersonic Weapon ‘Dark Eagle’
  28. ^ Army Futures Command "Long Range Precision Fires CFT". Army Futures Command. U.S. Army. Retrieved 9 February 2022.
  29. ^ Maureena Thompson, Army Futures Command (1 June 2022) Army programs promote strength, agility of Long Range Precision Fires
  30. ^ Jen Judson (14 Oct 2019) Strategic, long-range cannon preps to jump its first tech hurdle 2019 AUSA— targets 2023 prototype
  31. ^ Jen Judson (23 May 2022) US Army terminates Strategic Long-Range Cannon science and technology effort
  32. ^ a b c Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (6 November 2020) Army Picks Tomahawk & SM-6 For Mid-Range Missiles Tomahawk (missile) and SM-6 (RIM-174 Standard ERAM)
  33. ^ Feickert, Andrew (16 March 2021). "U.S. Army Long-Range Precision Fires: Background and Issues for Congress". Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 8 February 2022.
  34. ^ a b Dan Gouré (2 Dec 2020) Army's Newest Long-Range Fires System Isn't New, But It Will Be Effective
  35. ^ Theresa Hitchens "ABMS Demo Proves AI Chops For C2", breakingdefense.com, 3 September 2020
  36. ^ Tim Lister and Oren Liebermann, CNN (14 Jul 2022) Ukraine’s new US rockets are causing fresh problems for Russia
  37. ^ Todd South (20 Aug 2020) Army missile defenders defeat cruise and ballistic missiles nearly simultaneously The test created terabytes of data to be queried.
  38. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (22 Mar 2021) Army Missiles, Missile Defense Race Budget Crunch To 2023
  39. ^ Office of the Chief of Public Affairs (10.16.2019) 2019 AUSA Warriors Corner - TacticalSpace: Delivering Future Force Space Capabilities
      1. Assured Positioning, Navigation and Timing
      2. Tactical Space: SDA is structuring a multi-layer satellite system:
        1. Backbone layer for data transport downward to the long-range precision fires
        2. Custody layer for missiles' trajectories, whether friendly or threat
        3. Tracking layer for hypersonic glide vehicles which represent threats to the multi-layer satellite system
        4. Space situational awareness for cis-lunar trajectories,
      3. NavWar
  40. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (5 August 2020) Army Tests New All Domain Kill Chain: From Space To AI
    1. Initially, satellites feed data to TITAN.
    2. Prometheus, which is AI software, combs through the data for potential threats and targets.
    3. SHOT, which is also software, tracks each target on a custody list, correlating each target's current location, signature, and threat assessment, with a list of candidate fires countermeasures, ranked by capability, range to the target, kill radius, etc. "SHOT then computes the optimal match of weapons to targets", and passes the list to AFATDS.
    4. Human commanders choose whether to fire, or not, from the list of fires assets (Nelson notes that ERCA and Grey Eagle drones are to be added to the list of fires assets—currently M777 howitzers and MLRS 270 rocket launchers in the upcoming tests, August 2020).
    5. satellites perform Battle damage assessment, to update the list of threats and targets.
  41. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (14 August 2020) Can Army Intel Data Feed The Kill Chain? Quickly pooling data will take AI and cloud—"Project Convergence"
  42. ^ Caitlin O'Neill, APNT CFT Public Affairs (23 August 2019) APNT CFT Hosts First Annual Assessment Exercise
  43. ^ a b c Todd South (11 Mar 2020) The Army is ‘making artillery great again’ Press conference.
  44. ^ Ben Wolfgang (22 Dec 2020) Army's long-range cannon hits target 43 miles away
  45. ^ a b c Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (10 December 2019) Direct Hit: Army Test-Fires Lockheed Precision Strike Missile EXCLUSIVE
  46. ^ Todd South (20 Sep 2022) Army missile teams will add robots and multi-payload rockets —Hunter Blackwell, CCDC Aviation and Missile Center (AvMC)
  47. ^ US Army AvMC (16 Jun 2021) Video: Autonomous missile launcher destroys enemy threats AvMC concept video —autonomous multi-domain launcher (AML): Jen Judson (16 Jun 2021) US Army fires autonomous launcher in Pacific-focused demo AML demo at Fort Sill utilized a HIMARS launcher and the AML
  48. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (12 Mar 2021) Joint World Warms Up To Army Long-Range Missiles Capabilities of MDTF
  49. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (12 May 2021) Army Discloses Hypersonic LRHW Range Of 1,725 Miles; Watch Out China
  50. ^ Defense Updates U.S ARMY's EXTENDED RANGE CANNON ARTILLERY CREATES WORLD RECORD | HITS TARGET AT 43 MILES or 70 KM !
  51. ^ David Vergun, Army News Service (13 September 2018) Cross-functional teams already producing results, says Futures Command general, House Armed Services Sub-committee hearing, 13 September 2018
  52. ^ a b Nancy Jones-Bonbrest, Army Rapid Capabilities Office (20 September 2018) Army doubles cannon range in prototype demo
  53. ^ Defense updates (14 Dec 2018) EXTENDED RANGE CANNON ARTILLERY OF U S ARMY- FULL ANALYSIS 5:00 clip. XM1113 shell and XM657 propellant on XM907
  54. ^ a b c Freedberg Jr., Sydney J. (6 March 2020), "New Army Cannon Doubles Range; Ramjet Ammo May Be Next", Breaking Defense
  55. ^ a b c Sydney J. Freedberg, Jr. (21 Oct 2020) LRPF: Army Missiles, Cannon Face Big Tests In ’21
  56. ^ US Army (27 May 2020) Excalibur Round Precision Hit From 65 kilometers at U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground
  57. ^ a b Maj. Gen. Cedric T. Wins, CG RDECOM (25 September 2018) RDECOM's road map to modernizing the Army: Long-range precision fires First in a series
  58. ^ Devon L. Suits, Army News Service (8 May 2019) Army demonstrates extended ranges for precision munitions
  59. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (16 Apr 2021) ERCA: Army Contracts To Help New Cannon ‘Fire Faster’
  60. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (27 January 2020) Artillery Seeks Robot Ammo Haulers Field Artillery Autonomous Resupply
  61. ^ Paul McLeary (19 July 2019) Army Readies Long-Range Missile Tests—Post INF
  62. ^ a b David Sanger and Edward Wong The New York Times (2 August 2019) US ends cold war missile treaty, to counter arms buildup by China. p.A7
  63. ^ Paul McCleary (12 Dec 2019) US Busts INF Wall With Ballistic Missile, Puts Putin & Xi On Notice
  64. ^ NATIONAL DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION ACT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2020 Senate report 116-48
  65. ^ Brendan Deveraux (28 Jan 2022) WHY INTERMEDIATE-RANGE MISSILES ARE A FOCAL POINT IN THE UKRAINE CRISIS
  66. ^ Jen Judson (25 Mar 2020) Raytheon exits precision strike missile competition
  67. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (19 Mar 2020) PRSM: Lockheed Long-Range Missile Passes Short-Range Stress Test 3 layers of LRPF are scheduled to enter service in limited numbers in 2023; also explains its relationship to Future vertical lift (FVL) and Mobile & expeditionary network
  68. ^ Andrew Eversden (1 October 2021) Lockheed Martin's Precision Strike Missile Enters Next Phase with Army
  69. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (30 Apr 2020) Army: Lockheed PrSM Missile Aces Third Flight Test
    • 2023 goal is to deliver 30 PrSMs with 500 km range
    • 2025 goal is to use multi-mode seekers against moving targets
    • Use open architecture to allow multiple vendors to offer upgrades
    • Provide extended range (beyond 650-700 km) within the existing HIMARS MLRS form factor
  70. ^ Andrew Eversden (3 May 2027) The Army could get its next-gen Precision Strike Missiles in FY27
  71. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (08 September 2020) Army Seeks New Mid-Range Missile Prototype By 2023 1000 mile missile needed.
  72. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (14 October 2020) Army Asks Hill For New Mid-Range Missile $$$ ASAP: Thurgood Fund the Mid-Range Capability (MRC) with 2020 Above Threshold Reprogramming (ATR).
  73. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (13 October 2020) China, Russia Threats To Drive What Army Keeps & Cuts: Gen. Murray TRAC needs to produce its reports in 3 months or faster.
  74. ^ Loren Thompson (12 Apr 2021) Air Power Advocates Are Attacking Army Long-Range Strike Plans. Here's Why They're Wrong.
  75. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (23 October 2020) DARPA's Hypersonic OpFires Aims For Army 1,000-Mile Missile
  76. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (13 November 2018) Beyond INF: Countering Russia, Countering China (Analysis)
  77. ^ a b Mike Stone (13 Jul 2022) U.S. successfully tests pair of Lockheed hypersonic missiles
  78. ^ John Vandiver (18 Jul 2022) DARPA scores success with hypersonic missile launch from Marine Corps truck
  79. ^ a b Ryan Pickrell (5 June 2019) The US Army says it will have hypersonic missiles and laser weapons ready for combat in less than 4 years
  80. ^ Bill Greenwalt (13 Dec 2021) New defense budget commission could be last hope for fixing DoD spending.
  81. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (20 September 2019) Congress’ Budget Gridlock Threatens Army Hypersonics G8 is posing a heuristic to get beyond delay in NDAA (national defense authorization act) for 2020 (get Army funding by calendar year-end)
  82. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (28 Feb 2020) Army Ramps Up Funding For Laser Shield, Hypersonic Sword In FY2021 HELs funding is up 209 percent; LRHW funding is up 86 percent. RCCTO spending is $1 billion in 2021.
  83. ^ Corey Dickstein (3 March 2020) Army to fire two hypersonic test shots this year, McCarthy says
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Further reading