Mexican Air Force
Fuerza Aérea Mexicana
Founded1913; 111 years ago (1913)
Country Mexico
Branch Mexican Army
TypeAir force
RoleAerial warfare
Size30,517 (2024)
Part ofMexican Armed Forces
  • Honor, Valor y Lealtad
  • "Honour, Courage and Loyalty"
Anniversaries10 February
Engagements Edit this at Wikidata
Bertín Hernández Mercado[1]
Fin flash
Aircraft flown
AttackPC-7, PC-9M, MD 500, T-6C+
Embraer R-99
HelicopterMil Mi-8, Mil Mi-17, EC-725, UH-60, MD 500
InterceptorNorthrop F-5E
ReconnaissanceC-90A King Air, Sabreliner 75A, Fairchild C-26
TrainerPC-7, PC-9M
TransportC-130, Boeing 787, Boeing 757, IAI Arava, Antonov An-32

The Mexican Air Force (FAM; Spanish: Fuerza Aérea Mexicana) is the air service branch of the Mexican Armed Forces. It is a component of the Mexican Army and as such overseen by the National Defense Secretariat (SEDENA). The objective of the FAM is to defend the integrity, independence, and sovereignty of Mexico. Its auxiliary tasks include internal security, assisting with public works, and natural disaster management. As of 2023, its commander is Bertín Hernández Mercado.[1]


Mexican Revolution

The Curtiss aircraft Sonora was used for observation and bombing. Mexico, 1913.

The foundation of the Mexican airforce was led by five Mexican flight pioneers who were sent to New York by President Francisco Madero to master flying: Juan Pablo and Eduardo Aldasoro, Alberto and Gustavo Salinas and Horacio Ruiz. They returned to Mexico in 1913 not only as pioneers, but also teachers for the next generation of pilots.

The official predecessor of the Air Force was the Army's Auxiliary Aerial Militia Squadron (Escuadrilla Aérea de la Milicia Auxiliar del Ejército), created during the Mexican Revolution in April 1913 by the Secretary of War and Navy General Manuel Mondragón, who authorized pilots Miguel Lebrija and Juan Guillermo Villasana [es] to test out bomb targets on Campo de Balbuena, the first airport in Mexico, now located in Jardín Balbuena in Mexico City.[2]

The air force exclusively performed reconnaissance missions until 10 May 1913, when Didier Masson and a Joaquín Bauche Alcalde dropped 15 kilograms of dynamite on rebel boats. Although the attack did not cause any damage below, it is the first known instance of air-to-sea bombing. Masson also performed leaflet drops, also considered the first ever done.[3]

On February 5, 1915, the leader of the Constitutionalist Army, Venustiano Carranza, founded the Military Aviation Arm (Arma de Aviación Militar), which would become the current air force. Its first commander was Lt. Alberto Salinas Carranza.[4]

Other rebellions

General O'Neill Standing with President Obregon

When WWI Ace U.S. Colonel Ralph O'Neill was hired to head the restructuring of the Mexican Air Force in 1920, he reported to General Plutarco Elías Calles that most of the aircraft available had to be replaced. Until August 1920, the entire fleet consisted of 13 national made prototypes of mixed engine design. These were functional yet ill-equipped for battle, 4 being scout monoplanes. 5 others were in repair and over 20 more at the TNCA were obsolete or wrecked beyond repair. The branch initially consisted of 27 pilots, 17 of which were cadets. In anticipation of the new "Chief", a purchase was made of 13 French Farman F.50 night bombers. Commander O'Neill soon acquired 35 British made Avro 504K and Avro 504J airplanes, which later would be made in Mexico under the name Avro Anáhuac.[5] O'Neill was the first to introduce the term "Fuerza Aérea Mexicana" (FAM) naming the organization as such. The next step was the formation of classified fighter, bombing, observation and reconnaissance squadrons, as well as the decentralization of Air Force units throughout the country at strategic bases. O'Neill then set to work with his co-instructors German Fritz Bieler and Frenchman Joe Ben Lievre, using the first intercom known as the "Gosport System", invented by Robert Smith-Barry, in order to give in-air commands. O'Neill not only implemented new combat strategy, but also flew many decisive missions.

From 1923 to 1929, Mexico was immersed in a wave of violent territorial, religious and military armed rebellions, which required the new Air Force to quickly deploy support wherever the federal army requested them. These conflicts were resolved mostly by the assertive use of air superiority alone.

On December 7, 1923, former President Adolfo de la Huerta launched a military coup (delahuertista rebellion) against the government of President Álvaro Obregón. The situation was extremely critical, because along with de la Huerta, about 60% of the army revolted, including various high-ranking generals across the country. The power tilted back in favor of the federal forces when the United States agreed to furnish the Mexican government with a fleet of new de Havilland DH-4B aircraft equipped with the Liberty motor, armed with Lewis and Vickers machine guns and able to carry bombs. The military coup was suffocated by February 1924.

In 1925, due to the shortage of airplanes caused by World War I, Mexico set up the National Aviation Workshops (TNCA) to design and build its own airplanes and aeroengines.

Emilio Carranza.

A territorial war was that of the Sonora Yaqui Indians who demanded by force that previous territorial treaties were implemented. The conflict lasted from 1926 to 1927, and it came to an end when a new treaty was implemented.

When President Plutarco Elías Calles pushed for the creation of the 'Mexican Apostolic Catholic Church', independent of Rome, it unleashed a widespread religious war known as the Cristero War. This long civil war lasted from 1926 to 1929.

In May 1927, while General Obregón seemed keen to impose the presidency to General Calles, General Arnulfo R. Gómez launched a military coup against both Obregón and Calles. His command posts were located in the cities of Puebla and Veracruz, where he led approximately 200 federal deserters, ammunition and weapons. The air force played a key role in their defeat.

Then, on March 3, 1929, a serious military coup took place, led by General José Gonzalo Escobar and heeded by various other generals. In these days, the air force's remaining airplanes consisted of worn and shot Bristol F.2 Fighter, Bristol Boarhound, de Havilland DH-4B and Douglas O-2C, a force that was not suitable to defeat Escobar's power.[6][7] In this context, the Mexican government convinced the U.S. government to promote the peace south of its border and quickly make available twelve new OU-2M Corsair with the 400 hp Wasp engine, nine Douglas O-2M, four Stearman C3B and six Waco Taper Wings. Only two weeks after making the request, the U.S. government agreed, and several Mexican pilots travelled to Brownsville, Texas, and New York to pick up the new aircraft. The key victory was decided in late March 1929 at the Battle of Jiménez, Chihuahua, where after several days of air raids, Escobar was defeated by General Calles, taking about 6000 prisoners.[8] This rebellion was quite serious, since a third of the officials and nearly 30,000 soldiers rebelled; in two months, more than 2000 men had been killed.

In May 1938, the Governor of San Luis Potosí, General Saturnino Cedillo, declared himself in rebellion and President Lázaro Cárdenas travelled there to personally mount the campaign against the revolt. The Air Force organized a mixed fleet of 17 aircraft that included some new V-99M Corsair, engaging the enemy assertively when spotted. Cedillo quickly realized he had no chance in open fields against the air force and ran to the Huasteca Hills, where his men dispersed, abandoning him.[9]

With the imminent collapse of the Spanish Republic in 1939, the Mexican government took delivery of military aircraft destined for the Republic, strengthening its arsenal.

World War II

Mexican P-47D Thunderbolt over the Philippines (1945)

The Escuadrón 201, a P-47D fighter squadron of the Fuerza Aérea Expedicionaria Mexicana (Mexican Expeditionary Air Force), served in the Pacific War against the Empire of Japan during World War II. It consisted of 25 aircraft and had 300 airmen and supporting staff. The 201st Squadron, completed 96 combat missions over the Philippines (Battle of Luzon) and Formosa (Taiwan). It is the only unit of the Mexican armed forces ever to see overseas combat.[10]

Cold War era

The first jet aircraft operated by the Mexican Air Force was the subsonic de Havilland Vampire Mk.I. Mexico received 17 Vampires during late 1960 and early 1961. This jet was nicknamed "The Flying Avocado" by Mexican flight crews due to the ovoid shape of its fuselage and the dark green night camouflage adopted by its first units. The Vampires were not popular with Mexican fighter pilots because of its lack of ejection seats. The FAM finally retired them in 1970.

The Mexican Vampires were initially complemented by 15 Lockheed T-33 Shooting Star subsonic fighter aircraft received also in late 1961. Because of its more modern design, an ejection seat system and several other attributes, the T-33 was well liked by most FAM pilots and became a huge success as a patrol and interceptor aircraft. During the seventies and early eighties an additional 20 or more T-33s were procured by the FAM to replace aircraft lost in accidents and to increase the size of the fleet after the retirement of the Vampires.

In 1982, the FAM received 12 Northrop F-5E/F Tiger II jets (10 F-5Es and 2 F-5Fs). The F-5 gave Mexico its first supersonic platform and saw the formation of Air Squadron 401. Since the 1980s the F-5 became the main Mexican fighter jet while the remaining operational T-33s were used for subsonic support and light attack roles.[11]

In 1983 one F-5E was lost in an accident that occurred during a target practice exercise in the state of Chihuahua.

Chiapas conflict

T-33A of the Mexican Air Force on display at Santa Lucía

On January 1, 1994, the day the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) came into effect, hundreds of guerrillas from the previously unknown Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN) occupied several towns and cities in the southern state of Chiapas.

The FAM was mobilized to support Army units, sending almost every available helicopter to the territory of operations. Units involved included the recently formed 214th and 215th Special Operations Squadrons, equipped with a mix of Bell 212 assault- and MD.530F scout helicopters. Up to 40 helicopters were deployed to support an initial deployment of 10,000 ground troops.

Bell 212s were armed in two configurations: for fire support with twin MAG 7.62-mm gun pods and cabin-mounted GPMGs; or as gunship, with LAU-32 70-mm rocket launchers, a twin MAG gun-pod and cabin mounted MAG GPMGs.

Pumas, Bell 205s, 206s and 212s from the 209th were also deployed, however, FAM's helicopter assets were scarce and the Mexican Army had to rely on almost every other government agency's helicopters for general support tasks. Almost any flyable aircraft from the National Attorney's Office (PGR) was also deployed, including Bell 206s and 212s, as well as the Navy's recently acquired Mi-8MTV-1s. Eventually the Army deployed some 70,000 ground troops and air support proved to be insufficient; hence the decision was taken to considerably expand the FAM's helicopter fleet.

By December 1994, FAM had bought additional 12 armed MD.530MG 'Defender' and four UH-60L Blackhawk helicopters,[12] which it grouped into the 216th Special Operations Squadron. This unit was the spearhead of operation "Arco Iris" (Rainbow) to re-take several towns that had fallen under rebel control in January 1994. The new militarized Defenders came armed with M2AC machine-guns and LAU-68A 70-mm rocket launchers. Three additional units were ordered in 1996 and delivered as attrition replacements in March 1998. Black Hawks wore 1191 to 1194 serials and are being used for special operations.

Although the FAM received 18 surplus Bell 206s from the Attorney General's office (PGR) in the mid-1990s, the main need identified by the FAM High Command was for a new fleet of transport helicopters that would allow it to support the Army with an adequate airlift capability.[13]

Recent times

Mexican Air Force F-5 Tiger II flying near the Popocatépetl Volcano

After more than 30 yearly military parade flights without incidents, an F-5E collided in mid-air with three Lockheed T-33s on the Air-military parade accident on September 16, 1995.[14] All aircraft were lost and a total of 10 deaths occurred. Since then, for safety reasons, military parade flyovers in Mexico have been smaller in participation.

In 2004, the Mexican Air Force recorded a UFO sighting over southern Campeche.

In 2007, after more than 45 years in service, the last operational T-33s were retired. In 2012, the supersonic F-5 fighter jets had their 30th anniversary in Mexican Air Force service.[11][15] Due to high operating costs, lack of parts, and the extreme age of the aircraft, the Mexican Air Force retired all but three F-5s in late 2017.[16] In early 2019, the Mexican Air Force received repaired engines for their F-5 fighters, as part of an effort to return a handful of the aircraft to operational status.[17] In early 2023, restoration work on F-5 airframes has begun with the intention to have a total of at least nine F-5s in active service.

Because of the ongoing Mexican Drug War, increasing importance has been placed on acquiring airborne surveillance platforms, UAVs, light attack aircraft, helicopters and rapid troop transports.[18]

On 21 February 2021, a Learjet 45XR operated by the Mexican Air Force crashed while taking off from El Lencero Airport in Veracruz, killing all six people on board.[19]

Territorial organization

Air Force Regions

Air Force Regions (Spanish: Región Aérea) are the airspaces over one or more contiguous Zones or federal entities. In each Air Region, the Air Force provides security and defense, and address internal security matters in coordination with other Armed Forces or any federal institution. Each Air Region is composed of Headquarters, Air Force Bases, Air Force Stations, and other organizations. The Air Force divides the country's territory into four regions: Northwestern (Mexicali, Baja California), Northeastern (Chihuahua, Chihuahua), Central (Mexico City) and Southeastern (Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas); each region is commanded by a general.[20] The regional headquarters are in charge of 18 air bases across the country:

Mexican Air Force Regions

Air Force Bases

Air Force Bases, also called Military Air Bases (Spanish: Base Aérea Militar) (BAM), are operational and administrative entities subordinate to the Air Regions, responsible for the technical and administrative aspects, as well as the coordination of aerial operations within the Air Regions. They comprise flight units and service organizations, overseeing the airspace assigned by the Air Force Command. The primary purpose of Air Bases is to conduct and support military aerial operations, ensuring the security and defense of the designated airspace, and contributing to internal security in accordance with directives from the Zone, Air Region, Air Force Command, and Ministry of Defense. The Mexican Air Force comprises 18 Air Force Bases, each associated with a specific Air Region in the country. Components of Air Bases include Headquarters, Flight Units, Technical Services of the Air Force, and Technical and Administrative Services.[21]

Air Group Unit Aircraft Notes
Air Force Base No. 1Zumpango, Estado de Mexico – Central Air Region
1st Air Group 101 Air Squadron Bell 412, Eurocopter EC725, UH-60 Black Hawk Mexico received two of the twelve EC-725; the first two are assigned to the 101 Air Squadron.[22]
112 Air Squadron Bell 212, MD 530MG
3rd Air Group 301 Air Squadron C-295, IAI 101B/102/201
302 Air Squadron C-27J Spartan, C-130 Hercules
303 Air Squadron Mi-8T/MTV-1
Aerial Surveillance Squadron C-26 Metroliner, R/P-99, SA2-37B
VIP Transport Squadron Boeing 757, Super Puma
Air Force Base No. 2Ixtepec, Oaxaca – Southeast Air Region
1st Air Group 401 Air Squadron F-5E/F [23]
402 Air Squadron PC-7
Air Force Base No. 3Ensenada, Baja California – Northwest Air Region
5th Air Group 106 Air Squadron Cessna 182, Cessna 206
Air Force Base No. 4Cozumel, Quintana Roo – Southeast Air Region
2nd Air Group 201 Air Squadron T-6C+ [24]
Air Force Base No. 5Zapopan, Jalisco – Central Air Region
5th Air Group 105 Air Squadron Cessna 182, Cessna 206
111 Air Squadron Bell 206, Bell 212
Air Force Academy Preparatory Squadron Beech F33C
Primary Squadron Aermacchi SF.260
Advanced Squadron Pilatus PC-7
Air Force Base No. 6Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas – Southeast Air Region
2nd Air Group 202 Air Squadron PC-7, PC-9M
Air Force Base No. 7Pie de la Cuesta, Guerrero – Air Region
2nd Air Group 204 Air Squadron PC-7
5th Air Group 102 Air Squadron Bell 206, Bell 212
Air Force Base No. 8Mérida, Yucatán – Air Region
5th Air Group 104 Air Squadron Bell 206, Bell 212, CH-53D Yas'ur, Cessna 210
Air Force Base No. 9La Paz, Baja California Sur – Northwest Air Region
2nd Air Group 203 Air Squadron PC-7
Air Force Base No. 10Culiacán, Sinaloa – Northwest Air Region
4th Air Group Maintenance Center Bell 206, Cessna 206
5th Air Group 109 Air Squadron Cessna 182
Air Force Base No. 11Santa Gertrudis, Chihuahua – Northeast Air Region
Air Force Airtactics Military School (EMAATFA) PC-7
Air Force Base No. 12Tijuana, Baja California – Northwest Air Region
no flying units assigned
Air Force Base No. 13Chihuahua, Chihuahua – Northeast Air Region
5th Air Group 110 Air Squadron Cessna 182
Air Force Base No. 14Apodaca, Nuevo León – Northeast Air Region
4th Air Group 102 Air Squadron Bell 206, Bell 212
5th Air Group 108 Air Squadron Cessna 182, Cessna 206
Air Force Base No. 15San Juan Bautista la Raya, Oaxaca – Air Region
5th Air Group 103 Air Squadron Bell 212
Air Force Base No. 16 – Ciudad Pemex, Tabasco – Air Region
no flying units assigned
Air Force Base No. 17 – Comitán, Chiapas – Air Region
no flying units assigned
Air Force Base No. 18Hermosillo, Sonora – Northwest Air Region
3rd Air Group 3rd Aerial Surveillance Squadron C-26 Metroliner, Pilatus PC-6 R/P-99
5th Air Group 107 Air Squadron Cessna 182, Pilatus PC-6
Air Force Base No. 19 - Ciudad de Mexico – Central Air Region
General Coordination of the Presidential Air Transport Unit (CGTAP)
High Command Special Air Transport Unit (UETAAM) Boeing 737, IAI 201, JetStar, King Air, SA 330J, UH-60 Black Hawk

Air Force Stations

Air Force Stations, also called Military Air Stations (Spanish: Estación Aérea Militar) (EAM), are command and control units subordinate to Air Regions, designed to support military air operations. Typically situated within civilian airport facilities, these stations serve to direct, coordinate, and provide logistical support for military air operations occurring within, from, or to their installation. These stations are exclusively integrated with service organizations, catering to the requirements of military air operations and addressing their own living and operational necessities. They may have assigned crews and aircraft in support or transit, over which they exert technical, administrative, and disciplinary control for the duration of their stay.[21]

Map of Mexican Air Force facilities



Air Force ranks are the same as in Mexico's Army, with the exception of generals. A national commander under the orders of the Secretary of National Defense is in charge of the Mexican Air Force. The second-in-command is the Air Force Chief of Staff, who supervises a Deputy Chief of Operations and a Deputy Chief of Management.[25]

Officer ranks
Rank group General / flag officers Senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet
 Mexican Air Force[26]
General de División General de Ala General de Grupo Coronel Teniente Coronel Mayor Capitan Primero Capitán Segundo Teniente Subteniente
General de división General de ala General de grupo Coronel Teniente coronel Mayor Capitan primero Capitán segundo Teniente Subteniente
Other ranks
Rank group Senior NCOs Junior NCOs Enlisted
 Mexican Air Force[26]
Sargento primero Sargento segundo Cabo Soldado

Pilot selection and training

The FAM offers higher education, middle education, technical training, tactical training and specialized technical training in its various campuses:

Air Force Academy

Main facade of the Air Force Academy

Since the National School of Aviation was opened in 1915, it took different names over the years until finally, in 1959 it joined the military school of meteorology, mechanics and aviation specialists, forming the leading campus in military aviation education: 'El Colegio del Aire' (Air Force Academy), which since September 9, 1959, has guided the formation of Air Force officers.[27] The Air Force Academy is an all academic institution of the Mexican Air Force and comprises four schools: 'Military Aviation School', 'Maintenance and Supply Military School', 'Air Force Military Specialist School', and the 'Military Troops' Air Force Speciaslist School'.[28]

Military Aviation School (EMA)

Admission to the Air Force is through the mechanism of military recruitment that takes place every year at The Ministry of Defense. The FAM currently offers tertiary level studies – highlighting that of Military Pilot, which spans 4 years at the facilities of the Air Force Academy located on the Military Air Base No. 5 in Zapopan, Jalisco.[29]

The subjects taught in pilot training include: tactics of the branches of aviation, general aviation tactics, meteorology, air navigation, air traffic control, radio communications and culture in general, along with approximately 250 hours of flight. During the first year, the training is theoretical. During the second year, Beechcraft Bonanza aircraft are used for flight instruction. During the third the cadets are trained Aermacchi SF260EU for aerobatics, and later on Pilatus PC-7 for advanced flight tactics, including combat. Within each of these stages, the cadets are trained in aerial acrobatics, stage tactical instrument flight, visual flying rules (VFR), radio operations, among others, which increase in complexity as the cadets' training progresses.[30] The first female aviator to graduate as a pilot in the history of FAM, Andrea Cruz, became a cadet at the Military Aviation School in 2007.

Military Air Force Specialist School (EMEFA)

Military School of Air Force Specialist offers a comprehensive scholarship lasting three years for officer training meteorologists and flight control, obtaining at the graduate level of lieutenant. His duties are to provide meteorological information and control of military or civil aircraft.[31]

School of the Air Force Specialists (EMEFA)

Military School of the Air Forces specialists is an establishment of military education that has as its mission to train sergeants in seconds aviation maintenance, supply lines, electronic aviation and military aviation. The school is located in the St. Lucía military base.[32]

Military School of Maintenance and Supply (EMMA)

In this school, officers are trained as aviation maintenance specialists, aviation electronics specialists, weapons and air supply lines.[33]


To enter any of the campuses of the Air Force, SEDENA convenes a competitive entrance examination which is held each year. The requirements are:

In order to be admitted to any school of the Mexican Air Force Academy mentioned above, the applicant should also perform the following tests: physical, medical, cultural, and aviation psychology. In some cases, the psychological aeromedical 2nd level examination may also be required.[34]


A Eurocopter EC225 at Mexico City International Airport
A Bell 412EP of the Mexican Air Force
Fuerza Aerea Mexicana C-130

Current inventory

Aircraft Origin Type Variant In service Notes
Combat Aircraft
Pilatus PC-7 Switzerland light attack 63[35] 30 used for training
Northrop F-5 United States fighter F-5E 9[35] one used for training
Embraer E-99 Brazil AEW&C 3[35] two used for maritime patrol
Beechcraft King Air United States surveillance 350 2[35]
Cessna Citation I United States surveillance 2[35]
Boeing 737 United States VIP transport 3[35]
C-27J Spartan Italy utility transport 4[35]
C-130 Hercules United States transport C-130E/K/L-100 3[35]
Super King Air United States utility transport 90/300 3[35]
CASA C-295 Spain transport / SAR 7[35]
Pilatus PC-6 Switzerland utility / transport 1[35] STOL capable aircraft
Turbo Commander United States transport 2[35]
Bell 206 United States utility 24[35] 9 used for rotorcraft training
Bell 407 United States utility 17[35]
Bell 412 United States utility 10[35]
Bell UH-1 United States utility UH-1H 1[35]
Mil Mi-17 Russia utility Mi-8/17 17[35]
Sikorsky UH-60 United States utility UH-60M 20[35] 7 on order[35]
Eurocopter EC725 France SAR / utility 16 [35] 4 on order[35]
MD 500 Defender United States light utility 530F 13[35]
Trainer Aircraft
Pilatus PC-9 Switzerland trainer 1[35]
Grob G 120TP Germany basic trainer 25[35]
T-6 Texan II United States advanced trainer T-6C 56[35]
SIAI-Marchetti SF.260 Italy basic trainer 24[35]
Elbit Hermes 450 Israel surveillance 3[36]

See also


  1. ^ a b "Cambios en Sedena: Defensa 'estrena' subsecretario; Fuerza Aérea tendrá nuevo comandante". (in Spanish). Retrieved September 4, 2023.
  2. ^ Nacional, Secretaría de la Defensa. "La Aviación Militar en la Revolución Mexicana". (in Spanish). Retrieved March 11, 2023.
  3. ^ Hagedorn, Dan (2008). Conquistadors of the Sky: A History of Aviation in Latin America. Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum. ISBN 978-0-8130-3249-8.
  4. ^ "Los Orígenes". Archived from the original on April 26, 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-05.
  5. ^ "Post-WWII Highlights in Latin American Aviation History". Smithsonian Center for Education and Museum Studies. Archived from the original on July 3, 2008. Retrieved March 11, 2008.
  6. ^ Davila Cornejo, Hector (May 10, 2003). "The Azcarate Corsair". The Latin American Aviation Historical Society. Retrieved March 22, 2009.[dead link]
  7. ^ Davila Cornejo, Hector. "Los Corsarios Mexicanos" (in Spanish). Sistema Informativo Aeronáutico Latinoamericano. Archived from the original on March 26, 2009. Retrieved March 22, 2009.
  8. ^ External links to the battle at Jiménez, Chihuahua, in 1929:[1] Archived November 17, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, "Historia - Chihuahua". Archived from the original on May 27, 2007. Retrieved March 11, 2008., "Journal of Big Bend Studies, Volume XIV". Archived from the original on October 30, 2007. Retrieved March 11, 2008.
  9. ^ Time magazine. June 6, 1938.
  10. ^ Klemen, L. "201st Mexican Fighter Squadron". The Netherlands East Indies 1941–1942. Archived from the original on July 26, 2011. Retrieved May 28, 2011.
  11. ^ a b Vega, Aurora (September 29, 2012). "Resguardan aviones F5 el cielo mexicano" (in Spanish). Excelsior En Línea. Archived from the original on August 8, 2014. Retrieved August 4, 2014.
  12. ^ The Anarchives (December 28, 1995). "Summary of US Military Involvement in Chiapas, Mexico". A-Infos Hyper-Archive. Archived from the original on June 8, 2011. Retrieved October 5, 2012.
  13. ^ Guevara, Inigo (April 13, 2005). "Aztec Rotors - Helicopters of Mexican Air Force". Central and Latin America Database. ACIG. Archived from the original on June 22, 2009. Retrieved May 20, 2009.
  14. ^ Visión Mx (September 15, 2014), "Accidente de la Fuerza Aerea Mexicana Desfile 16 de Septimbre de 1995", YouTube, archived from the original on February 19, 2020, retrieved October 9, 2019
  15. ^ Adrián, Jazmín (July 4, 2012). "Squadron 401 of F5 Northrop by Mexican Air Force celebrates 30 years". Demotix. Archived from the original on November 25, 2014. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
  16. ^ Raúl Rodríguez Cortés (September 16, 2016). "El último vuelo de los F-5". El Universal. Archived from the original on May 6, 2017.
  17. ^ Mariano García (February 12, 2019). "Ruag entrega tres de los seis motores a reparar de los Tiger II mexicanos". Archived from the original on March 8, 2019. Retrieved March 8, 2019.
  18. ^ Jordi Díez; Ian Nicholls (January 2006). "The Mexican Armed Forces in Transition" (PDF). Strategic Studies Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 3, 2008. Retrieved April 25, 2008.
  19. ^ "Mexican Air Force plane crashes near airport, killing 6". February 21, 2021.
  20. ^ "Regiones Aéreas. Secretaría de la Defensa Nacional".
  21. ^ a b "Bases Aéreas. Secretaría de la Defensa Nacional".
  22. ^ "Refuerzan la flota aérea de Sedena". Archived from the original on October 5, 2011. Retrieved October 5, 2012.
  23. ^ "Ruag entrega tres de los seis motores a reparar de los Tiger II mexicanos".
  24. ^ SIPSE, Grupo (November 12, 2016). "Aeronaves del Escuadrón 201 vigilan los litorales de Cozumel". Archived from the original on November 13, 2016. Retrieved March 8, 2019.
  25. ^ "Comisión de Defensa Nacional / Senado de la República". May 2, 2007. Archived from the original on May 2, 2007.
  26. ^ a b Secretary of National Defense (June 27, 2019). "Manual gráfico para el uso de Uniformes, Divisas y Equipo del Ejército y F.A.M." [Graphic manual for the use of Uniforms, Badges and Equipment of the Army and Air Force] (PDF) (in Spanish). Retrieved May 22, 2021.
  27. ^ Douglas, Lawrence; Hansen, Taylor (2006). "Los orígenes de la Fuerza Aérea Mexicana 1913 -1915" (in Spanish). Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 25, 2009. Retrieved March 22, 2009.
  28. ^ "Adiestramiento y Capacitación" (in Spanish). Secretaria de la Defensa Nacional. 2009. Archived from the original on March 22, 2009. Retrieved March 22, 2009.
  29. ^ "FAMV Fuerza Aerea Mexicana Virtual". Archived from the original on January 9, 2016. Retrieved February 27, 2013.
  30. ^ "Escuela Militar de Aviación" (in Spanish). Secretaria de la Defensa Nacional. March 2009. Archived from the original on April 2, 2009. Retrieved March 22, 2009.
  31. ^ "Escuela Militar de Especialistas de la Fuerza Aerea" (in Spanish). Secretaria de la Defensa Nacional. 2009. Archived from the original on March 10, 2009. Retrieved March 22, 2009.
  32. ^ "Escuela Militar de Tropas Especialistas de la Fuerza Aerea" (in Spanish). Secretaria de la Defensa Nacional. 2009. Archived from the original on March 31, 2009. Retrieved March 22, 2009.
  33. ^ "Escuela Militar de Mantenimiento y Abastecimiento" (in Spanish). Secretaria de la Defensa Nacional. 2009. Archived from the original on March 25, 2009. Retrieved March 22, 2009.
  34. ^ "Admisión 2009 a Planteles Militares" (in Spanish). Secretaria de la Defensa Nacional. 2009. Archived from the original on March 19, 2009. Retrieved March 22, 2009.
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Hoyle, Craig (2023). "World Air Forces 2024". FlightGlobal. Retrieved March 7, 2024.
  36. ^ Garibian, Pablo (August 24, 2010). "Mexico buys drones, may use for marijuana search". Reuters.