• F-5A/B Freedom Fighter
  • F-5E/F Tiger II
An F-5E of the Swiss Air Force
Role Light fighter
National origin United States
Manufacturer Northrop Corporation
First flight
  • F-5A: 30 July 1959
  • F-5E: 11 August 1972
Introduction 1964
Status In service
Primary users United States Navy
Produced 1959–1987
Number built
  • A/B/C/D: 1,204
  • E/F: 1,399[1]
Developed from Northrop T-38 Talon
Developed into

The Northrop F-5 is a family of supersonic light fighter aircraft initially designed as a privately funded project in the late 1950s by Northrop Corporation. There are two main models, the original F-5A and F-5B Freedom Fighter variants and the extensively updated F-5E and F-5F Tiger II variants. The design team wrapped a small, highly aerodynamic fighter around two compact and high-thrust General Electric J85 engines, focusing on performance and a low cost of maintenance. Smaller and simpler than contemporaries such as the McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II, the F-5 cost less to procure and operate, making it a popular export aircraft. Though primarily designed for a day air superiority role, the aircraft is also a capable ground-attack platform. The F-5A entered service in the early 1960s. During the Cold War, over 800 were produced through 1972 for US allies. Despite the United States Air Force (USAF) not needing a light fighter at the time, it did procure approximately 1,200 Northrop T-38 Talon trainer aircraft, which were based on Northrop's N-156 fighter design.

After winning the International Fighter Aircraft Competition, a program aimed at providing effective low-cost fighters to American allies, in 1972 Northrop introduced the second-generation F-5E Tiger II. This upgrade included more powerful engines, larger fuel capacity, greater wing area and improved leading edge extensions for better turn rates, optional air-to-air refueling, and improved avionics including air-to-air radar. Primarily used by American allies, it remains in US service to support training exercises. It has served in a wide array of roles, being able to perform both air and ground attack duties; the type was used extensively in the Vietnam War.[2] A total of 1,400 Tiger IIs were built before production ended in 1987. More than 3,800 F-5s and the closely related T-38 advanced trainer aircraft were produced in Hawthorne, California.[3] The F-5N/F variants are in service with the United States Navy and United States Marine Corps as adversary trainers.[4] Over 400 aircraft were in service as of 2021.[5][N 1]

The F-5 was also developed into a dedicated reconnaissance aircraft, the RF-5 Tigereye. The F-5 also served as a starting point for a series of design studies which resulted in the Northrop YF-17 and the F/A-18 naval fighter aircraft. The Northrop F-20 Tigershark was an advanced variant to succeed the F-5E which was ultimately canceled when export customers did not emerge.

Design and development


The design effort was led by Northrop vice president of engineering and aircraft designer Edgar Schmued,[6] who previously at North American Aviation had been the chief designer of the successful North American P-51 Mustang and F-86 Sabre fighters. Schmued recruited a strong engineering team to Northrop.[7]

In December 1953, NATO issued NBMR-1, calling for a lightweight tactical fighter capable of carrying conventional and nuclear weapons and operating from rough airfields. In late 1954, a Northrop team toured Europe and Asia to examine both the NBMR-1 and the needs of SEATO members. From this tour, Schmued gave his team the goal of reversing the trend in fighter development towards greater size and weight in order to deliver an aircraft with high performance, enhanced maneuverability, and high reliability, while still delivering a cost advantage over contemporary fighters.[8][9] Recognizing that expensive jet aircraft could not viably be replaced every few years, he also demanded "engineered growth potential" allowing service longevity in excess of 10 years.[10]

The design began to firm up in 1955 with the introduction of the General Electric J85 turbojet engine. Originally developed for McDonnell's ADM-20 Quail decoy for use on the Boeing B-52 Stratofortress,[11] the J85 had a thrust-to-weight ratio of 6.25 to 7.5 depending on the version, giving it a notable advantage over contemporaries such as the 4.7 ratio of the J79 engine used in the F-4 Phantom.[12]

Design evolution

Using a pair of J85s as the baseline, the team began considering a series of prospective designs. Among the earliest concepts was the N-156TX of March 1955. This mounted the engines in pods, one under each wing about mid-span. The fuselage was quite slim compared to the final design, with a crew of two under a narrow cockpit canopy.[13]

That year, the US Navy expressed an interest in a fighter to operate from its escort carriers, which were too small to operate the Navy's existing jet fighters. Northrop responded with a radical redesign, PD-2706, which placed the engines against the fuselage in short ducts exiting in front of the tail area, like the F-4, and moved the elevator up to form a T-tail. The resulting design had a much shorter fuselage and was quite compact.[13] Development along these lines ended when the Navy decided to withdraw the escort carriers. Northrop continued development of the N-156, both as a two-seat advanced trainer, designated as N-156T, and a single-seat fighter, designated as N-156F.[14]

The first Northrop YF-5A prototype

Another highly influential figure was chief engineer Welko Gasich,[15] who convinced Schmued that the engines must be located within the fuselage for maximum performance.[16] This led to the January 1956 PD-2812 version which began to look a lot like the final product, although this version had a long-span low-mounted elevator with notable anhedral. March 1956's PD-2832 moved to a more conventional elevator and had a strongly swept vertical stabilizer. The design underwent several further versions over the next year which experimented with different nose designs and continued to lengthen the fuselage. The final design, PD-2879D, emerged in December 1956.[13]

Gasich also introduced the concept of "life cycle cost" into fighter design, which provided the foundation for the F-5's low operating cost and long service life. A Northrop design study stated "The application of advanced technology was used to provide maximum force effectiveness at minimum cost. This became the Northrop philosophy in the development of the T-38 and F-5 lightweight trainer and fighter aircraft."[16]

Into production

The F-5 earned a reputation for a jet that was hard to discern in the air and when one finally saw it, it was often after a missile or guns kill [by F-5] had already been called.

— —Singapore's former Chief of Air Force and F-5 pilot, Major General Ng Chee Khern.[17]

The N-156T was quickly selected by the United States Air Force as a replacement for the T-33 in July 1956. On 12 June 1959, the first prototype aircraft, which was subsequently designated as YT-38 Talon, performed its first flight. By the time production had ended in January 1972, a total of 1,189 Talons had been produced.[18][19] Development of the N-156F continued at a lower priority as a private venture by Northrop; on 25 February 1958, an order for three prototypes was issued for a prospective low-cost fighter that could be supplied under the Military Assistance Program for distribution to less-developed nations. The first N-156F flew at Edwards Air Force Base on 30 July 1959, exceeding the speed of sound on its first flight.[20]

Although testing of the N-156F was successful, demonstrating unprecedented reliability and proving superior in the ground-attack role to the USAF's existing North American F-100 Super Sabres, official interest in the Northrop type waned, and by 1960 it looked as if the program was a failure. Interest revived in 1961 when the United States Army tested it, (along with the Douglas A-4 Skyhawk and Fiat G.91) for reconnaissance and close-support. Although all three types proved capable during army testing, operating fixed-wing combat aircraft was legally the responsibility of the Air Force, which would not agree to allow the Army to operate fixed-wing combat aircraft, a situation repeated with the C-7 Caribou.[21]

In 1962, the Kennedy Administration revived the requirement for a low-cost export fighter, selecting the N-156F as winner of the F-X competition on 23 April 1962, subsequently becoming the "F-5A", and was ordered into production in October that year.[22] It was named under the 1962 United States Tri-Service aircraft designation system, which included a re-set of the fighter number series. Northrop manufactured a total of 624 F-5As, including three YF-5A prototypes,[23] before production ended in 1972. A further 200 F-5B two-seat trainer aircraft, lacking nose-mounted cannons but otherwise combat-capable, and 86 RF-5A reconnaissance aircraft, fitted with four-camera noses, were also built. In addition, Canadair built 240 first generation F-5s under license, CASA in Spain built 70 more aircraft.[24]

The Royal Norwegian Air Force placed the first international order on 28 February 1964.[citation needed]

F-5E and F-5F Tiger II

Official roll-out of first USAF F-5E Tiger II
F-5E Tiger II with B83 nuclear bomb at Hill Aerospace Museum

In 1970, Northrop won the International Fighter Aircraft (IFA) competition to replace the F-5A, with better air-to-air performance against aircraft like the Soviet MiG-21. The resultant aircraft, initially known as F-5A-21, subsequently became the F-5E. It had more powerful (5,000 lbf) General Electric J85-21 engines, and had a lengthened and enlarged fuselage, accommodating more fuel. Its wings were fitted with enlarged leading edge extensions, giving an increased wing area and improved maneuverability. The aircraft's avionics were more sophisticated, crucially including a radar (initially the Emerson Electric AN/APQ-153) (the F-5A and B had no radar). It retained the gun armament of two M39 cannons, one on either side of the nose of the F-5A. Various specific avionics fits could be accommodated at a customer's request, including an inertial navigation system, TACAN and ECM equipment.[25] Additionally the two position nose landing gear from the Canadian CF-5 was incorporated to reduce takeoff distance.[26]

The first F-5E flew on 11 August 1972.[26] A two-seat combat-capable trainer, the F-5F, was offered, first flying on 25 September 1974, at Edwards Air Force Base, with a new nose, that was three feet longer, which, unlike the F-5B that did not mount a gun, allowed it to retain a single M39 cannon, albeit with a reduced ammunition capacity.[27] The two-seater was equipped with the Emerson AN/APQ-157 radar, which is a derivative of the AN/APQ-153 radar, with dual control and display systems to accommodate the two-men crew, and the radar has the same range of AN/APQ-153, around 10 nmi. On 6 April 1973, the 425th TFS at Williams Air Force Base, Arizona, received the first F-5E Tiger II[28]

An early series F-5E

A reconnaissance version, the RF-5E Tigereye, with a sensor package in the nose displacing the radar and one cannon, was also offered.

The F-5E eventually received the official name Tiger II; 792 F-5Es, 146 F-5Fs and 12 RF-5Es were eventually built by Northrop.[24] More were built under license overseas: 91 F-5Es and F-5Fs in Switzerland,[29] 68 by Korean Air in South Korea,[30] and 308 in Taiwan.[31]

The F-5E proved to be a successful combat aircraft in service with US allies, but had no combat service with the US Air Force, though the F-5A with modifications, designated F-5C, was flown by the US in Vietnam.[32] The F-5E evolved into the single-engine F-5G, which was rebranded the F-20 Tigershark. It lost out on export sales to the F-16 Fighting Falcon in the 1980s.


The F-5E experienced numerous upgrades in its service life, with the most significant one being adopting a new planar array radar, Emerson AN/APQ-159 with a range of 20 nmi to replace the original AN/APQ-153. Similar radar upgrades were also proposed for F-5F, with the derivative of AN/APQ-159, the AN/APQ-167, to replace the AN/APQ-157, but that was cancelled. The latest radar upgrade included the Emerson AN/APG-69, which was the successor of AN/APQ-159, incorporating mapping capability. However, most nations chose not to upgrade for financial reasons, and the radar saw very little service in USAF aggressor squadrons and Swiss Air Force.[33]

Various F-5 versions remain in service with many nations. Having taken delivery of its first F-5 Tigers in 1979, Singapore operated approximately 49 modernized and re-designated F-5S (single-seat) and F-5T (two-seat) aircraft until the early 2010s when they were retired from service.[34] Upgrades included new FIAR Grifo-F X-band radar from Galileo Avionica (similar in performance to the AN/APG-69), updated cockpits with multi-function displays, and compatibility with the AIM-120 AMRAAM and Rafael Python air-to-air missiles.[17][35][36]

NASA F-5E modified for DARPA sonic boom tests

One National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) F-5E was given a modified fuselage shape for its employment in the Shaped Sonic Boom Demonstration program carried out by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). It is preserved in the Valiant Air Command Warbird Museum at Titusville, Florida.[37]

The Royal Thai Air Force (RTAF) had their F-5s undergo an extensive upgrade program, resulting in the aircraft re-designated as F-5T Tigris. They are armed with Python III and IV missiles; and equipped with the Dash helmet-mounted cueing system.[38]

Similar programs have been carried out in Chile and Brazil with the help of Elbit. The Chilean upgrade, called the F-5 Tiger III Plus, incorporated a new Elta EL/M-2032 radar and other improvements. The Brazilian program, re-designated as F-5M, adds a new Grifo-F radar along with several avionics and cockpit refurbishments, including the Dash helmet. The F-5M has been equipped with new weapon systems such as the Beyond Visual Range Derby missile, Python IV short-range air-to-air missile, SMKB "smart" bombs,[39] and several other weapons.[40][41][42][43]

Operational history

United States

An F-5B of 602d TFS at Bien Hoa, 1966

The F-5 entered service with the USAF's 4441st Combat Crew Training Squadron at Williams Air Force Base, which had the role of training pilots and ground crew for customer nations, including Norway, on 30 April 1964. At that point, it was still not intended that the aircraft be used in significant numbers by the USAF itself.[44]

USAF doctrine with regard to the F-5 changed following operational testing and limited deployment in 1965. Preliminary combat evaluation of the F-5A began at the Air Proving Ground Center, Eglin AFB, Florida, in mid-1965 under the code name Project Sparrow Hawk. One airframe was lost in the course of the project, through pilot error, on 24 June.[45]

In October 1965, the USAF began a five-month combat evaluation of the F-5A titled Skoshi Tiger. A total of 12 aircraft were delivered for trials to the 4503rd Tactical Fighter Squadron, and after modification with probe and drogue aerial refueling equipment, armor and improved instruments, were redesignated F-5C.[46] Over the next six months, they flew in combat in Vietnam, flying more than 2,600 sorties, both from the 3rd Tactical Fighter Wing at Bien Hoa Air Base over South Vietnam and from Da Nang Air Base, where operations were flown over Laos. Nine aircraft were lost in Vietnam, seven to enemy ground fire and two to operational causes.[47][48]

Operations with 3rd TFW were declared a success, with the F-5 generally rated as being as capable a ground-attacker as the F-100, albeit having a shorter range.[49] However, the program was more a political gesture that was intended to aid the export of F-5s than a serious consideration of the type for US service.[46] (Following Skoshi Tiger the Philippine Air Force acquired 23 F-5A and B models in 1965. These aircraft, along with remanufactured Vought F-8 Crusaders, eventually replaced the Philippine Air Force's F-86 Sabres in the air defense and ground attack roles.)

From April 1966, the USAF aircraft continued operations under the auspices of the 10th Fighter Squadron, Commando, with their number boosted to 17 aircraft.

USAF F-5F with AIM-9J Sidewinder, AGM-65 Maverick missiles and auxiliary fuel tanks over Edwards Air Force Base, 1976.

In June 1967, the surviving aircraft of the 10th Fighter Squadron, Commando, were transferred to the Republic of Vietnam Air Force (RVNAF). In view of the performance, agility and size of the F-5, it might have appeared to be a good match against the similar MiG-21 in air combat; however, US doctrine was to use heavy, faster and longer-range aircraft like the Republic F-105 Thunderchief and McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II over North Vietnam.

The F-5 was also adopted as an opposing forces (OPFOR) "aggressor" for dissimilar training role because of its small size and performance similarities to the Soviet MiG-21. In realistic trials at Nellis AFB in 1977, called ACEVAL/AIMVAL, the F-14 reportedly scored slightly better than a 2:1 kill ratio against the simpler F-5, while the F-15 scored slightly less.[50][51][52][53] There is some contradiction of these reports, another source reports that "For the first three weeks of the test, the F-14s and F-15s were hopelessly outclassed and demoralized"; after adapting to qualities of the F-5 carrying the new all aspect AIM-9L missile and implementing rule changes to artificially favor long range radar-guided missiles, "the F-14s did slightly better than breaking even with the F-5s in non-1 v 1 engagements; the F-15s got almost 2:1".[54] A 2012 Discovery Channel documentary Great Planes reported that in USAF exercises, F-5 aggressor aircraft were competitive enough with more modern and expensive fighters to only be at small disadvantage in Within Visual Range (WVR) combat.[55]

USMC F-5N Tiger IIs from VMFT-401 on standby at the Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort

The F-5E served with the US Air Force from 1975 until 1990, in the 64th Aggressor Squadron and 65th Aggressor Squadron at Nellis Air Force Base in Nevada, and with the 527th Aggressor Squadron at RAF Alconbury in the UK and the 26th Aggressor Squadron at Clark Air Force Base in the Philippines. The US Marines purchased used F-5s from the Air Force in 1989 to replace their F-21s, which served with VMFT-401 at Marine Corps Air Station Yuma. The US Navy used the F-5E extensively at the Naval Fighter Weapons School (TOPGUN) when it was located at NAS Miramar, California. When TOPGUN relocated to become part of the Naval Strike and Air Warfare Center at NAS Fallon, Nevada, the command divested itself of the F-5, choosing to rely on VC-13 (redesignated VFC-13 and which already used F-5s) to employ their F-5s as adversary aircraft. Former adversary squadrons such as VF-43 at NAS Oceana, VF-45 at NAS Key West, VF-126 at NAS Miramar, and VFA-127 at NAS Lemoore have also operated the F-5 along with other aircraft types in support of Dissimilar Air Combat Training (DACT).

The US Navy F-5 fleet continues to be modernized with 36 low-hour F-5E/Fs purchased from Switzerland in 2006. These were updated as F-5N/Fs with modernized avionics and other improved systems. Currently, the only US Navy and US Marine Corps units flying the F-5 are VFC-13 at NAS Fallon, Nevada, VFC-111 at NAS Key West, Florida and VMFT-401 at MCAS Yuma, Arizona.[4] Currently, VFC-111 operates 18 Northrop F-5N/F Tiger IIs. 17 of these are single-seater F-5Ns and the last is a twin-seater F-5F "FrankenTiger", the product of grafting the older front-half fuselage of an F-5F into the back-half fuselage of a newer low-hours F-5E acquired from the Swiss Air Force. A total of three "FrankenTigers" were made.[56]

According to the FAA, there are 18 privately owned F-5s in the US, including Canadair CF-5Ds.[57][58]


A Brazilian Air Force F-5M
Brazilian F-5 in 2016

In October 1974, the Brazilian Air Force (FAB) ordered 36 F-5E and 6 F-5B aircraft from Northrop for $72 million. The first three aircraft arrived on 12 March 1975.[59] In 1988, FAB acquired 22 F-5E and four F-5F second-hand USAF "aggressor" fighters. A total of 15 of these aircraft were part of the initial batch of 30 aircraft produced by Northrop.[60] In 1990, FAB retired all remaining five F-5Bs; later, they were sent to Brazilian museums around the country.[61]

In 2001, Elbit Systems and Embraer started work on a $230 million Brazilian F-5 modernization program, performed over an eight-year period, upgrading 46 F-5E/F aircraft, re-designated as F-5EM and F-5FM. The modernization centered on several areas: new electronic warfare systems, the Grifo F radar, an air-to-air refueling system, INS/GPS-based navigation, support for new weapons, targeting and self-defense systems, HOTAS, LCD displays, helmet-mounted displays (HMDs), Radar Warning Receiver, encrypted communications, cockpit compatibility for night vision goggles, On-Board Oxygen Generation System (OBOGS) and various new onboard computer upgrades. One important capability is the secure communication with R-99 airborne early warning platforms and ground stations.[62]

Externally, the new aircraft features a larger nose cone that accommodates the larger radar equipment. The first F-5EM was handed over on 21 September 2005.[63] On 7 July 2003, four Rafael Litening III targeting pods were ordered at a cost of US$13 million,[64] to be used on F-5M together with three Rafael Sky Shield jamming pods ordered on 5 July 2006 at a cost of US$42 million.[65]

In 2009, FAB bought eight single-seat and three twin-seat F-5F used aircraft from Jordan in a US$21 million deal. These aircraft were built between 1975 and 1980.[66] On 14 April 2011, a contract of $153 million was signed with Embraer and Elbit to modernize the additional F-5s bought from Jordan, and to supply one more flight simulator as a continuation of the contract signed in 2000. These F-5s will receive the same configuration as those from the initial 46 F-5s currently completing the upgrade process. The first delivery of this second batch of upgraded jet fighters is scheduled for 2013 with expected use to 2030.[67][68]

In 2020, the FAB started implementing the new proprietary Datalink System of the Brazilian Armed Forces on the F-5EM, for integrated communication and real-time sharing battlefield/warfare data with AEW&C R-99/E-99 FAB/Embraer aircraft, other aircraft, ships, helicopters, tanks and front/back-ends battlefield control centers, called Link-BR2.[69]


Ethiopia received 10 F-5As and two F-5Bs from the US starting in 1966. In addition to these, Ethiopia had a training squadron equipped with at least eight Lockheed T-33 Shooting Stars. In 1970, Iran transferred at least three F-5As and Bs to Ethiopia. In 1975, another agreement was reached with the US to deliver a number of military aircraft, including 14 F-5Es and three F-5Fs; later in the same year eight F-5Es were transferred while the others were embargoed and delivered to a USAF aggressor Squadron due to the changed political situation. The US also withdrew its personnel and cut diplomatic relations. Ethiopian officers contracted a number of Israelis to maintain American equipment.[70]

The Ethiopian F-5 fighters saw combat action against Somali forces during the Ogaden War (1977–1978). The main Somali fighter aircraft was the MiG-21MF delivered in the 1970s, supported by Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-17s delivered in the 1960s by the Soviet Union. Ethiopian F-5E aircraft were used to gain air superiority because they could use the AIM-9B air-to-air missile, while the F-5As were kept for air interdiction and airstrike. During this period Ethiopian F-5Es went on training against Ethiopian F-5As and F-86 Sabres (simulating Somali MiG-21s and MiG-17s).[70]

On 17 July 1977, two F-5s were on combat air patrol near Harer, when four Somali MiG-21MFs were detected nearby. In the engagement, two MiG-21s were shot down while the other two had a midair collision while avoiding an AIM-9B missile. The better-trained F-5 pilots swiftly gained air superiority over the Somali Air Force, shooting down a number of aircraft, while other Somali aircraft were lost to air defense and to incidents. Records indicate that Ethiopian F-5s of the 9th Fighter Squadron "shot down 13 MiGs-17 and 12 MiGs-21 from 20th July until 1st September 1977. All aircraft were hit by Sidewinders (AIM-9)."[71] However at least three F-5s were shot down by air defense forces during attacks against supply bases in western Somalia.[70]

Ethiopian pilots who had flown both the F-5E and the MiG-21 considered the F-5E to be the superior fighter because of its manoeuvrability at low to medium speeds and the fact that it was far easier to fly, allowing the pilot to focus on combat rather than controlling his airplane.[72] This effect was enhanced by the poor quality of pilot training provided by the Soviets, which provided limited flight time and focused exclusively on taking off and landing, with no practical training in air combat.[72][73]

Ethiopia's ace pilot and national hero was Legesse Tefera who is credited with shooting down 6 (or 7) Somali MiGs, thus making him the most successful F-5 pilot.[74][75][71]


Retired Greek NF-5A on display near Edessa, Greece

The Hellenic Air Force was the first European air force to receive the Freedom Fighter. The first F-5As were delivered in 1965, and over the next 8 years a total of about 70 F-5A/Bs were operational. The Hellenic Air Force bought an additional 10 F-5A/Bs from Iran in 1975, and around the same period another batch of 10 F-5A/Bs were acquired from Jordan. Another 10 were acquired from Norway in 1986, and a final 10 NF-5As were purchased from the Netherlands in 1991. The total number of F-5s in operation (including the ex-Iranian machines, 34 RF-5As, and 20 F-5Bs) in the Hellenic Air Force was about 120 aircraft, from 1965 to 2002, when the last F-5 was decommissioned and the type went out of operation in the Hellenic Air Force.[76]

Units that used the F-5 in Greek service:[citation needed]


F-5A Freedom Fighters of the Imperial Iranian Air Force
An F-5E of the Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force

The Imperial Iranian Air Force (IIAF) received extensive US equipment in the 1960s and 1970s. Iran received its first 11 F-5As and two F-5Bs in February 1965 which were then declared operational in June 1965. Ultimately, Iran received 104 F-5As and 23 F-5Bs by 1972. From January 1974 with the first squadron of 28 F-5Fs, Iran received a total of 166 F-5E/Fs and 15 additional RF-5As with deliveries ending in 1976. While receiving the F-5E and F, Iran began to sell its F-5A and B inventory to other countries, including Ethiopia, Turkey, Greece and South Vietnam; by 1976, many had been sold, except for several F-5Bs retained for training purposes.[77] F-5s were also used by the IIAF's aerobatic display team, the Golden Crown.

After the Iranian revolution in 1979, the new Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force (IRIAF) was partially successful at keeping Western fighters in service during the Iran–Iraq War in the 1980s and the simple F-5 had a good service readiness until late in the war. Initially, Iran took spare parts from foreign sources; later it was able to have its new aircraft industry keep the aircraft flying.[78]

IRIAF F-5s were heavily involved, flying air-to-air and air-to-ground sorties. Iranian F-5s took part in air combat with Iraqi MiG-21s, MiG-23s, MiG-25s, Su-20/22s, Mirage F1s and Super Etendards. The exact combat record is not known with many differing claims from Iraqi, Iranian, Western, and Russian sources.[citation needed] There are reports that an IRIAF F-5E, piloted by Major Yadollah Javadpour, shot down a MiG-25 on 6 August 1983.[79][80] Russian sources state that the first confirmed kill of a MiG-25 occurred in 1985.[81]

During their first years of service, Iranian F-5s had the advantage in missile technology, using advanced versions of the infrared-homing AIM-9 Sidewinder, later lost with deliveries of new missiles and fighters to Iraq.[citation needed]

Iran Aircraft Manufacturing Industrial Company currently produces three aircraft, the Azarakhsh, Saeqeh, and Kowsar, derived from the F-5.[82]


In June 1976, Kenya ordered 10 new F-5E and two F-5F aircraft from the United States for $70 million.[83]

Starting on 16 October 2011 during Operation Linda Nchi, Kenyan Air Force F-5s supported the Kenyan forces fighting in Somalia against Al Shabab Islamists bombing targets inside Somalia and spearheading the ground forces.[84]


F-5 Tiger II of the Royal Malaysian Air Force

In 1975, the Royal Malaysian Air Force received 14 F-5Es and two F-5Bs. In 1982, four F-5Fs were received and the two F-5Bs already in Malaysian service were transferred to the Royal Thai Air Force. In 1983, RMAF received two RF-5E Tigereye. Subsequently, two F-5Es (M29-21 & M29-22) and a F-5F (M29-23) which came with the new "shark nose" and with leading edge root extensions (LERX) version were ordered as attrition replacement. The F-5E was the first supersonic fighter in Royal Malaysian Air Force service and it replaced the former RAAF CAC Sabre as the Royal Malaysian Air Force's primary air defense fighter throughout the 1980s and early '90s. It also served in secondary ground attack role alongside the Douglas A-4 Skyhawk. Five F-5Es and one F-5F were lost in the accident with three fatalities (2 pilots in E (1983 & 1995) and 1 in F (1986), all crashed into the sea). In 2000, all the RMAF F-5s were deactivated, but they were reactivated in 2003 as the Tactical Air Reconnaissance Squadron and Reserve. Several upgrade packages were proposed to extend the service life of the aircraft, but none were taken. In 2015, the F-5s were pulled out of service, but some were kept in storage.[citation needed]


Mexican Air Force F-5 Tiger flying near the Popocatepetl volcano

In 1982, the Mexican Air Force received 10 F-5Es and two F-5Fs after the purchase of 24 IAI Kfir C.1 was blocked by the US, because the Kfir used the American-produced J79 engine. These fighters complemented the Lockheed T-33 and de Havilland Vampire Mk. I (received much earlier), two of the first combat jet aircraft in Mexico. The F-5 gave Mexico its first supersonic warplane, and it saw the formation of Air Squadron 401. On 16 September 1995, after more than 30 military parade flights without incidents, an F-5E collided in midair with three Lockheed T-33s during the military parade for the Independence of Mexico resulting in 10 deaths.[85] As of 2021, the Mexican Air Force has five Northrop F-5E and two F-5F fighters combat ready and for training purposes.[86]


The Royal Moroccan Air Force received 22 F-5As, two F-5Bs and two RF-5As from the United States between 1966 and 1974. These entered service with the 1st Fighter Squadron.[87] Two additional F-5As were donated by Iran in 1974, and six F-5As were acquired from Jordan in 1976.[88] Three F-5As were involved in the failed 1972 Moroccan coup attempt, attacking King Hassan II of Morocco's Boeing 727 in mid-air, before strafing and bombing a military airfield and the royal palace.[89] After the failure of the attempted coup, nearly all F-5 pilots were arrested, and most of them disappeared.[90] Another consequence of the failed coup was that the designation system of Moroccan air force units changed from numerical designations to names. From then on, the F-5A squadron was known as the Borak squadron.[88]

Morocco used its F-5s in the Western Sahara War in reconnaissance and bombing missions.[91] Several aircraft were shot down by 9K32 Strela-2 MANPADS, machine-gun fire, and 9K31 Strela-1 (SA-9) and 2K12 Kub (SA-6) self-propelled anti-aircraft systems.[92] To counter the SA-6 threat, AN/ALR-66 radar warning receivers were installed on the RF-5As and F-5Bs around 1981. These aircraft were grouped into a newly established dedicated reconnaissance unit, the Erige squadron; one of its main tasks was to track the Polisario Front's surface-to-air missile systems.[93]

In the same period, Morocco started receiving 16 F-5Es and four F-5Fs, that had been ordered in 1979 thanks to Saudi financing. Deliveries lasted from 1981 to 1983.[94] Shortly after their arrival, the F-5Es were fitted with the same radar warning receivers as the RF-5As and F-5Bs;[95] they also received in-flight refuelling probes.[96] Lastly, Moroccan F-5Es could be equipped with electronic and infrared countermeasures pods, that enhanced their survivability against Polisario surface-to-air missiles.[97] F-5E/Fs were operated by the Borak and Erige squadrons, where they served together with older F-5 versions, as well as the Chahine squadron.[98] During the war in Western Sahara, Moroccan F-5s deployed general-purpose and cluster bombs, unguided rockets, and more rarely AGM-65 Maverick missiles.[99] In total, 15 F-5s are confirmed to have been lost in the course of the Western Sahara War.[92]

Starting in 1990, Morocco received 12 more F-5Es from the United States, a total of 24 F-5Es having been upgraded to the F-5TIII standard.[citation needed]


RNLAF NF-5B twin-seater

The Royal Netherlands Air Force (RNLAF) received 75 F-5A single seat fighters and 30 F-5B dual–seat trainers. They were license built in Canada by Canadair respectively as NF-5As and Bs in the 1969 CL-226 production line. These aircraft equalled the Canadian CF-5A and CF-5D versions with more powerful engines fitted. The first NF-5A was handed over in October 1969 at Twenthe Air Base for 313 Squadron acting as Operational Conversion Unit. The last aircraft was handed over in March 1972. The NF-5As flew under the Dutch registrations K-3001 / K-3075 and the NF-5Bs under K-4002 / K-4030. They were operational at Twenthe AB (OCU, 313 and 315 Squadrons), Eindhoven AB (314 Squadron) and Gilze-Rijen AB (316 Squadron).

During the RNLAF transition to the F-16, the NF-5s and Bs were stored at Gilze-Rijen and Woensdrecht air bases. 60 aircraft were sold to Turkey, 11 to Greece and 7 to Venezuela. Some aircraft have been written off during their operational life due to crashes and some remaining aircraft are displayed in museums or used in technical schools. The NF-5As and Bs were operational from 1971 to 1991.[citation needed]


Norwegian Air Force F-5A

The Royal Norwegian Air Force received 108 Freedom Fighters: 16 RF-5A, 78 F-5A and 14 F-5B. The first 64 were received as military aid. They were used by six squadrons,[100] the first and last being 336 Squadron receiving the first aircraft in February 1966 (formal handing-over ceremony a month later), and deactivating in August 2000. Three aircraft were kept flying until 2007, serving with Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace for tests in the "Eye of the Tiger" program, supporting development of the Norwegian Penguin anti-ship missile.[100] The aircraft received under military aid were handed off to Greece and Turkey. Of the aircraft bought by the Norwegian government, nine were used in exchange with US authorities for submarines of the Kobben class.[101]

In October 2011 five F-5A single seaters were given to aircraft maintenance schools around the country; including the Skedsmo, Sola, Bodø, and Bardufoss high schools, and the Royal Norwegian Air Force's training center at Kristiansand Airport, Kjevik. The aircraft were disassembled at Moss Airport, Rygge, before delivery to the schools. Of the ten remaining Norwegian F-5s, eight F-5B two-seaters were still for sale as of 2011, six of which were stored in Norway and two in the United States. The two aircraft in the United States had been approved for sale to the American businessman Ross Perot Jr., in 2008, but the deal was blocked by the US government initially.[102] However, in 2015, Perot Jr. got permission and subsequently bought the aircraft for significantly below market price, which caused controversy and public criticism of the government of Norway.[103] Three survivors are exhibited at the Norwegian Armed Forces Aircraft Collection, two at Norsk Luftfartsmuseum in Bodø and one at Flyhistorisk Museum, Sola, near Stavanger.


Philippine Air Force F-5A at Clark Air Base, c. 1982

The Philippine Air Force acquired 37 F-5A and F-5B from 1965 to 1998.[104] The F-5A/Bs were used by the 6th Tactical Fighter Squadron (Cobras) of the 5th Fighter Wing and the Blue Diamonds aerobatic team, replacing the F-86F Sabre previously used by 1965 and 1968 respectively. The F-5s also underwent an upgrade which equipped it with surplus AN/APQ-153 radars with significant overhaul at the end of the 1970s to stretch their service lives another 15 years.

In 2005, the Philippines decommissioned its remaining F-5A/B fleet, including those received from Taiwan and South Korea.[105]


A Republic of Singapore Air Force F-5S Tiger II taking off from Korat Air Base

Singapore is an important operator of the F-5E/F variant, first ordering the aircraft in 1976 during a massive expansion of the city-state's armed forces; delivery of this first batch of 18 F-5Es and three F-5Fs was completed by late February 1979, equipping the newly formed-up No. 144 Black Kite Squadron at Tengah Air Base. At the end of 1979, an order was placed for six more F-5Es, which were delivered by 1981. In 1982, an order for three more F-5Fs was placed, these were forward delivered in September 1983 to RAF Leuchars in Scotland where they were taken over by pilots of the Republic of Singapore Air Force (RSAF).[17] In 1983, the type took over the duties of airborne interception from the Royal Australian Air Force's Mirage IIIOs detachment (rotated between No. 3 & No. 75 Squadron RAAF) stationed at Tengah.[106]

Another order for six more F-5Es was placed in 1985, these were delivered the same year and would go on to equip the newly formed-up No. 149 Shikra Squadron at Tengah. The following year, the RSAF placed an order for its final batch of three F-5Fs and five F-5Es, these were delivered in December 1987 and July 1989, respectively. In a bid to modernize its air force, the Royal Jordanian Air Force put up seven F-5Es for sale in 1994, these were later acquired by Singapore.[17]

From 1990 to 1991, using jigs and toolings purchased from Northrop, Singapore Aircraft Industries (SAI, now ST Aerospace) converted eight existing F-5Es into RF-5E Tigereye variant. Subsequently, these were used to reequip No. 141 Merlin Squadron, which had traded in their older Hawker Hunter FR.74S for the newer Tigereyes in 1992 and was by then based at Paya Lebar Air Base, after the 144 Squadron had relocated there in 1986. By June 1993, all three squadrons had been relocated to the base, thus consolidating Singapore's F-5E/F operations at Paya Lebar.[17]

In 1991, SAI was awarded a contract as the prime contractor to modernize all RSAF F-5E/Fs (including the 7 ex-Jordanian F-5Es); Elbit Systems was the sub-contractor responsible for systems integration. Upgrades include a new X band multi-mode radar (the Italian FIAR Grifo-F,[35][36] with Beyond-visual-range missile and Look-down/shoot-down capabilities), a revamped cockpit with new MIL-STD-1553R databuses, GEC/Ferranti 4510 Head-up display/weapons delivery system, two BAE Systems MED-2067 Multi-function displays, Litton LN-93 INS (similar to the ST Aerospace A-4SU Super Skyhawk) and Hands On Throttle-And-Stick controls (HOTAS) to reduce pilot workload. Reportedly, the Elisra SPS2000 radar warning receiver and countermeasure system was also installed.[107]

In addition, the starboard M39 20 mm cannon mounted in the nose was removed to make way for additional avionics (the sole cannon on the two-seaters was removed because of this), and to improve maneuverability, upgraded aircraft received larger leading edge root extensions (LERX). The process began in March 1996 and was completed by 2001, receiving the new designation of F-5S/T. In 1998, the eight RF-5Es also received the upgrades (except for the radar) and were redesignated as RF-5S.[17] Each F-5S/T upgraded reportedly cost SGD$6 million.[108]

By end of 2009, the type had accumulated more than 170,000 hours of flight time in Singapore service with only two F-5Es being lost in separate accidents (in 1984 and 1991, respectively).[17] 144 Squadron, the last squadron operating F-5Es, disbanded in September 2015 after the F-5S was retired.[109]

South Korea

The Republic of Korea Air Force (ROKAF) purchased F-5A/Bs in 1965, and it purchased F-5Es in August 1974. KF-5 variants were built by Korean Air under license between 1982 and 1986.[citation needed]

The F-5E/Fs and KF-5E/Fs were to be replaced by FA-50s[citation needed] and after 2001, by the plans to eventually field the Korean F-X Phase 3.[110]: 18 


Spanish Air Force F-5M Freedom Fighters, 2008

Spain has operated F-5 many decades, and upgrades in the early 21st century there is still in service in the 2020s although they are reaching the end of their career.

On 11 January 1965 Spain announced the choice of the F-5 to replace their T-33 and F-86. During the evaluation phase, an F-5B crashed near Torrejón Air Base, being killed both occupants, a Northrop pilot and a pilot from the Ejército del Aire. The contract included 70 units, 8 of them being manufactured by Northrop, 2 disassembled and assembled in Spain, and the remaining 6 in the form of components and structures ready construction. The remaining 62 would be built under license by CASA in the factory at Getafe. The first of this Spanish built batch would take off on 22 May 1968 from the Getafe Air Base flown by a Northrop test pilot. The first delivery to the Ejército del Aire would be on 19 June 1969, being 2 F-5B for the 202 Escuadrón, based at Morón de la Frontera. The first delivery consisted on all F-5B, being the single-seater F-5A and RF-5A delivered later. The last of the 70 airframes was received by the Ejército del Aire on 11 April 1972.

The F-5B was ascribed to the Ala 73 at Talavera la Real Air Base, dedicated to training. Additionally to the aforementioned Escuadrón 202, the Escuadrón 204 received RF-5A. This unit would later become the Ala 21 in 1971.

With the increasing tension with Morocco during the later phase of the Francoist government, the Spanish CASA/Northrop F-5A saw action during the conflict in the Spanish Sahara, being deployed at the Gando Air Base with more than 500 real combat missions. This deployment became permanent from 1974 on, being formalized in 1976 2 F-5B and all F-5A with even registration were ascribed o the Ala 46 in the Escuadrón 464 at the Gando Air Base, until their replacement in 1982 by the newly acquired Dassault-Breguet F1EE, being the F-5 sent back to Morón de la Frontera.

In 1989 a mid-air accident is suffered by an F-5B due to a structural failure of a wing. All F-5 fleet is grounded in search for signs of material fatigue, and as a result of it, many of them are retired. The remaining single-seaters (F-5A and RF-5A) are transferred in 1995 to the Ala 23 in Talavera la Real, together with some of the retired airframes, used for spare parts. That would be the final destination of the Spanish single-seaters where they would be retired over the late 1990s.

On the other hand, as a result of the 1990 accident, all twin-seaters are sent to the CASA Getafe Factory to be maintained and renovated. A new modernisation program in 2008 intended to extend their operational life until 2025, receiving glass cockpits and zero-zero ejection seats.[111]

As of the early 2020s, Spain has a fleet of about 20 F-5s that it is planning to operate until at least 2028, as no replacement has yet been found. The aircraft have been in service about 50 years and with continued maintenance have several years left of service.[112]


Swiss F-5F with Ericson Vista 5 radar jammer

The Swiss Air Force flies a total of 22 F-5E and 4 F-5F aircraft, down from a peak of 98 and 12 in 1981.[113] They were chosen chiefly because of their excellent performance, suitability for the unique Swiss Air Force mission, and their relatively low maintenance cost per flight hour.

It had been expected these aircraft would be replaced by the Saab JAS 39 Gripen, but in May 2014, a referendum by the Swiss people decided against the purchase of the Gripens.[114]

For the foreseeable future, the Swiss Air Force will continue to fly its present F-5s. There are still plans by the Swiss Air Force and in the Swiss parliament to fly 18 F-5E and four F-5F models. This would also include the continued operation of the Patrouille Suisse, in F-5Es until 2018.[115]

In September 2020 the Swiss people voted yes in a referendum to get a replacement. With 50.1% to 49.9% and only 8670 votes between.[116]

The Swiss Air Force has decided to replace the aircraft with 36 F-35As.[117]

In March 2024, The Swiss Federal Office for Armaments started delivery of 22 decommissioned F-5E/F Tiger II fighter jets to the United States. The first aircraft was picked up by the United States Marine Corps on 18 March from Emmen Air Force Station aboard a Lockheed KC-130J transport aircraft. The sale, finalized in 2020, encompasses 16 single-seat F-5E and 6 twin-seat F-5F variants, along with associated ground equipment, spare parts, and logistical support for in-country storage and preparation for transport to the U.S. The total value of the sale is estimated at $32.4 million.[118]


The 46th Tactical Fighter Squadron (Aggressor squadron) F-5E 5272 of Republic of China Air Force exhibited on the apron of Zhi-Hang Air Base

The Republic of China Air Force (ROCAF, Taiwan's air force) received its first batch of seven F-5As and two F-5Bs under the US Military Assistance Program in 1965. By 1971, the ROCAF was operating 72 F-5As and 11 F-5Bs.[119] During 1972, the US borrowed 48 ROCAF F-5As to lend to the Republic of Vietnam Air Force before the withdrawal of US forces from Vietnam. By 1973, most of those loaned F-5As were not in flying condition, thus the US opted to return 20 F-5As to Taiwan by drawing nine F-5As from US reserves while repairing 11 from South Vietnam. An additional 28 new F-5Es were issued to Taiwan by May 1975.[120] By 1973, Taiwan's AIDC started local production of a first batch of 100 F-5Es, the first of six Peace Tiger production batches. By end of 1986 when the production line closed after completing Peace Tiger 6, the AIDC had produced 242 F-5Es and 66 F-5Fs. Taiwan was the largest operator of the type at one time, having 336 F-5E/Fs in inventory.[121] The last batch of AIDC F-5E/Fs featured the F-20's shark nose.[122]

With the introduction of 150 F-16s, 60 Mirage 2000-5s and 130 F-CK-1s in the mid-to-late-1990s, the F-5E/F series became second line fighters in ROCAF service and mostly are now withdrawn from service as squadrons converted to new fighters entering ROCAF service. Seven low airframe hours F-5Es were sent to ST Aerospace to convert them to RF-5E standard to fulfill a reconnaissance role previously undertaken by the retiring Lockheed RF-104G in ROCAF service.[123] As of 2009, only about 40 ROCAF F-5E/Fs still remain in service in training roles with about 90–100 F-5E/Fs held in reserve. The other retired F-5E/F are either scrapped, or used as decoys painted in colors representing the main front line F-16, Mirage 2000-5 or F-CK-1 fighters, and deployed around major air bases.[124]

Taiwan also tried to upgrade the F-5E/F fleet with AIDC's Tiger 2000/2001 program. The first flight took place on 24 July 2002. The program would replace the F-5E/F's radar with F-CK-1's GD-53 radar and allow the fighter to carry a single TC-2 BVRAAM on the centerline. But lack of interest from the ROCAF eventually killed the program. The only prototype is on display in AIDC in Central Taiwan.[125][126]

On 22 March 2021, two Taiwanese pilots flying F-5E's crashed into each other during a training mission resulting in the third crash within the last six months. Two pilots died after the crash.[127]

South Vietnam / Vietnam

RVNAF F-5C Bien Hoa Air Base, 1971
RNVAF F-5A after landing at U-Tapao Royal Thai Navy Airfield, 29 April 1975

In June 1967, the US donated the surviving aircraft of 10th FCS USAF to South Vietnam. The president of South Vietnam had asked the US for F-4 Phantoms, but these were in high demand and the Republic of Vietnam Air Force (RVNAF) was flying only ground support missions, operating only Douglas A-1 Skyraider attackers at that point. In addition, the North Vietnamese Vietnam People's Air Force (VPAF) was not sending aircraft over South Vietnam. Hence the RVNAF did not require an aircraft with advanced air to air capabilities (like the F-4). A dedicated RVNAF unit was formed – the 522nd Fighter Squadron.

248 RVNAF aircraft were flown out of South Vietnam to Thailand during the Fall of Saigon in 1975. At least 25 F-5Es were reclaimed by the US, while one F-5B was transferred to Thailand.[128] North Vietnam captured approximately 877 aircraft, of which 87 were reported as F-5As and 27 were F-5Es.[129]

In November 1975, the Vietnamese government gave the Soviet military an opportunity to select captured US equipment for research and intelligence purposes. A complete F-5, along with two complete spare engines, spare parts, and ground support equipment, were loaded onto a Soviet cargo ship.[130] Several other F-5s were later transferred by Vietnam to the USSR, Poland and Czechoslovakia.[2][131]

The VPAF reportedly used 41 F-5s operationally. Others were decommissioned and put on display at museums in Vietnam. The 935th Fighter Regiment of the VPAF 372nd Air Division became the only unit in the world to simultaneously fly both the MiG-21 and F-5.[citation needed] The type was used for combat by the VPAF, in ground–attack sorties against the Khmer Rouge.

Gradually, a lack of critical spare parts in Vietnam caused initially by a US embargo and later by termination of manufacturing and dwindling stocks – grounded the remaining F-5s. However, in May 2017 it was reported that the VPAF was considering upgrading particular systems in some retired aircraft, in order to put them back into service.[129]


This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources in this section. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this message)
Venezuela Air Force Northrop (Canadair) VF-5A (CL-226)

After a reorganization of the Venezuelan Air Force in the late 1960s, the government realized that it was time to replace its obsolete de Havilland Vampires and Venoms active at that time, as well as the last surviving F-86 Sabres in active duty. In 1971, 54 Canadian-built CF-5As were put in storage, after the RCAF could not take them due to budget cuts. From this batch, Venezuela acquired 16 CF-5As and two CF-5Ds. In 1972, after all the aircraft were delivered, the F-86s, Venoms, and Vampires were finally scrapped.

The F-5 became the first military plane in Venezuela capable of flying at supersonic speeds. After a legal dispute between Canadair and Northrop, two more CF-5Ds were built and delivered to Venezuela in 1974. Their first base of operations was the General Rafael Urdaneta Air Base in Maracaibo. After 1974, the fleet was relocated to Teniente Vicente Landaeta Gil Air Base in Barquisimeto.

In 1979, after several upgrades to the fleet's communication, navigation and approximation equipment, the aircraft were renamed VF-5s, designating the CF-5As as VF-5As and the CF-5Ds as VF-5Ds. Venezuelan F-5s could also carry weaponry such as the AIM-9 Sidewinder missile, Mk.82 and M117 bombs, and 70mm rocket launchers.

In 1991, after tensions between Colombia and Venezuela almost led to a conflict, the air force started yet another modernization program for the F-5s, called "Proyecto Grifo" (Project Gryphon). Some aircraft (VF-5D number 5681 and VF-5A number 9124) were sent to Singapore for testing, then brought back for upgrade of the remaining airframes. That same year, a small fleet of four NF-5Bs and a single NF-5A, was acquired from the Netherlands to replace aircraft lost in previous years.

In 1992, during the coup d'état attempt against president Carlos Andres Perez, 3 F-5s were lost to a rebel-operated OV-10 Bronco bombing Barquisimeto Air Base. The failed coup delayed the modernization program for a year, finally coming together in 1993. The fleet was equipped with inertial laser navigation systems (similar to those in Venezuelan F-16s), IFFs, HUDs, refueling probes and modernized engines with an estimated lifespan of 22 years.

In 2002, small upgrades were made to the remaining F-5s. The fleet was kept operational until 2010, when a batch of Hongdu JL-8s was delivered as their replacement. By late 2010, it was known that at least one VF-5D was in flight-worthy condition; it is unknown if more aircraft are in operational condition.

Between 1972 and 2002, a total of 9 Venezuelan F-5s were lost.[132][unreliable source?]


In March 1979, following North Yemen's defeat in the Yemenite War of 1979, the United States gave Saudi Arabia the permission to transfer four Northrop F-5B trainers to North Yemen. Additionally, Saudi Arabia financed the procurement of twelve F-5E fighters.[133] By the end of the year, all 16 aircraft had arrived. This did not leave enough time to properly train local pilots and ground crews to operate them. Hence, the Saudis agreed with Taiwan to deploy a group of 80 Republic of China Air Force pilots and ground personnel to Sana'a. They formed the 112th Squadron of the Yemen Arab Republic Air Force (YARAF), which was also known as the Desert Squadron. Most of the Squadron's members were Taiwanese until 1985, by when enough Yemenis were trained on the F-5 to take over their duties. However, some Taiwanese personnel remained in the country: in 1990, no less than 700 Taiwanese served in Yemen. They were finally withdrawn in 1991, after the Yemeni unification.[134]

North Yemeni F-5Es have seen combat during the 1994 civil war. On 6 May, two South Yemeni MiG-21s were claimed shot down by Major Nabi Ali Ahmad, using AIM-9 missiles. According to South Yemeni sources, only one MiG-21bis was shot down in an air combat, and its pilot killed. Reportedly, the North Yemenis subsequently deployed their Tiger IIs for air-to-air combat only.[135] On 15 May, two helicopters (probably Mil Mi-8s) were shot down, one of them supposedly by Major Nabi Ali Ahmad.[136] On 28 May, an F-5E was shot down by anti-aircraft fire.[137] On 20 June, a South Yemeni MiG-21 was shot down over Al Anad Air Base in an air combat with two F-5Es, and its pilot was killed.[138] Lastly, on 29 June, an encounter between two YARAF F-5Es and a single South Yemeni MiG-29 was reported. However, neither side opened fire.[139]

Following the North's victory in the civil war, the F-5 fleet was integrated into the unified Yemeni Air Force. However, the number of F-5s in service declined over the years. In 2003, there were negotiations with Singapore for the overhaul and upgrade of the remaining aircraft. However, nothing came out of it.[140] Around 2010, only six aircraft were operational, partly thanks to US aid packages.[141] In the night of 29–30 March 2015, at least one F-5B and one F-5E were destroyed on the ground at Sanaa International Airport by Royal Saudi Air Force bombardments, in the first days of the Saudi-led intervention.[142]


Royal Saudi Air Force F-5F taking off during the Gulf War.

Saudi Arabia deployed F-5Es during the Gulf War, flying close air support and aerial interdiction missions against Iraqi units in Kuwait. One Royal Saudi Air Force F-5E was lost to ground fire on 13 February 1991, resulting in the death of the pilot.[143]

AeroGroup, a private commercial company in the US, operates the CF-5B as a fighter lead-in aircraft for training and for other support services. There were 17 aircraft originally purchased from the Canadian Government with US State Department approval and then imported into the US in 2006.[144][145][146]

Since 2013, Tunisian F-5s have been used in strike missions in support of major military offensives in the border region of Mount Chaambi against Ansar al-Sharia and al-Qaeda-linked militants.[147][148][149] [check quotation syntax] F-5s were used by the Libyan Air Force at Wheelus Air Base in Tripoli, Libya from 1968 to 1969.[citation needed]


This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources in this section. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Northrop F-5" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (July 2020) (Learn how and when to remove this message)

Single-seat versions

A trio of USAF aggressor squadron F-5Es in formation
Brazilian Air Force F-5EM
Single-seat fighter prototype. Only three aircraft were built.
The three prototypes were given the US Air Force designation YF-5A.[150]
Single-seat fighter version of F-5, originally without radar, but was later equipped with AN/APQ-153 radar during upgrades.
F-5A (G)
Single-seat fighter version of the F-5A for the Royal Norwegian Air Force.
Designation was given to one aircraft used for static tests.
Designation of Spanish Air and Space Force Northrop F-5As.
F-5C Skoshi Tiger
Twelve F-5A Freedom Fighters were tested by the US Air Force for four and a half months in Vietnam. Modified at Palmdale plant by adding removable, non retractable air-refueling probe on the left side, 90 lb of external armor plates under the cockpit and engine, and jettisonable stores pylons.[151]
F-5E Tiger II
Single-seat fighter version with AN/APQ-159, replacing earlier AN/APQ-153.
F-5E Tiger III
Chilean Air Force F-5E Tiger III
Upgraded version of the F-5E in use by the Chilean Air Force, with EL/M-2032 radar replacing the original AN/APQ-159 and capable of firing advanced versions of the Python missile
A single, prototype built for the Swiss Air Force, comprising an F-5E fuselage and tail section, with wings from an F-5F. As of 2011, this aircraft was at the Meiringen Air Base Museum.
The temporary designation given to the Northrop F-20 Tigershark, equipped with General Electric AN/APG-67 radar.
Ex-Swiss Air Force F-5Es used by the US Navy as an "aggressor" aircraft, with AN/APG-69 replacing the original AN/APQ-159. Intended to replace high-time USN/USMC F-5Es in the adversary role, and saw service through 2015.[4]
Upgraded version of the F-5E, was in use with the Republic of Singapore Air Force, equipped with the Galileo Avionica's FIAR Grifo-F X-band radar and are capable of firing the AIM-120 AMRAAM.[17][35][36]
F-5TH Super Tigris
Formerly known as the F-5T Tigris before being officially redesignated. An upgraded version of the F-5E of Royal Thai Air Force by Israel's Elbit Systems and Thai's RV Connex, it has a new glass cockpit and head-up display upgrade and equipped with EL/M-2032 radar, RTAF-developed Link-T/TH tactical datalink, Sky Shield jamming pod and are capable of firing the AIM-9M, IRIS-T, Python-4 and beyond visual range air-to-air Derby missile.[152][153]
Upgraded version of the F-5E of Brazilian Air Force equipped with Italian Grifo-F radar.
Upgraded version of the F-5E, in service with the Royal Moroccan Air Force.
F-5E Tiger 2000
Upgraded version of Taiwan AIDC, equipped with the GD-53 radar, capable of firing the TC-2 Sky Sword II, MIL-STD-1553B Link and GPS/INS. This variant did not enter service as the ROCAF decided to acquire additional F-16s instead to completely replace its F-5E/Fs.[citation needed]

Reconnaissance versions

Single-seat reconnaissance version of the F-5A fighter. Approximately 120 were built.[154]
RF-5A (G)
Single-seat reconnaissance version of the F-5A fighter for the Royal Norwegian Air Force.
RF-5E Tigereye
Single-seat reconnaissance version of the F-5E fighter. The RF-5E Tigereye was exported to Saudi Arabia and Malaysia.
RF-5E Tigergazer
Seven upgraded single-seat reconnaissance version of the F-5E for Taiwan by ST Aerospace.[17]
RF-5S Tigereye
Single-seat reconnaissance version of the F-5S for the Republic of Singapore Air Force.[17]
Spanish reconnaissance aircraft
Thai designation for the RF-5A

Two-seat versions

A Spanish F-5M Freedom Fighter at Dijon Air Base
A Bahraini Air Force F-5F on the taxiway at RAF Alconbury
Spanish designation of the Northrop F-5B.
Temporary designation for the YF-5B.
One F-5B was fitted with a 5,000 lbf (2,268 kgf) General Electric J85-GE-21 engine, and used as a prototype for the F-5E Tiger II.
Two-seat trainer version.
Two-seat trainer version of the F-5B for the Royal Norwegian Air Force.
Two-seat trainer version in use by the Spanish Air and Space Force for air combat training.
Unbuilt trainer version.
F-5F Tiger II
Two-seat trainer version of F-5E Tiger II, AN/APQ-167 radar tested, intended to replace AN/APQ-157, but not carried out.
F-5F Tiger III
Upgraded trainer version of the F-5F in use by the Chilean Air Force.
Upgraded F-5F, was in service with the Republic of Singapore Air Force.[17]
F-5THF (บ.ข.18 ค)[N 2]
Twin-seat version of F-5TH in service with the Royal Thai Air Force as of May 2020.
Upgraded trainer version of the F-5F for the Brazilian Air Force.

Foreign variants

A Canadian Air Force CF-116D

Licensed versions

Fighter versions for the Canadian Forces Air Command built under license by Canadair. Its Canadian designation is CF-116.
Single-seat fighter version of the CF-5A for the Royal Netherlands Air Force; 75 built.
Two-seat training version of the CF-5D for the Royal Netherlands Air Force; 30 built.
Single-seat fighter version of the F-5A for the Spanish Air and Space Force; built under license in Spain by CASA.
Single-seat reconnaissance version of the RF-5A for the Spanish Air and Space Force; built under license in Spain by CASA.
Two-seat training version of the F-5B for the Spanish Air and Space Force. Built under license by CASA in Spain.
Single-seat version of the CF-5A for the Venezuelan Air Force. This designation was given to some Canadair CF-116s which were sold to the Venezuelan Air Force.
Two-seat training version of the CF-5D for the Venezuelan Air Force.
F-5E built in South Korea for the Republic of Korea Air Force. First introduction: September 1982; 48 built.
F-5F built in South Korea for the Republic of Korea Air Force. First introduction: September 1982; 20 built.
Chung Cheng
F-5E/F built in Taiwan for Republic of China Air Force by AIDC. First introduction: 30 October 1974, one day before President Chiang Kai-shek's 88th birthday, and was thus christened "Chung Cheng", the true name of President Chiang; 308 built.[155]

Unlicensed versions

Iranian Azarakhsh
F-5E built or modified in Iran with unknown changes and mid-wing intakes.[citation needed]
F-5E modified in Iran with canted, twin vertical stabilizers.
Two-seat F-5F built or modified in Iran.


F-20 Tigershark

Main article: Northrop F-20 Tigershark

In comparison to later fighters, the improved F-5E had some weaknesses; these included marginal acceleration, rearward visibility, and fuel fraction, and a lack of Beyond Visual Range (BVR) weapons once such radar–guided missiles became reliable during the 1980s.[156] The F-5G, later renamed the F-20 Tigershark, aimed to correct these weaknesses while maintaining a small size and low cost to produce a competitive fighter. Compared to the F-5E, it had 60% more power, a higher climb rate and acceleration, better cockpit visibility, more modern radar and BVR capability, and competitive performance with fourth generation fighters. Like the F-5, it had better cost–effectiveness as it had the minimum necessary features relative to its competition to perform its air superiority mission. As an example, in the 1960s and early 1970s, the F-5's lack of BVR missiles was not a significant disadvantage as the kill rate of such missiles was approximately 8% to 10%,[157] and the performance and loss of surprise (radar warning to the enemy) cost of carrying them was not practically justified. By the early 1980s, the American AIM-7 Sparrow radar-guided missile in its "M" version was realistically exceeding a 60% kill rate, and was integrated onto the F-20. Brigadier General Chuck Yeager, test pilot and the first man to break the sound barrier, referred to the F-20 as "the finest fighter".[158] Despite its performance and affordable cost, the F-20 lost out for foreign sales against the similarly capable but more expensive F-16, which was being procured in large numbers by the US Air Force and was viewed as having greater support.[159]

Northrop YF-17

Main article: Northrop YF-17

The Northrop YF-17's main design elements date from the F-5 based internal Northrop project N-300. The N-300 featured a longer fuselage, small leading-edge root extensions (LERX), and more powerful GE15-J1A1 turbojets. The wing was moved higher on the fuselage to increase ordnance flexibility. The N-300 further evolved into the P-530 Cobra. The P-530's wing planform and nose section was similar to the F-5, with a trapezoidal shape formed by a sweep of 20° at the quarter-chord line, and an unswept trailing edge, but was over double the area. While the YF-17 lost its bid for the USAF lightweight fighter, it would be developed into the larger McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet.

Shaped Sonic Boom Demonstration

Main article: Shaped Sonic Boom Demonstration

A single ex-USN F-5E was modified to carry out research into reducing noise from supersonic flight by shaping the shock waves produced by the aircraft.


CF-5 of the Botswana Defence Force
A Honduran Air Force F-5E
Jordanian F-5E Tiger II
Kenya Air Force F-5E Tiger II and a USAF C-5 Galaxy in the background
Royal Moroccan Air Force F-5E Tiger II during an aerial refueling mission in exercise African Lion 2009
F-5E Tiger II of the Indonesian Air Force preserved at the Dirgantara Mandala Museum, Yogyakarta
An Austrian Air Force F-5E Tiger II with Swiss registration.
A Hellenic Air Force F-5A
A South Korean Air Force KF-5E takes off
A Royal Thai Air Force Northrop F-5E Tiger II
Turkish Air Force F-5B
A Republic of China Air Force F-5E at Chih Hang Air Force Base
 South Korea
 Taiwan (Republic of China)

Former operators

 Pahlavi Iran
 Kingdom of Libya
 North Yemen
 Saudi Arabia
 South Vietnam
 Soviet Union
 United States
F-5N in service with US Navy aggressor squadron VFC-111

Aircraft on display



Czech Republic





Indonesian Air Force F-5E Tiger II of the Skadron Udara 14 at Dirgantara Mandala Museum Yogyakarta


F-5E "3-7107" on static display Tehran, Iran


F-5F Tiger II of the Mexican Air Force preserved at the Mexican Air Force Museum.












J-3096 outside Flieger Flab Museum, in Patrouille Suisse paint


F-5B in Royal Thai Air Force Museum, the first F-5B produced
RTAF F-5E at Royal Thai Air Force Museum



United States




Specifications (F-5E Tiger II)

3-view drawing of F-5E Tiger II
M39A2 cannon in the right side of the nose of an F-5E
F-5 external fuel tank cutview
Cockpit of a Norwegian F-5A

Data from Jane's all the World's Aircraft 1976–77,[261] The Complete Book of Fighters,[262] Quest for Performance[263]

General characteristics

27 ft 11.875 in (8.53123 m) with wing-tip missiles
  • Internal fuel: 677 US gal (564 imp gal; 2,560 L)
  • External fuel: up to 3x 275 US gal (229 imp gal; 1,040 L) drop-tanks




Notable appearances in media

Main article: Aircraft in fiction § F-5 Freedom Fighter.2FTiger II

See also

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era

Related lists



  1. ^ The 412 F-5s in service as of December 2021 made it the tenth most common active fighter and attack jet, comprising about three percent of the world's tactical jet warplanes.[5]
  2. ^ The designation THF is unofficial since the Royal Thai Air Force only designated it in Thai, not in English.[citation needed]


  1. ^ Johnsen 2006, p. 90
  2. ^ a b Baugher, Joseph ‘Joe’. "Northrop F-5E/F Tiger II in Service with Vietnam". Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
  3. ^ "Military Aircraft Update: Northrop F-5/T-38. Aviation Week & Space Technology (Aviation Week Intelligence Network), Vol. 175, Issue 39, 21 November 2013, p. 89.
  4. ^ a b c "F-5N/F Adversary aircraft fact file." Archived 7 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine U.S. Navy. Retrieved: 15 May 2010.
  5. ^ a b Hoyle 2021, p. 10
  6. ^ Garrison 2005
  7. ^ Wagner 2000, p. 195.
  8. ^ Stuart 1978, pp. 5–7.
  9. ^ "Era of the F-5 Ends After Three Decades". Los Angeles Times. 16 January 1987. Retrieved 25 January 2024.
  10. ^ Wagner 2000, p. 197.
  11. ^ Braybrook 1982, pp. 111–114.
  12. ^ Stuart 1978, p. 21.
  13. ^ a b c Flight, 8 January 1960, pp. 46-47
  14. ^ Paloque 2013, pp. 4–7.
  15. ^ Garrison 2005.
  16. ^ a b Stuart 1978, p. 7.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Yeo, Mike. "Tigers over Lion City." AirForces Monthly (Key Publishing), Issue 275, March 2011, pp. 86–91. ISSN 0955-7091. Retrieved: 8 June 2011.
  18. ^ Lake and Hewson 1996, pp. 50–51.
  19. ^ Braybrook 1982, p. 114
  20. ^ Lake & Hewson 1996, p. 51
  21. ^ Harding 1990, pp. 118–119, 122–123, 188–189.
  22. ^ Lake & Hewson 1996, pp. 52–53
  23. ^ "Northrop YF-5A Freedom Fighter". National Museum of the US Air Force. US Air Force. Archived from the original on 13 January 2023. Retrieved 28 February 2023.
  24. ^ a b Lake & Hewson 1996, pp. 82–83
  25. ^ Lake & Hewson 1996, pp. 58–59, 70–71
  26. ^ a b Braybrook 1982, p. 116.
  27. ^ Lake & Hewson 1996, pp. 71–72.
  28. ^ Tambini, Anthony J. (2001). F-5 Tigers Over Vietnam. Branden Books. ISBN 978-0-8283-2059-7.
  29. ^ a b Lake & Hewson 1996, p. 103
  30. ^ Lake & Hewson 1996, p. 96
  31. ^ a b Lake & Hewson 1996, p. 104
  32. ^ Tambini, Anthony, "F-5 Tigers over Vietnam", 2014, ISBN 9780828320597.
  33. ^ "F-5 Tiger II". Touchdown Aviation. Archived from the original on 7 September 2016. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
  34. ^ Waldron2018-02-04T04:02:00+00:00, Greg. "SINGAPORE: RSAF chief discusses future capabilities". Flight Global. Retrieved 4 December 2020.((cite web)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  35. ^ a b c "Press release: Assets: Fighter aircraft." Archived 2 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine Ministry of Defence (Singapore), 24 April 2010. Retrieved: 8 June 2011.
  36. ^ a b c "Brazil favours Grifo F radar for F-5BR upgrade". Flightglobal.com, 11 April 2000. Retrieved: 8 June 2011.
  37. ^ "F5E-Modified." Archived 12 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine vacwarbirds.org. Retrieved: 24 April 2012.
  38. ^ Chuanren, Chen. "Thailand's Latest F-5 Upgrade Features Israeli Kit". Aviation International News.
  39. ^ "Bombas Guiada SMKB." Revista Asas(Portuguese), Volume 61, June 2011, p. 29. ISSN 1413-1218.
  40. ^ "Denel's A-Darter makes test debut" Archived 21 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine Flight Global, 26 February 2009. Retrieved: 28 January 2012.
  41. ^ "FAB comemora dia da Aviação de Caça!" (in Portuguese). Archived 19 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine alide.com.br. Retrieved: 28 January 2012.
  42. ^ "F-5EM com míssil Python IV" (in Portuguese). Archived 25 December 2011 at the Wayback Machine Poder Aéreo, 4 November 2010. Retrieved: 28 January 2012.
  43. ^ "As garras afiadas do F-5EM" (in Porguguse). Archived 16 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine Poder Aéreo, 24 August 2008. Retrieved: 28 January 2012.
  44. ^ Lake & Hewson 1996, p. 53
  45. ^ Plunkett, W. Howard. "When the Thunderbirds Flew the Thunderchief." Air Power History, Air Force Historical Foundation, Clinton, Maryland, Fall 2009, Volume 56, Number 3, pp. 24–25.
  46. ^ a b Thompson 1996, pp. 4–6.
  47. ^ Hobson p. 43, 64, 70, 71, 73, 75, 83, 90, 268
  48. ^ Thompson 1996, pp. 12, 14.
  49. ^ Thompson 1996, p. 16.
  50. ^ Gervasi 1981, p. 123.
  51. ^ Auten 2008, p. 390
  52. ^ Gilcrist 1994, p. 95.
  53. ^ Lake 1998, p. 85.
  54. ^ Sprey 1972, p. 140.
  55. ^ "Northrop F-5 Freedom Fighter." Archived 4 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine Great Planes episode, Discovery Channel, May 2012.
  56. ^ Ted, Carlson. "One-Eleven Heaven" AirForces Monthly (Key Publishing), Issue 283, October 2011, p. 48. ISSN 0955-7091. Retrieved: 10 October 2011.
  57. ^ "FAA Registry: Northrop F-5." Archived 18 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine FAA. Retrieved: 17 May 2011.
  58. ^ "FAA Registry: Canadair F-5." Archived 18 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine FAA. Retrieved: 17 May 2011.
  59. ^ "Os primeiros F-5 da FAB" [The Brazilian air force's first F-5s], Poder Aéreo (in Portuguese), 1 July 2011, archived from the original on 26 July 2012, retrieved 26 January 2012.
  60. ^ Poggio, Guilherme (11 August 2011), "39 anos do voo do primeiro F-5E… e ele continua na ativa!" [39 years of the first F-5 flight… and it continues active!], Poder Aéreo (in Portuguese), archived from the original on 12 September 2011, retrieved 28 December 2011.
  61. ^ "PAMA-SP 2011: um F-5B com roupa de 'Mike'" [PAMA-SP 2011: an F-5B dressed as a 'Mike'], Poder Aéreo (in Portuguese), 7 November 2011, archived from the original on 4 November 2012, retrieved 27 December 2012.
  62. ^ "F-5A Freedom Fighter" Archived 9 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Deagel. Retrieved: 28 December 2011.
  63. ^ "F-5 Brazil." Archived 4 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine wikinvest, 28 May 2008. Retrieved: 29 December 2011.
  64. ^ "FAB compra Pod Litening III" (in Portuguese). Archived 6 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine Alide. Retrieved: 26 January 2012.
  65. ^ "Diario Oficial da União" (in Portuguese). Archived 21 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine scribd.com. Retrieved: 26 January 2012.
  66. ^ "Os F-5 da Jordânia, agora na FAB" (in Portuguese). Archived 23 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine Poder Aéreo, 29 October 2009. Retrieved: 28 December 2011.
  67. ^ "Aeronáutica reforma 11 caças por R$ 276 mi" (in Portuguese). Archived 24 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine Agencia T1, 18 April 2011. Retrieved: 29 December 2011.
  68. ^ "Embraer Defense and Security to modernize 11 additional F-5 jet fighters for the Brazilian Air Force." Archived 5 April 2013 at the Wayback Machine Deagel, 14 April 2011. Retrieved: 29 December 2011.
  69. ^ FAB, Força Aérea Brasileira. "FAB inicia atividades preparatórias para Campanha de Ensaio em Voo do Projeto Link-BR2". FAB Oficial. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  70. ^ a b c Cooper, Tom. "Ethiopia and Eritrea, 1950–1991." Archived 11 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine acig.org, 10 February 2008. Retrieved: 1 July 2011.
  71. ^ a b "Ogaden War (Ethiopian-Somalia Conflict) 1977-1978".
  72. ^ a b Cooper, Tom., "Wings over Ogaden, 2015, ch. 3
  73. ^ Cooper, Tom & Fontanellaz, Adrian, "Ethiopian-Eritrean Wars Volume 1, 2018, ch. 4
  74. ^ "Which is Better, the F-5E Tiger II or the MiG-21? by Tom Cooper". 8 August 2016.
  75. ^ "Ethiopia : Hero Air Force General Passes Away". 5 October 2016.
  76. ^ "Northrop F-5A/B και NF-5A/Β Freedom Fighter" (in Greek). Πολεμική Αεροπορία. Archived from the original on 15 October 2013. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
  77. ^ Isayev, Jafarov, S., T. (23 February 2012). "Iran now capable of overhauling and modifying F-5 Freedom fighter jet". Trend News Agency. Archived from the original on 4 February 2016. Retrieved 29 January 2016.((cite web)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  78. ^ "The first air force to receive F-5E was the Imperial Iranian Air Force." Archived 24 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine iiaf.net. Retrieved: 6 June 2010.
  79. ^ IRIAF Archived 1 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine. iiaf.net. Retrieved: 6 June 2010.
  80. ^ "Arabian Peninsula & Persian Gulf Database: Iranian Air-to-Air Victories, 1982." Archived 23 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine acig.org, 16 September 2003. Retrieved: 15 May 2010.
  81. ^ Jakubovich, Nickolai (2012). "Neizvestnii MiG. Gordost sovetskogo aviaproma"/Razvedchiki/bombardirovshiki. Eksmo. (Russian:"Неизвестный «МиГ». Гордость советского авиапрома"/Разведчии/бомбардировщики, Николай Якубович, 2012)
  82. ^ "Why Iran's Fighter-Jet Ripoff Is Just Fake News". 18 February 2017. Archived from the original on 22 May 2018.
  83. ^ Weinraub, Bernard. "U.S. to Sell Kenya 12 F‐5's In $70 Million Arms Deal." Archived 27 October 2023(Date mismatch) at the Wayback Machine nytimes.com, 17 June 1976. Retrieved: 26 October 2023.
  84. ^ Axe, David. "Kenyan Jets Spearhead Somalia Operation." Archived 4 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine offiziere.ch, 1 November 2011. Retrieved: 24 April 2012.
  85. ^ Darling, Juanita (17 September 1995). "4 Planes Crash in Mexico Festivities; 6 Killed". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 8 March 2023.
  86. ^ "México reactiva sus aviones F-5E/F Tigre II HD 2021". YouTube. Mexicoaeroespacial y Defensa. Archived from the original on 30 October 2021. Retrieved 12 August 2021.
  87. ^ Cooper & Grandolini 2018, pp. 40–41
  88. ^ a b Cooper, Grandolini & Fontanellaz 2019, p. 18
  89. ^ Cooper, Tom. "Morocco, Mauritania & West Sahara since 1972". ACIG.org. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 1 January 2016.
  90. ^ Cooper & Grandolini 2018, p. 43
  91. ^ Cooper, Grandolini & Fontanellaz 2019, pp. 26, 32
  92. ^ a b Cooper, Grandolini & Fontanellaz 2019, pp. 74–75
  93. ^ Cooper, Grandolini & Fontanellaz 2019, pp. 60–61, 68
  94. ^ Cooper, Grandolini & Fontanellaz 2019, p. 44
  95. ^ Cooper, Grandolini & Fontanellaz 2019, p. 45
  96. ^ Cooper, Grandolini & Fontanellaz 2019, p. 61
  97. ^ Cooper, Grandolini & Fontanellaz 2019, p. VII
  98. ^ Cooper, Grandolini & Fontanellaz 2019, p. 62
  99. ^ Cooper, Grandolini & Fontanellaz 2019, pp. 55, VII
  100. ^ a b "Luftvorsvaret - Air Force". The Northrop F-5 Enthusiast Page. Archived from the original on 11 October 2018. Retrieved 11 October 2018.
  101. ^ Hafsten, Bjørn. "Northrop F-5 i norsk tjeneste" (Northrop F-5 in Norwegian Service) (In Norwegian). Warbirds of Norway Newsletter, 2009.
  102. ^ Dalløkken, Per Erlien (25 October 2011). "F-5 blir gitt bort". Teknisk Ukeblad (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2 May 2017.
  103. ^ Egeberg, Tore Bergsaker, Kristoffer (2 May 2017). "Slakter salg av jagerfly til Texas-milliardær". dagbladet.no (in Norwegian). Retrieved 9 December 2020.((cite web)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  104. ^ "PAF to retire F-5 fleet". Philippine Star, 29 September 2005. Retrieved: 8 April 2009.
  105. ^ a b Evangelista, Kate. "Philippine Air Force to buy 6 fighter jets." Archived 2 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine Globalnation via inquirer.net, 1 July 2011. Retrieved: 11 October 2011.
  106. ^ Wilson 2002, p. 180.
  107. ^ "Singapore F-5 upgrade to go ahead." FlightGlobal.com, 13 March 1996. Retrieved: 28 June 2011.
  108. ^ Boey, David. "Meet Bitching Betty – She sits in a plane, one of 40 F-5S aircraft which have been upgraded at about $6 million a plane."The Straits Times (Singapore Press Holdings), 4 April 1999, p. 23. Retrieved: 22 March 2012.
  109. ^ "Northrop F-5T Tiger II 853 1:72 Scale". Headway Aviation. Archived from the original on 22 August 2021. Retrieved 22 August 2021.
  110. ^ "한국형 전투기 개발 계획: KF-X 사업(보라매사업)-pdf" [Korean fighter development plan:KF-X project (Boramae project)] (PDF) (in Korean). 국회입법조사처. 10 September 2015. Retrieved 21 December 2017.
  111. ^ Calvo, Luis (6 June 2018). "CASA Northrop F-5B". Fly News (in Spanish). Retrieved 10 March 2024.
  112. ^ "Spain will operate the Northrop F5 light fighters until 2028". 2 March 2023. Retrieved 6 April 2024.
  113. ^ "Northrop F-5E Tiger II". Swiss Air Force. April 2015. Archived from the original on 28 July 2016. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
  114. ^ de Larrinaga, Nicholas. "Swiss voters reject Gripen purchase." Archived 27 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine IHS Jane's Defence Weekly, 18 May 2014. Retrieved: 22 July 2014.
  115. ^ "Northrop F-5E." Archived 28 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine Swiss Government. Retrieved: 23 December 2014.
  116. ^ "Stimmvolk sagt hauchdünn Ja zu neuen Kampfjets". SRF. September 2020. Retrieved 3 March 2022.
  117. ^ "Air2030: Bundesrat beschliesst Beschaffung von 36 Kampfflugzeugen des Typs F-35A". Swiss Air Force. June 2021. Retrieved 3 March 2022.
  118. ^ Erster ausser Dienst gestellter F-5 Tiger den amerikanischen Streitkräften übergeben
  119. ^ "ROCAF F-5A/B Program in CINCPAC History Series (Part 1)." Archived 8 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine taiwanairpower.org, 21 February 2009. Retrieved: 14 September 2009.
  120. ^ "F-5A/B Freedom Fighter (Part 1)." Archived 28 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine taiwanairpower.org, 16 July 2006. Retrieved: 14 September 2009.
  121. ^ "Northrop F-5E/F Tiger II." Archived 21 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine taiwanairpower.org, 13 April 2008. Retrieved: 14 September 2009.
  122. ^ a b Johnsen 2006, p. 35
  123. ^ "RF-5E Tigergazer." Archived 27 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine taiwanairpower, 12 June 2004. Retrieved: 14 September 2009.
  124. ^ " F-5E – a la Mirage." Archived 28 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine taiwanairpower.org, 8 August 2006. Retrieved: 14 September 2009.
  125. ^ Hsu, Brian. "Unwanted fighter jet takes to the air in first test flight." Archived 29 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine taipeitimes.com The Taipei Times, 30 July 2002. Retrieved: 14 September 2009.
  126. ^ Jeziorski, Andrzej. "AIDC pins hopes on F-5 upgrade." flightglobal.com, 12 August 1999. Retrieved: 14 September 2009.
  127. ^ "Taiwan loses two fighter jets in apparent collision". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 22 March 2021.
  128. ^ "CINCPAC Command History 1975" (PDF). Commander in Chief Pacific. 7 October 1976. pp. 467–70. Retrieved 19 January 2024.Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  129. ^ a b Peck, Michael (21 May 2017). "Is Vietnam Really Planning on Bringing Back 50-Year-Old American Fighter Planes?". The National Interest. Archived from the original on 25 June 2017.
  130. ^ Toperczer (29) pp. 80, 81.
  131. ^ Photo of a Northrop F-5E Tiger II in Kraków, Poland a gift of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.Archived 29 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine muzeumlotnictwa.pl. Retrieved: 15 May 2010.
  132. ^ a b "El caza bombardero ligero VF-5 en la Fuerza Aérea Venezolana – FAV-Club". 19 December 2015. Archived from the original on 17 May 2017. Retrieved 25 March 2017.
  133. ^ a b Cooper 2017, p. 40
  134. ^ Cooper 2017, p. 41
  135. ^ Cooper 2017, p. 47
  136. ^ Cooper 2017, p. 48
  137. ^ Cooper 2017, p. 49
  138. ^ Cooper 2017, p. 51
  139. ^ Cooper 2017, pp. 52–53
  140. ^ Cooper 2018, p. 14
  141. ^ Cooper 2018, pp. 14, 29
  142. ^ Cooper 2018, p. 43
  143. ^ "Coalition Fixed-Wing Combat Aircraft Attrition in Desert Storm." Archived 12 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine rjlee.org. Retrieved: 24 April 2012.
  144. ^ "TADS (Tactical Air Defense Services, Inc." Archived 23 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine A-4 Skyhawk Association. Retrieved: 23 December 2014.
  145. ^ Luark, C. "AeroGroup trains Belgium F-16 Pilots at KB." Archived 21 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine f-16.net, 2 June 2008. Retrieved: 23 December 2014.
  146. ^ "Train Like You Fight...Fight Like You Train." Archived 25 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine aerogroupinc.com, 2014. Retrieved: 23 December 2014.
  147. ^ Chennoufi, A. "Tunisia Regions: air and land bombardments shelters 53 terrorists Jebal Châambi using F-5."[permanent dead link] tunivisions.net, 2 August 2013. Retrieved: 23 December 2014.
  148. ^ Abdelmoumen, Khalil. "Jebel Chaâmbi: Intensive shelling using F5." Archived 24 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine webdo, 24 April 2014. Retrieved: 23 December 2014.
  149. ^ "Les chasseurs F-5 entrent en action à Jebel Samama". 12 August 2013. Archived from the original on 16 August 2013. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
  150. ^ "Northrop YF-5A Freedom Fighter". National Museum of the U.S. Air Force. United States Air Force.
  151. ^ "USAF Vietnam Operations". The Northrop F-5 Enthusiast Page. Archived from the original on 18 April 2021. Retrieved 18 April 2021.
  152. ^ "RTAF completes upgrades to F-5 fighter aircraft fleet". Janes. 24 February 2023.
  153. ^ "อัพเกรดแล้ว "F-5TH" เสือโคตรดุ ทอ.ไทย เทียบชั้นเครื่องขับไล่ยุค 4.5". Thairath. 13 November 2019.
  154. ^ Johnsen 2006, p. 81
  155. ^ Lee, Ching-tang (13 January 2018). "守護台海40年 老當益壯的「中正號」F-5戰機". China Times. Retrieved 17 March 2023.
  156. ^ Sprey 1982, p. 145.
  157. ^ Sprey 1982, p. 118.
  158. ^ Yeager and Janos 1985, pp. 248–249.
  159. ^ Hammond 2001, p. 99.
  160. ^ Lake & Hewson 1996, p. 90
  161. ^ 2024 World Air Forces, Flight Global, p.13
  162. ^ "Botswana buys CF-5s". Archived 9 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 19–25 June 1996, p. 22.
  163. ^ "Botswana Defence Force". Scramble.nl. Archived from the original on 20 January 2012. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
  164. ^ Knott and Spearman 2003, p. 76.
  165. ^ a b c Hoyle 2021, p. 14
  166. ^ "Aeronáutica reforma 11 caças por R$ 276 mi" (in Portuguese). Archived 24 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine Agencia T1, 18 April 2011. Retrieved: 27 December 2011.
  167. ^ "Burnier: primeiros F-5 darão baixa em 2017, F-X2 não pode ser mais postergado" (in Portuguese). Archived 23 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine Poder Aéreo, 14 November 2011. Retrieved: 28 January 2012.
  168. ^ "Brazilian air force confirms Gripen acquisition numbers". Flight Global. 18 November 2014. Archived from the original on 27 April 2019. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
  169. ^ Lake & Hewson 1996, pp. 92–93
  170. ^ "Chile to increase F-16 fleet." Archived 19 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine milaviapress.com. Retrieved: 9 January 2010.
  171. ^ Flight International 15–21 December 2009, p. 37.
  172. ^ "Uruguay; Air Force expresses interest in Chilean surplus F-5." Archived 22 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine Dmilt.com, 24 March 2013.
  173. ^ a b Lake & Hewson 1996, p. 94
  174. ^ Hoyle 2021, pp. 19–20
  175. ^ Hoyle 2021, p. 21
  176. ^ "Kenyan military aviation." Archived 27 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine OrBat. Retrieved: 1 July 2011.
  177. ^ "Air force (Kenya), Air force." Archived 14 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine janes.com. Retrieved: 1 July 2011.
  178. ^ Hoyle 2021, p. 22
  179. ^ Hoyle 2021, p. 29
  180. ^ "Whither the Mexican Air Force Combat Fleet? | Manohar Parrikar Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses". idsa.in. Retrieved 12 January 2021.
  181. ^ "Mexican military aviation." Archived 20 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine OrBat. Retrieved: 9 January 2010.
  182. ^ a b Hoyle 2021, p. 24
  183. ^ Elbcom "F-5". Archived 19 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine Royal Moroccan Air Force. Retrieved: 23 December 2014.
  184. ^ Carlos Martí Sempere (2006). "Tecnología de la Defensa" (PDF) (in Spanish). Instituto Universitario "General Gutiérrez Mellado" (UNED). Retrieved 29 January 2009.[permanent dead link]
  185. ^ de Ridder, Dirk Jan. Alpine Tigers face extinction, AirForces Monthly magazine, February 2011 issue, pp. 76–81.
  186. ^ "Northrop F-5E Tiger II". Archived from the original on 10 August 2020. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
  187. ^ McPhee, John. "La Place de la Concorde Suisse-II." Archived 9 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine The New Yorker, 7 November 1983, p. 55. Retrieved: 22 July 2013.
  188. ^ SWISS TIGERS by Emiel Snoot
  189. ^ Lake & Hewson 1996, p. 77
  190. ^ Hoyle 2021, p. 31
  191. ^ "About the NF-5 Aircraft." Archived 27 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine Turkish Air Force. Retrieved: 23 December 2014.
  192. ^ SABAH, DAILY (7 April 2021). "Training aircraft crashes in Turkey's Konya, pilot dead". Daily Sabah. Retrieved 8 April 2021.
  193. ^ "HÜRJET ile ilgili heyecanlandıran gelişme". Air News Times (in Turkish). 6 March 2021. Retrieved 8 April 2021.
  194. ^ Cooper 2018, p. 29
  195. ^ 2024 World Air Forces, Flight Global, p.34
  196. ^ "Northrop F-5A / B and NF-5A / B Freedom Fighter." Archived 15 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine Hellenic Air Force. Retrieved: 23 December 2014.
  197. ^ Saragih, Maylina (17 April 2018). 18 Pesawat Warnai Muspusdirla Yogyakarta. Jakarta: Dinas Penerangan Angkatan Udara. pp. 43–44.
  198. ^ "Brazilian Air Force auctions three F-5 fighter airframe". 21 May 2020.
  199. ^ Taylor, John. Gallery of Far Easy / Pacific Airpower. p. 61.
  200. ^ a b Lake & Hewson 1996, p. 98
  201. ^ a b Lake & Hewson 1996, p. 99
  202. ^ "Arms, Transparency and Security in South-East Asia" Archived 5 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine books.sipri.org, 1997, p. 113. Retrieved: 14 September 2009.
  203. ^ "Saudi Arabia AF". Archived from the original on 25 November 2018. Retrieved 24 November 2018.
  204. ^ "Trade Registers". Archived from the original on 29 December 2017. Retrieved 24 November 2018.
  205. ^ Tamir Eshel (23 October 2014). "Keeping the Tigers Flying". Defense Update. Archived from the original on 10 July 2018. Retrieved 16 May 2018.
  206. ^ "RSAF - Assets". Archived from the original on 10 July 2018. Retrieved 10 July 2018.
  207. ^ Kondaurov, V. N. "Взлетная полоса длиною в жизнь." (in Russian) Archived 17 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine testpilot.ru. Retrieved: 30 June 2011.
  208. ^ Book: US Aircraft in the Soviet Union and Russia, Authors Yefim Gordon, Sergey& Dmitriy Komissarov. Midland publishing UK. Page 249 to Page 254 ISBN 978-1-85780-308-2
  209. ^ Fuguet, Erwin; Rivas, Santiago (21 March 2021). "An insight into Venezuela's modern air force". Key Publishing. Retrieved 4 November 2023.
  210. ^ Gordon 2008, pp. 403–410.
  211. ^ "F-5B Freedom Fighter." Archived 6 September 2017 at the Wayback Machine Santa Cruz Air Force Base. Retrieved: 6 September 2017.
  212. ^ 'F-5E Tiger II Archived 6 September 2017 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved: 6 September 2017
  213. ^ "F-5 Freedom Fighter." Archived 5 June 2016 at the Wayback Machine Military History Institute Prague. Retrieved: 16 January 2016.
  214. ^ "Airframe Dossier". aerialvisuals.ca. Retrieved 29 August 2023.
  215. ^ "Northrop F-5." Archived 14 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine Athens War Museum. Retrieved: 23 December 2014.
  216. ^ "Northrop F-5." Archived 14 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine Hellenic Air Force Museum. Retrieved: 23 December 2014.
  217. ^ "Northrop F-5." Archived 22 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine Thessaloniki War Museum. Retrieved: 23 December 2014.
  218. ^ "Northrop F-5." Archived 14 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine Hellenic Air Force Museum. Retrieved: 23 December 2014.
  219. ^ "Ada F-5E TS-0501 di Monumen Tri Matra di Tanjungpinang". airspace-review.com (in Indonesian). 25 October 2021. Retrieved 2 November 2021.
  220. ^ "Danlanud Adisutjipto Resmikan Monumen Pesawat Tempur F5 dan Havard". tni-au.mil.id (in Indonesian). 15 January 2018. Archived from the original on 22 September 2020. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
  221. ^ "Intip Monumen F-5E Tiger II di Taman Lalu Lintas Bandung". airspace-review.com (in Indonesian). 18 July 2019. Archived from the original on 22 July 2019. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
  222. ^ a b M. Tarigan, Lisa (5 November 2015). Monumen Angkatan Udara (Revisi I). Jakarta: Dinas Penerangan Angkatan Udara. p. 146.
  223. ^ "Mewarisi Semangat, dan Kebanggaan Bangsa, Kasau Resmikan Monumen Pesawat F-5 Tiger di Lanud Iswahjudi". tni-au.mil.id (in Indonesian). 18 July 2019. Archived from the original on 31 December 2019. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
  224. ^ "Monumen F-5 Tiger, Warisan Semangat Menjaga Langit Nusantara". daerah.sindonews.com (in Indonesian). 8 February 2019. Archived from the original on 29 November 2020. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
  225. ^ "Boyolali Punya Monumen Pesawat Tempur". suaramerdeka.com (in Indonesian). 20 March 2018. Archived from the original on 29 November 2020. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
  226. ^ "F-5E Tiger II TS-0512 Jadi Monumen di Seskoau Lembang Jawa Barat". airspace-review.com (in Indonesian). 20 October 2018. Archived from the original on 29 November 2020. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
  227. ^ "Purna Tugas, Pesawat F5 Jadi Monumen Legendaris". madiuntoday.id (in Indonesian). 12 July 2018. Archived from the original on 1 September 2019. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
  228. ^ "Di Makoopsau III, Ada Monumen Jet Tempur F5 Tiger". cenderawasihpos.co.id (in Indonesian). 30 September 2019. Archived from the original on 29 November 2020. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
  229. ^ Museum of the Islamic Revolution and the Holy Defense[permanent dead link]. iranrhdm.ir
  230. ^ admin (25 March 2022). "Museo Militar de Aviación". Revista Armas (in Spanish). Retrieved 2 August 2023.
  231. ^ "Airframe Dossier". aerialvisuals.ca. Retrieved 29 August 2023.
  232. ^ a b "Norsk Luftfartsmuseum - - Norges nasjonale museum for luftfart". Norsk Luftfartsmuseum. Archived from the original on 16 October 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
  233. ^ "Flyhistorisk museum". Flyhistorisk museum (in Norwegian Bokmål). Archived from the original on 18 October 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
  234. ^ "Forsvarets Flysamling Gardermoen". Flysamlingen Forsvarets museer (in Norwegian Bokmål). Archived from the original on 18 October 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
  235. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 August 2023. Retrieved 16 February 2024.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  236. ^ https://www.paf.mil.ph/news-articles/air-power-park-and-archangel-facade-blessed-and-inaugurated[permanent dead link]
  237. ^ https://smninewschannel.com/air-power-park-ng-philippine-military-academy-dinadagsa-ng-mga-turista/
  238. ^ "F-5 Freedom Fighter/73-00852." Archived 22 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine skrzydla.org. Retrieved: 6 May 2013.
  239. ^ "Air Force Museum". Ministry of Defense, Singapore. Retrieved 19 January 2024.
  240. ^ "Northrop F-5." Archived 16 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine Elder Museum of Science and Technology. Retrieved: 23 December 2014.
  241. ^ a b "Willkommen im Flieger Flab Museum". Flieger Flab Museum. Air Force Center. Retrieved 31 March 2023.
  242. ^ "Meiringen Air Base". Swiss Armed Forces. Archived from the original on 1 April 2023. Retrieved 31 March 2023.
  243. ^ "Schweizer Luftwaffe Militärische Kennungen Registrationen" (PDF).[permanent dead link]
  244. ^ a b c d "Hava Kuvvetleri Muzesi Komutanligi (Turkish Air Force Museum) - Yesilkoy - Istanbul - Turkey". Archived from the original on 7 August 2016. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
  245. ^ "F-5 Freedom Fighter/59-4987." Archived 20 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine Museum of Flight. Retrieved: 7 May 2016.
  246. ^ "F-5 Freedom Fighter/59-4987." Archived 4 April 2013 at the Wayback Machine National Museum of the USAF. Retrieved: 1 Apr 2013.
  247. ^ "Northrop F-5A Freedom Fighter". Western Museum of Flight. Archived from the original on 23 June 2016. Retrieved 30 August 2016.
  248. ^ "Airframe Dossier – Northrop F-5A-30-NO Freedom Fighter, s/n 207 RNoAF, c/n N.7030". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Archived from the original on 14 October 2016. Retrieved 30 August 2016.
  249. ^ "USAF Serial Number Search (63-8441)". Archived from the original on 25 April 2018. Retrieved 14 February 2018.
  250. ^ "Supersonic Challenges: The Installation of the F-5 Fighter Jet (Jan 27, 2017)". 27 January 2017. Archived from the original on 1 April 2018. Retrieved 15 April 2018.
  251. ^ "Smithsonian Torch Affiliate Spotlight (Frost Museum)". Archived from the original on 1 April 2018. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
  252. ^ "F-5 Freedom Fighter/72-0441." Archived 25 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine Pima Air and Space Museum. Retrieved: 24 July 2015.
  253. ^ "F-5E Tiger II at the Pacific Coast Air Museum, Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport Santa Rosa California". Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  254. ^ "F-5E Tiger". hill.af.mil.
  255. ^ "ICL2005.010.001 - Aircraft, Fixed Wing". Evergreen Aviation & Space Museum. Retrieved 13 December 2023.
  256. ^ "F-5 Freedom Fighter/74-1558." Archived 24 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine Fort Worth Aviation Museum. Retrieved: 24 July 2015.
  257. ^ "F-5 Freedom Fighter/74-1564." Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine Flying Leatherneck Aviation Museum. Retrieved: 24 July 2015.
  258. ^ a b "Nellis AFB Freedom Park - Nellis AFB - Nevada - USA". Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
  259. ^ "Nebula.wsnig.com". Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 2 February 2022.
  260. ^ Baugher, Joe. "1966 USAF Serial Numbers". Archived from the original on 15 February 2015. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  261. ^ Taylor, John W.R., ed. (1976). Jane's all the World's Aircraft 1976–77 (67th ed.). London: Jane's Yearbooks. pp. 344–346. ISBN 0-3540-0538-3.
  262. ^ Green, William; Swanborough, Gordon (1994). The Complete Book of Fighters. London: Salamander. pp. 458–460. ISBN 1-85833-777-1.
  263. ^ Loftin, L.K. (Jr.). "Quest for Performance: The Evolution of Modern Aircraft Appendix A (Continued) [488-489] Table V - Characteristics of Illustrative Jet Fighter Aircraft Physical characteristics". www.hq.nasa.gov. Archived from the original on 16 January 2017. Retrieved 3 May 2019.
  264. ^ Lednicer, David. "The Incomplete Guide to Airfoil Usage". m-selig.ae.illinois.edu. Archived from the original on 26 March 2019. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
  265. ^ "Card 3." Recognition Study Cards – U.S. and Foreign Aircraft (Device 5E14H. LSN 6910-LL-C006462: 55 Cards). Orlando, Florida, USA: Naval Training Equipment Center, Department of the Navy, 1982.
  266. ^ "F-5E Tiger II". Archived from the original on 10 August 2020. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  267. ^ "The F-5 in Singaporean and Taiwanese Service; Modernising a Second Generation Fighter for the 21st Century". Archived from the original on 19 January 2019. Retrieved 18 January 2019.
  268. ^ "F-5Tiger Fighter jet - Northrop Grumman". Archived from the original on 8 April 2020. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  269. ^ a b Parsch, Andreas. "AN/APQ – Equipment Listing." Archived 12 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine Designation-Systems.net, 1 July 2007. Retrieved: 5 June 2012.
  270. ^ "APQ-157 on F-5F". Archived from the original on 8 June 2020. Retrieved 8 June 2020.
  271. ^ a b "USN F-5E". 5 June 2016.