Uruguayan Air Force
Fuerza Aérea Uruguaya
Uruguayan Air Force wings.svg
Badge of the Uruguayan Air Force
Founded
  • 4 December 1953
  • (68 years, 11 months)
  • (as independent service)

  • 17 March 1913
  • (109 years, 8 months)
  • (as Escuela Militar de Aviación)

Country Uruguay
TypeAir Force
RoleAerial Warfare
Size2,850 servicemen
60 aircraft
Part ofUruguayan Armed Forces
HeadquartersCap. Juan Manuel Boiso Lanza Air Base
Motto(s)
  • La aviación, vanguardia de la Patria
  • "Aviation, vanguard of the Homeland"
MarchUruguayan Air Force March
Anniversaries
  • 17 March (Air Force Day)
  • 10 August (Day of the Martyrs of Military Aviation)
Websitewww.fau.mil.uy Edit this at Wikidata
Commanders
Supreme Commander
Coat of arms of Uruguay.svg
President of Uruguay
Commander-in-Chief of the Air Force
Flag of the Uruguayan Air Force.svg
Air Force General Luis H. De León
Commander of Air Command Operations
Flag of the Uruguayan Air Force.svg
Brigadier General José M. Medina
Commander of Air Command Staff
Flag of the Uruguayan Air Force.svg
Brigadier General Alejandro O. Vilche
Chief of General Staff
Flag of the Uruguayan Air Force.svg
Brigadier General Leonardo Blengini
Commander of Air Logistics Command
Flag of the Uruguayan Air Force.svg
Brigadier General Fernando Colina
National Director of Civil Aviation and Aviation
Flag of the Uruguayan Air Force.svg
Brigadier General Gaetano Battagliese
Insignia
Flag
Flag of the Uruguayan Air Force.svg
Roundel
Roundel of Uruguay.svg
Fin Flash
Flag of Artigas.svg
Aircraft flown
AttackA-37B
HelicopterAS365, Bell 212, UH-1H
PatrolC-212
ReconnaissanceC-212, U-206H
TrainerSF-260EU, PC-7U, L-13
TransportC-95, C-120ER, C-212, C-310L, KC-130H, A65, UB-55, UB-58, PA-18
TankerKC-130H

The Uruguayan Air Force (Spanish: Fuerza Aérea Uruguaya, abbreviated FAU) is the air service branch of the Armed Forces of Uruguay. Originally created as part of the National Army of Uruguay, the Air Force was established as a separate branch on December 4, 1953.[1] It is the youngest and also the smallest branch of the Armed Forces of Uruguay. In 1977[2] it was determined that the mission of the Air Force is to conduct strategic and tactical aerospace operations on behalf of the national defense, exercising the sovereignty of the Uruguayan airspace and defending the independence, integrity, constitution and laws of the country, conduct search and rescue missions and plan, propose, execute and supervise the necessary measures for the development of the aerospace potential, while also providing any necessary and possible logistical support during the natural disasters that the country may suffer.[3] Since 1985 this has been always carried out under the command of the President of Uruguay, and according to the Minister of National Defense.[4][5]

History

Antecedents

Military aviation in Uruguay was born on 17 March 1913 when the Military Aviation School (Escuela Militar de Aviación) was formed. Like other Latin American countries, flight instruction was initially performed by a European instructor pilot. In Uruguay, this was made by the French instructor Marcel Paillette, who trained ten National Army officers who had been chosen to be the first Uruguayan military pilots. Among them were Captain Juan Manuel Boiso Lanza and Lieutenant Cesáreo L. Berisso. Berisso was one of the first graduates from that school, and on 22 June 1913, he carried out the first solo flight by a Uruguayan, flying from Los Cerrillos to Malvín in 1 hour 45 minutes.[6] He then became the first director of the military aviation flight school and continued his military career until reaching the rank of General. He died on July 28, 1971, and became the namesake of Gen. Cesáreo L. Berisso Air Base in Carrasco, the headquarters of Air Brigade I. Boiso Lanza, however, was the first fatality of the Uruguayan military aviation. He died in a plane crash on 10 August 1918, when he was training in France, and later became the namesake of Cap. Juan Manuel Boiso Lanza Air Base, where the General Command of the Uruguayan Air Force is located in Montevideo. In his honor, August 10 was also made the military aviation martyrs day.[7]

Along with two other young Army officers, Adhemar Saenz Lacueva and Esteban Cristi, the school that was formed was the only military aviation facility in Uruguay until 1935, and used several European aircraft types in fairly large numbers before American aircraft became the most predominant ones. During the twenties, and among them, were sixteen Avro 504K, thirteen Breguet 14, five Castaibert 913-IV and twenty-eight Nieuport 27. These pioneering years saw many air routes opened and an overall increase in the awareness of the aviation with military potential.

Aeronáutica Militar

In 1935 the Military Aeronautics (Aeronáutica Militar) was established and transformed the military aviation of Uruguay into a more professional weapon of the National Army.[8] New units and airbases were created, and also new and more modern aircraft types were introduced into service. Among the aircraft used during this period were de Havilland DH.82 Tiger Moth and IMAM Ro.37. During 1942 the Curtiss SNC-1 Falcon and North American T-6 Texan training aircraft began their service in Uruguay, as did the Beechcraft AT-11 Kansan and Douglas C-47 Skytrain in 1947.[9]

Between 1949 and 1950 a total number of 39 aircraft were acquired, including 25 North American F-51D-20-NA Mustang, 11 North American B-25J-25-NC Mitchell and 3 Douglas C-47A Skytrain. With the help of the United States via the Military Assistance Program (MAP), these aircraft allowed the military aviation of Uruguay to grow not only in size but in training.[10][11][12]

Creation of the Uruguayan Air Force

The figure of the Prócer de Uruguay, José Gervasio Artigas on a stamp of the Uruguayan Air Force.
The figure of the Prócer de Uruguay, José Gervasio Artigas on a stamp of the Uruguayan Air Force.

On December 4, 1950, with Law No. 12070, the Military Air Force (Fuerza Aérea Militar) was created as a separate branch of the Armed Forces.[13] All the elements of infrastructure, material, aircraft, personnel and items belonging to the Military Aeronautics were transferred to the new Air Force, as it was established in the first article of the law.[14] The second article of this law established the creation of the General Inspection of the Air Force (Inspección General de la Fuerza Aérea), which under the immediate authority of the Ministry of National Defense, became the direct command of the Military Air Force.[15] In 1956 the Military Air Force was, for the first time, referred to as the Uruguayan Air Force, and thus it could be considered that from this point forward this name began being used.[16] One of the first milestones of the Uruguayan Air Force was also in 1956, when as a result of the Army and later Air Force capability of sustaining a high level of flight training with its F-51D aircraft, flying over 4,000 hours in one year and through the help of the Military Assistance Program, the Aviation Group No. 2 (Fighters) (Grupo de Aviación N.° 2 (Caza)) received its first jet aircraft, four Lockheed T-33A-5-LO that arrived at the Carrasco International Airport on October 23, 1956, beginning the jet age in Uruguay.[17][18] The flight training that the United States Air Force (USAF) pilots gave in these new jet aircraft was fundamental for the Air Force, and not only veteran but new pilots of the Aviation Group No. 2 were able to transition from flying piston aircraft to jet aircraft on its own, ruling that the Air Force was ready to receive its first single seat jet fighters, Lockheed F-80C-10-LO Shooting Star. These aircraft arrived in 1958 and replaced the North American F-51D-20-NA Mustang in their mission.[19][20]

In 1959, at the initiative of Brigadier Conrado A. Saez, General Inspector of the Air Force at the time, the Uruguayan Military Air Transport (Transporte Aéreo Militar Uruguayo) was founded to complement the flag carrier First Uruguayan Air Navigation Lines (Primeras Líneas Uruguayas de Navegación Aérea) and provide passenger and cargo services to different cities in the interior of the country and also abroad.[21] TAMU began operating Douglas C-47 Skytrain[22] and would later use Fokker F27 Friendship, Fairchild-Hiller FH-227D, Embraer C-95 Bandeirante and CASA C-212 Aviocar of the Uruguayan Air Force. The service of the C-95 in Uruguay marked the first Embraer export in its entire history, when a total number of five of these brand new aircraft were purchased in 1975.[23]

The Air Force and the Uruguayan Dictatorship

Main article: 1973 Uruguayan coup d'état

Since the end of the 1960s and the beginning of the 1970s, the Air Force was involved in the fight against the guerrilla activity that was present in the country, focusing against the MLN-T (Movimiento de Liberación Nacional – Tupamaros or Tupamaros – National Liberation Movement), that later triggered a participation in the country's politics.

On February 8, 1973, President Juan María Bordaberry tried to assert his authority over the Armed Forces by returning them to their normal duties and appointing a retired Army general, Antonio Francese, as the new Minister of National Defense. Initially, the Navy of Uruguay supported the appointment but the National Army and Uruguayan Air Force commanders rejected it outright. On February 9 and 10, the Army and Air Force issued public proclamations and demanded his dismissal and changes in the country's political and economic system. Bordaberry then gave up to the pressure, and on February 12, at the Cap. Juan Manuel Boiso Lanza Air Base, Headquarters of the General Command of the Air Force, the National Security Council (Consejo de Seguridad Nacional) was created. The Commander-in-Chief of the Air Force was one of its permament members, and the Armed Forces of Uruguay from now on were effectively in control of the country, with Bordaberry just participating in a self-coup.[24][25]

During this period of time, the Air Force took control of the country's airdromes, some aircraft that were seized from the subversion, appointed some of its general officers to led the flag carrier PLUNA, reinforced the combat fleet with Cessna A-37B-CE Dragonfly[26] and FMA IA-58A Pucará attack aircraft in 1976 and 1981, modernized the transport aircraft with the purchase of five Embraer C-95 Bandeirante in 1975 and five CASA C-212 Aviocar and one Gates Learjet 35A in 1981, introduced to service two brand new Bell 212 helicopters, and achieved another milestone, with the first landing of a Uruguayan aircraft in Antarctica, on January 28, 1984, with an Fairchild-Hiller FH-227D.[27]

Since the end of the military government, the Air Force has returned to its normal tasks, and always acting under the command of the President and in agreement with the Minister of National Defense, without having entered the country's politics again, whose participation, in addition, has been forbidden in almost all activities for the Armed Forces.

Between 1992 and 1999 a total number of 36 aircraft were acquired, including three Lockheed C-130B Hercules in 1992,[28] to carry out long-range strategic missions, six Pilatus PC-7U Turbo Trainers, also acquired in 1992 and for advanced training,[29] replacing the aging fleet of Beechcraft T-34 Mentors in Santa Bernardina, Durazno and that were in service with the Air Force since 1977, two Beechcraft Baron 58 and ten Cessna U-206H Stationair in 1998, with Uruguay becoming the first operator of the H variant of the Cessna 206, used for transport, training and surveillance,[30] two Eurocopter AS365N2 Dauphin for search and rescue and transport, also in 1998, and 13 Aermacchi SF-260 in 1999, to replace the aging fleet of T-34 training aircraft and become the new basic trainer of the Uruguayan Air Force within the Military School of Aeronautics (Escuela Militar de Aeronáutica) in Pando, Canelones.[31] On April 27, 1994, through Decree No. 177/994 of the Executive Power, the new Air Force Organization was approved, and the Tactical Regiments and Aviation Groups disappeared to become Air Squadrons, leading to the actual structure of the Air Force.[32]

Present state of the Air Force

While the long-range strategic cargo fleet of Lockheed C-130B Hercules was replaced with two Lockheed KC-130H Hercules, that also became the first aerial refueling capable aircraft of the Uruguayan Air Force in 2020,[33] from the 1990s onwards, various attempts have been made to renew the combat aircraft to no avail, with the T-33A being withdrawn from service in 1996 and the Air Squadron No. 2 (Fighters) suffering two fatal accidents on January 31, 2004[34][35] and August 12, 2016, with A-37B aircraft.[36] The obsolescence of the aircraft with which the unit is currently equipped has left the Uruguayan Air Force out of step with the technological advances that aerial warfare was acquiring through the experiences of conflicts during the late 20th century and during the 21st century, which, however, has not prevented the squadron and the Air Force itself from successfully participating in joint exercises between various Air Forces in the region, such as CRUZEX in Brazil or SALITRE in Chile.[37][38]

In May 2013 eighteen refurbished Sukhoi Su-30 MkI were offered by the Russian Federation and Sukhoi in remarkably favorable conditions that included credit facilities and an agreement branch for maintenance. These conditions were also offered for the Yak-130 Mitten. By December 2013 Uruguayan personnel had test flown this plane in Russia.[39] According to Scramble a number of A-37B Dragonfly were purchased from the Ecuadorian Air Force in January 2014. Also, the Uruguayan and Swiss governments discussed a possible agreement for the purchase of ten Swiss Air Force Northrop F-5 plus engines, spare parts and training, but no actual progress was made.[40]

The Uruguayan Air Force also used to show interest on the IA-58D Pucará Delta modernization program offered by Fábrica Argentina de Aviones,[41] but more recently, among some of the possible aircraft that the Air Force was considering, there are the Hongdu JL-10[42] or the Alenia Aermacchi M-346 Master,[43] but despite of how necessary its renewal is, however, no purchases has been achieved.

Aerodromes and air bases

Organization

Today[when?] the FAU comprises about 3000 personnel organized into three brigades and various support groups.

Air Brigade I was founded as Nº1 Aeronautics on 1 April 1936. It originally consisted of eight Potez XXV biplanes. Today, the brigade includes the Central Office for Assistance and the Carrasco Central Coordinator for Rescue. It also includes
Nº3 Squadron (Transport) and
Nº5 Squadron (Helicopters).
A Uruguayan tactical air controller, keeps watch over a USAF OA-37 during a training exercise
A Uruguayan tactical air controller, keeps watch over a USAF OA-37 during a training exercise
Air Brigade II includes
Nº1 Squadron (Attack),
Nº2 Squadron (Fighters),
the Advanced Flight Squadron, and
the Liaison Squadron.
Air Brigade III includes
Nº7 Squadron (Observation & Liaison).

The Uruguayan Air Force also includes Service divisions for Logistics, Communications and Computer Science, Information, Infrastructure, Maintenance, Meteorology, Health, Remote Aerospace Sensors, and Transport. The FAU is involved in search and rescue, disaster assistance, and transportation to remote locations within the country.

The Uruguayan Air Force currently has five bases. Air Brigade I is based at Gen. Cesáreo L. Berisso Air Base at Carrasco International Airport (SUMU) near Carrasco; Air Brigade II is based at 2nd Lt. Mario W. Parrallada Air Base at Santa Bernardina International Airport (SUDU) in Durazno; Air Brigade III, the high command, and the Command School (Escuela de Comando y Estado Mayor Aéreo) are based at Capitán Boiso Lanza Air Base (SUBL) in Montevideo; Air Squadron 7 is based at Ángel S. Adami Airport (SUAA), also in Montevideo; and the EMA is based at Gen. Artigas Air Base (SUAG) in Pando.[44]

The Aeronautics Technical School (Escuela Técnica de Aeronáutica) is located in Toledo Sur in the Department of Canelones.[45]

List of Inspector Generals and Commanders-in-Chief

Inspectors Generals[46]
No. Inspector General of the Uruguayan Air Force Took Office Left Office
1 Medardo Farías 1953 1955
2 Hernán Barú 1955 1957
3 Gualberto Trelles 1957 1959
4 Conrado Sáez 1959 1966
5 Remo Laporta 1966 1967
6 Danilo Sena 1967 1969
Commanders-in-Chief[46][47]
No. Commander-in-Chief of the Uruguayan Air Force Took Office Left Office
1 Danilo Sena 1970 1970
2 José Pérez Caldas 1970 1974
3 Dante Paladini 1974 1978
4 Rául Bendahan 1978 1981
5 José D. Cardozo 1981 1982
6 Manuel Buadas 1982 1985
7 Fernando Arbe 1985 1990
8 Julio Loureiro 1990 1990
9 Carlos P. Pache 1990 1994
10 Raúl Sampedro 1994 1995
11 Miguel A. Suñol 1995 1999
12 José Pedro Malaquín 1999 2004
13 Enrique Bonelli 2004 2009
14 José R. Bonilla 2009 2010
15 Washington Martínez 2010 2015
16 Alberto Zanelli 2015 2019
17 Hugo Marenco 2019 2020
18 Luis Heber de León 2020 Present

Aircraft

Current inventory

An Uruguayan A-37 in flight
An Uruguayan A-37 in flight
A Bell 212 flies over head
A Bell 212 flies over head
Aircraft Origin Type Variant In service Notes
Combat Aircraft
Cessna A-37 United States attack 7[48]
Transport
KC-130 Hercules United States transport KC-130H 2[48][49] formerly operated by Spain[33]
CASA C-212 Spain transport 200 / 300 5[48] four provide maritime Patrol
Beechcraft Baron United States utility 55 / 58 1 / 2[50][48]
Cessna 206 United States light transport U-206H 6[51]
Embraer EMB 120 Brazil utility / VIP 1[48] Presidential aircraft
Embraer EMB 110 Brazil utility / transport 1[48]
Helicopters
Bell 212 United States utility 3[48]
Bell UH-1 United States utility UH-1H 3[48]
Eurocopter AS365 France SAR / utility 2[48] also used for presidential transport[52]
Trainer Aircraft
Pilatus PC-7 Switzerland trainer 5[48]
SIAI-Marchetti SF.260 Italy trainer 10[48]

Rank structure

Officers wear their rank insignia on their sleeves; the insignia are nearly identical to that used by the RAF and air forces of Commonwealth nations.[53]

Equivalent NATO Rank Code Rank in Spanish Rank in English Commonwealth equivalent US Air Force equivalent
OF-8 Teniente General Lieutenant General Air Marshal Lieutenant General
OF-7 Brigadier General Major General Air Vice-Marshal Major General
OF-5 Coronel Colonel Group Captain Colonel
OF-4 Teniente Coronel Lieutenant Colonel Wing Commander Lieutenant Colonel
OF-3 Mayor Major Squadron Leader Major
OF-2 Capitán Captain Flight Lieutenant Captain
OF-1 Teniente Primero First Lieutenant Flying Officer First Lieutenant
OF-1 Teniente Segundo Second Lieutenant Pilot Officer Second Lieutenant
OF-D Alférez Ensign Acting Pilot Officer

Accidents and incidents

FAU 571 (FH-227), the aircraft involved in Flight 571
FAU 571 (FH-227), the aircraft involved in Flight 571

The following is a list of air accidents involving the Uruguayan Air Force.

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ "Ley N° 12070". www.impo.com.uy. Retrieved 2022-06-16.
  2. ^ "Decreto Ley N° 14747". www.impo.com.uy. Retrieved 2022-06-16.
  3. ^ "Decreto Ley N° 14747". www.impo.com.uy. Retrieved 2022-06-16.
  4. ^ Fuerza Aérea Uruguaya, (2008). [1] Archived 2008-10-14 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 2 October 2008.
  5. ^ "Decreto Ley N° 14747". www.impo.com.uy. Retrieved 2022-06-16.
  6. ^ "Escuela Militar de Aeronáutica". www.ema.edu.uy. Retrieved 2022-06-17.
  7. ^ "Presidente Lacalle Pou encabezó acto por el Día de los Mártires de la Aviación Militar". Uruguay Presidencia (in Spanish). Retrieved 2022-06-17.
  8. ^ Maruri, Juan. Historia de la Fuerza Aérea Uruguaya (1913 – 1953) (in Spanish). Uruguay. pp. 398–399. ISBN 978-9974-96-254-5.
  9. ^ Maruri, Juan. Historia de la Fuerza Aérea Uruguaya (1913 – 1953) (in Spanish). Uruguay. pp. 565–568. ISBN 978-9974-96-254-5.
  10. ^ Maruri, Juan. Historia de la Fuerza Aérea Uruguaya (1913 - 1953) (in Spanish). Uruguay. p. 633. ISBN 978-9974-96-254-5.
  11. ^ Grasso, Rolando. El F-51D Mustang. Un Pura Sangre en el Uruguay (in Spanish). Uruguay. p. 46. ISBN 978-9974-96-529-4.
  12. ^ "Historias / FAU 252: el avión que no muere". www.pilotoviejo.com. Retrieved 2022-06-17.
  13. ^ "Ley N° 12070". www.impo.com.uy. Retrieved 2022-06-17.
  14. ^ "Ley N° 12070 Fuerza Aérea Militar". Ley No. 12070 of 1953.
  15. ^ "Ley N° 12070". www.impo.com.uy. Retrieved 2022-06-17.
  16. ^ Maruri, Juan. Historia de la Fuerza Aérea Uruguaya (1953 — 2004) (in Spanish). Uruguay. p. 65. ISBN 978-9974-96-255-2.
  17. ^ Maruri, Juan. Historia de la Fuerza Aérea Uruguaya (1953 - 2003) (in Spanish). Uruguay. p. 70. ISBN 978-9974-96-255-2.
  18. ^ "Memorias del Tiempo de Vuelo / Esquemas del T-33 en la FAU". www.pilotoviejo.com. Retrieved 2022-06-17.
  19. ^ Maruri, Juan. Historia de la Fuerza Aérea Uruguaya (1953 - 2003). p. 93. ISBN 978-9974-96-255-2.
  20. ^ Rodríguez, Tabaré Ifrán (2010). "Los Lockheed F-80C de la Fuerza Aérea Uruguaya". Revista española de historia militar (126–127): 194–203. ISSN 1575-9059.
  21. ^ Maruri, Juan. Historia de la Fuerza Aérea Uruguaya (1953 — 2004) (in Spanish). Uruguay. pp. 252–254. ISBN 978-9974-96-255-2.
  22. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Douglas C-47A-75-DL (DC-3) CX-BJH/T-511 Artigas Airport (ATI)". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 2022-06-17.
  23. ^ "Bandeirante: Embraer's first aircraft". www.key.aero. Retrieved 2022-06-17.
  24. ^ Veiga, Lucas (2021-02-15). "El Día - Boiso Lanza y la "Historia Innombrable"". El Día (in Spanish). Retrieved 2022-06-17.
  25. ^ Lessa, Alfonso (1996). Estado de Guerra - de la gestación del golpe del 73 a la caída de Bordaberry. Editorial Fin de Siglo. ISBN 9974-49-072-3.
  26. ^ Maruri, Juan. Historia de la Fuerza Aérea Uruguaya (1953 - 2003) (in Spanish). p. 346.
  27. ^ "Historia antártica de Uruguay". Ministerio de Defensa Nacional (in Spanish). Retrieved 2022-06-17.
  28. ^ "Fuerza Aérea inició la renovación de su equipamiento, con la llegada del primero de los dos Hércules comprados a España". Ministerio de Defensa Nacional (in Spanish). Retrieved 2022-06-17.
  29. ^ airpressman (2021-04-05). "Turbos & pistón: El Texan II visita Uruguay". Airpressman (in European Spanish). Retrieved 2022-06-17.
  30. ^ "20 años de Servicio del U-206H "Stationair"". Uruguayan Air Force (in Spanish). 2018.
  31. ^ "Memorias del Tiempo de Vuelo / Aermacchi SF-260EU". www.pilotoviejo.com. Retrieved 2022-06-17.
  32. ^ "Decreto N° 177/994". www.impo.com.uy. Retrieved 2022-06-17.
  33. ^ a b Dubois, Gastón (2020-12-20). "Uruguay Received 2 Lockheed KC-130H Formerly Operated by Spain". aviacionline. Retrieved 2021-12-27.
  34. ^ Grupo 180. "Justicia indaga responsabilidad de Defensa en accidente aéreo de 2004". www.180.com.uy (in Spanish). Retrieved 2022-06-17.
  35. ^ "INFORME FINAL DEL ACCIDENTE DEL CESSNA A-37". archivo.presidencia.gub.uy. Retrieved 2022-06-17.
  36. ^ Observador, El. "Pilotos mueren en accidente aéreo". El Observador. Retrieved 2022-06-17.
  37. ^ "100% Effectiveness Against Targets Assigned in Exercise "CRUZEX 2018" (Uruguayan Air Force Website)" (in Spanish).
  38. ^ "Preview Salitre 2014". Gaceta Aeronautica (in Spanish). 2014-10-01. Retrieved 2022-06-17.
  39. ^ "La Fuerza Aérea Uruguaya evalúa el jet de entrenamiento YAK-130 en Rusia" (in Spanish). December 12, 2013. Archived from the original on November 12, 2014. Retrieved December 21, 2014.
  40. ^ "F-5 suizos a Uruguay" (in Spanish). August 21, 2014. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved December 21, 2014.
  41. ^ "Argentina y Uruguay estudiaron la modernización de los aviones IA-58 Pucará" (in Spanish). July 10, 2014. Archived from the original on December 21, 2014. Retrieved December 21, 2014./
  42. ^ Damas, Diego Obiol (2016-11-15). "Uruguay más cerca del L-15". Avion Revue Internacional (in Spanish). Retrieved 2022-06-17.
  43. ^ AM, Radio Montecarlo CX20-930. "Uruguay estudia ofertas para la compra de nuevos aviones militares". Radio Montecarlo CX20-930 AM (in Spanish). Retrieved 2022-06-17.
  44. ^ Aeroflight, (2008). [2] Archived 2008-12-07 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 2 October 2008.
  45. ^ Fuerza Aérea Uruguaya, (2008). [3] Archived 2008-10-15 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 2 October 2008.
  46. ^ a b "INSPECTORES GENERALES Y COMANDANTES EN JEFE DESDE LA CREACIÓN DE LA FUERZA AÉREA URUGUAYA". web.archive.org. 2007-06-06. Archived from the original on 2007-06-06. Retrieved 2022-09-24.
  47. ^ Maruri, Juan. Historia de la Fuerza Aérea Uruguaya (in Spanish). Vol. 3. Montevideo, Uruguay. p. 860. ISBN 978-9974-7971-8-5.
  48. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "World Air Forces 2022". Flightglobal. 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
  49. ^ Sanchez, Wilder Alejandro (2021-01-29). "Uruguay puts KC-130H to use". Shephard Media. Retrieved 2021-12-27.
  50. ^ For Baron 55, see "Beechcraft UB-55 "Baron"". fau.mil.uy. 20 August 2018. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
    For Baron 58, see "Beechcraft UB-58 "Baron"". fau.mil.uy. 20 August 2018. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  51. ^ "Cessna U-206 H "Stationair"". fau.mil.uy. 4 February 2018. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  52. ^ "Airbus AS-365 "Dauphin"". fau.mil.uy. Retrieved 2 June 2020.
  53. ^ "Insignias". Archived from the original on 2011-07-27. Retrieved 2011-05-05.
  54. ^ ""Falla humana" provocó accidente aéreo en Haití en octubre de 2009". LaRed21 (in Spanish). 4 June 2010. Retrieved 5 June 2020.
  55. ^ "Cayo aeronave de la FAU en Durzano: Fallecieron sus dos tripulantes". Elacontecer.com.uy (in Spanish). 12 August 2016. Retrieved 5 June 2020.
  56. ^ "Un helicóptero de la Fuerza Aérea se cayó en el Aeropuerto de Carrasco: murieron los dos pilotos". Telemundo (in Spanish). 16 August 2016. Retrieved 5 June 2020.
  57. ^ APA.az (2021-03-25). "Uruguayan Air Force carriying Covid 19 Pfizer vaccines crashed". apa.az (in Azerbaijani). Retrieved 2021-04-16.

Bibliography