This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Shandong Peninsula" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (September 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
.mw-parser-output .hidden-begin{box-sizing:border-box;width:100%;padding:5px;border:none;font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .hidden-title{font-weight:bold;line-height:1.6;text-align:left}.mw-parser-output .hidden-content{text-align:left}@media all and (max-width:500px){.mw-parser-output .hidden-begin{width:auto!important;clear:none!important;float:none!important))You can help expand this article with text translated from the corresponding article in Chinese. (September 2021) Click [show] for important translation instructions. Machine translation, like DeepL or Google Translate, is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary is Content in this edit is translated from the existing Chinese Wikipedia article at [[:zh:山东半岛]]; see its history for attribution. You should also add the template ((Translated|zh|山东半岛)) to the talk page. For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation.
Shandong Peninsula
(Shantung Peninsula)
The Shandong Peninsula (red) on an administrative map of eastern China
Simplified Chinese山东半岛
Traditional Chinese山東半島
Jiaodong Peninsula
(Chiaotung Peninsula)
Simplified Chinese胶东半岛
Traditional Chinese膠東半島

The Shandong (Shantung) Peninsula or Jiaodong (Chiaotung) Peninsula is a peninsula in Shandong in eastern China, between the Bohai Sea to the north and the Yellow Sea to the south. The latter name refers to the east and Jiaozhou.[1]

Geography

The waters bordering the peninsula are Laizhou Bay to the northwest, which opens into the Bohai Sea to the north, which in turn passes through the Bohai Strait to the northeast into the Yellow Sea to the east and south. The peninsula's territory comprises three prefecture-level cities of Shandong: Qingdao in the southwest, Yantai in the north and centre, and Weihai at the eastern tip.

Shandong Peninsula is the largest peninsula in China. Stretching into the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea, it is 290 kilometers long from east to west, 190 kilometers wide from north to south, and 50 kilometers narrow. The total area of Shandong Peninsula is 73,000 square kilometers.

Geologically it was once connected to the Korean Peninsula and the Liaodong Peninsula, but was split starting around 27 Ma ago, resulting in the formation of the Yellow Sea.[2]

History

In the Paleolithic, the Shandong Peninsula area was covered by forest. In the Neolithic, about 7,000 years ago, a large number of Dongyi people inhabited the peninsula. The Dongyi had their own kingdom called the State of Lai. The peninsula later belonged to the State of Qi. The Qi built the Great Wall of Qi, which is partially on the peninsula. During the Han dynasty, the peninsula belonged to the feudatory Jiaodong Kingdom.

The Kiautschou Bay Leased Territory was a leased territory of the German Empire from 1898 to 1914 located around Jiaozhou Bay, where the village of Qingdao (Tsingtao) developed into a major seaport.

The Kiautschou Bay concession was located in the natural harbor at Tsingtao on the southern coast of the Shandong Peninsula
German 1912 map of the Shandong Peninsula showing the Kiautschou Bay concession

Japan seized the territory from Germany in 1914 in the First World War. In the 1919 Treaty of Versailles, Germany lost Qingdao and its sphere of influence in Shandong. Instead of restoring Chinese sovereignty over the area, the treaty transferred the leased territory to the Empire of Japan. This resulted in popular dissatisfaction in China with the outcome, known as the Shandong Problem, and led to the May Fourth Movement. Eventually, Shandong was reverted to Chinese control in 1922 after mediation by the United States during the Washington Naval Conference. However, Japan retained economic influence in the area.

Due to geographical reasons, the Shandong Peninsula is closely connected with Northeast China and South Korea. Historically, a large number of people migrated to the Northeast by boat, whereas in the present day many people from the Northeast "return" to the Shandong Peninsula. After the People's Republic of China established diplomatic relations with South Korea in 1992, a large number of South Korean companies also set up factories in the region. There are more than 200,000 Koreans living in the Shandong Peninsula. South Korea has a consulate-general in Qingdao.

Climate

Shandong Peninsula is surrounded by sea on three sides and has a monsoon climate with four distinct seasons (Köppen: Cwa/Dwa). Due to maritime influence, the climate is relatively mild, in both summer and winter.

Climate data for Qingdao (1991–2020 normals)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 12.9
(55.2)
19.6
(67.3)
21.5
(70.7)
25.2
(77.4)
34.2
(93.6)
34.4
(93.9)
37.4
(99.3)
34.3
(93.7)
33.2
(91.8)
28.4
(83.1)
22.1
(71.8)
16.2
(61.2)
37.4
(99.3)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 3.4
(38.1)
5.6
(42.1)
10.0
(50.0)
15.7
(60.3)
21.1
(70.0)
24.3
(75.7)
27.6
(81.7)
28.7
(83.7)
25.8
(78.4)
20.2
(68.4)
12.8
(55.0)
5.9
(42.6)
16.8
(62.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.2
(32.4)
2.1
(35.8)
6.2
(43.2)
11.6
(52.9)
17.1
(62.8)
20.8
(69.4)
24.7
(76.5)
25.6
(78.1)
22.3
(72.1)
16.6
(61.9)
9.5
(49.1)
2.7
(36.9)
13.3
(55.9)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −2.4
(27.7)
−0.6
(30.9)
3.4
(38.1)
8.7
(47.7)
14.1
(57.4)
18.5
(65.3)
22.7
(72.9)
23.4
(74.1)
19.5
(67.1)
13.7
(56.7)
6.7
(44.1)
0.1
(32.2)
10.7
(51.2)
Record low °C (°F) −14.3
(6.3)
−12.1
(10.2)
−6.2
(20.8)
−1.6
(29.1)
6.1
(43.0)
12.0
(53.6)
13.6
(56.5)
16.3
(61.3)
10.1
(50.2)
1.9
(35.4)
−7.2
(19.0)
−11.3
(11.7)
−14.3
(6.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 10.3
(0.41)
15.7
(0.62)
18.0
(0.71)
34.0
(1.34)
64.1
(2.52)
70.7
(2.78)
159.1
(6.26)
159.6
(6.28)
69.4
(2.73)
35.5
(1.40)
35.2
(1.39)
14.8
(0.58)
686.4
(27.02)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 2.8 4.0 4.6 6.5 7.7 8.7 11.6 10.9 7.2 5.3 5.2 3.6 78.1
Average snowy days 3.8 3.3 1.6 0.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.7 2.7 12.3
Average relative humidity (%) 63 65 65 67 71 82 86 82 71 64 64 63 70
Mean monthly sunshine hours 160.4 164.9 208.6 219.1 234.3 186.0 168.3 194.5 201.1 202.1 163.4 158.5 2,261.2
Percent possible sunshine 52 53 56 56 54 43 38 47 55 59 54 53 52
Average ultraviolet index 2 3 5 7 9 9 10 9 7 5 3 1 6
Source 1: China Meteorological Administration[3][4]
Source 2: Weather China[5] Weather Atlas (UV index)[6]

Major urban areas

City Area (km²) Population[7] Notes
Qingdao 11,175.30 10,070,000
Weifang 16,004.89 9,386,700
Yantai 13,746.47 7,102,100
Rizhao 5,347.99 3,084,500
Weihai 5,697.98 2,906,500

In popular culture

The Shandong Peninsula is fictionalized as the "Chinese Peninsula" in the Japanese manga and anime series, Fire Force.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Shandong". ChinaCulture.org. Ministry of Culture. Archived from the original on 13 February 2014. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
  2. ^ Niu, Yaoling; Tang, Jie (1 July 2016). "Origin of the Yellow Sea: an insight". Science Bulletin. 61 (14): 1076–1080. doi:10.1007/s11434-016-1113-z. ISSN 2095-9281. S2CID 132284722.
  3. ^ 中国气象数据网 – WeatherBk Data (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 12 August 2023.
  4. ^ "Experience Template" 中国气象数据网 (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 12 August 2023.
  5. ^ 青岛 - 气象数据 -中国天气网 (in Chinese). Weather China. Retrieved 1 June 2011.
  6. ^ "Qingdao, China - Detailed climate information and monthly weather forecast". Weather Atlas. Yu Media Group. Archived from the original on 9 July 2019. Retrieved 9 July 2019.
  7. ^ 2020 census

37°N 121°E / 37°N 121°E / 37; 121