The politics of Mongolia takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential multi-party representative democracy.[1][2][3] Executive power is exercised by the prime minister, who is the head of government, and the Cabinet. The president is the head of state, but holds limited authority over the executive branch of the government, unlike full presidential republics like the United States. Legislative power is vested in parliament. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.

Socialist period and single party government

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Shortly after the Mongolian Revolution of 1921, Mongolia adopted a one-party socialist republican constitution modelled after the Soviet Union; only the communist party — the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) — was officially permitted to function. Mongolian politics was closely monitored and directed by Kremlin. Any political opposition was brutally repressed, and government officials who opposed the Soviet influence were murdered, executed or sent to labour camps. During the communist regime, collectivisation of livestock, introduction of modern agriculture, limited industrialisation and the urbanisation were carried out without perceptible popular opposition.

Democratic movement

The perestroika in the Soviet Union and the democracy movements across Eastern Europe had a profound impact in Mongolian politics. On the morning of 10 December 1989, the first open pro-democracy demonstration was held in front of the Youth Cultural Centre in Ulaanbaatar.[4] There, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj announced the establishment of the Mongolian Democratic Union.[5]

Over the next months activists, led by 13 leaders, continued to organise demonstrations, rallies, protests and hunger strikes, as well as teachers' and workers' strikes.[6] Activists had growing support from Mongolians, both in the capital and the countryside. Efforts made by trade unions across the country for democracy had a significant impact on the success of the movement.[7][8][9] After demonstrations of tens thousands of people in freezing weather in the capital city as well as provincial centres, Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party Politburo gave way to the pressure and entered negotiations with the leaders of the democratic movement.[10] Jambyn Batmönkh, chairman of the Politburo decided to dissolve the Politburo and to resign on 9 March 1990,[11][12] paving the way for the first multi-party elections in Mongolia.[6] As a result, Mongolia became the first country in Asia to successfully transition into democracy from communist rule.[13]

Multi-party system

As a result of the democratic movement that led to 1990 Democratic Revolution in Mongolia, the constitution was amended, removing reference to the MPRP's role as the leading political force in the country, legalising opposition parties and creating a standing legislative body and the office of president in May 1990.

Mongolia's first multi-party elections for the People's Great Khural (Upper Chamber of the Parliament) were held on 29 July 1990. The MPRP won 85% of the seats. The People's Great Khural first commenced on 3 September and elected a president (MPRP), a vice-president (SDP, Social Democratic Party), a prime minister (MPRP), and 50 members to the Baga Khural (Lower Chamber of the Parliament). The vice president was also the speaker of the Baga Khural. In November 1991, the People's Great Khural began discussion on a new constitution and adopted it on 13 January 1992. The Constitution entered into force on 12 February 1992. In addition to establishing Mongolia as an independent, sovereign republic and guaranteeing a number of rights and freedoms, the new constitution restructured the legislative branch of government, creating a unicameral legislature, the State Great Khural, with 76 members.

The 1992 constitution provided that the president would be directly elected by popular vote rather than by the legislature as before. In June 1993, incumbent Punsalmaagiin Ochirbat won the first direct presidential election, running as the candidate of the democratic opposition.

Mongolia's Parliament in session

As the supreme legislative organ, the State Great Khural is empowered to enact and amend laws, regarding domestic and foreign policy, to ratify international agreements, and declare a state of emergency by the constitution. The State Great Khural meets semi-annually. The parliamentary election holds place every four years, but the electoral system varied in each election. The current electoral system is based on plurality-on-large with 29 electoral districts. The Speaker of the State Great Khural is elected by the members of the parliament, and one deputy speaker is appointed by each political party or coalition with at least 10 seats in the parliament.

Political developments

Until June 1996 the predominant party in Mongolia was the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP). The country's president was Punsalmaagiin Ochirbat (Democratic Party) during 1990-1997. Ochirbat was a member of MPRP until 1990 but changed his party membership to the Democratic Party following the democratic revolution.

Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj, as the chairman of the Democratic Party, co-led the Democratic Union Coalition to its first time historic victory in the 1996 parliamentary elections winning 50 out of 76 parliamentary seats. Democratic Union Coalition of Democratic Party and Social Democratic Party (chairman Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj) was in power in 1996-2000.[14] Mendsaikhany Enkhsaikhan, election manager of Democratic Union Coalition worked as the prime minister from 7 July 1996 to 23 April 1998. In 1998, a clause in the constitution was removed that prohibited members of parliament to take cabinet responsibility.[15] Thus on 23 April 1998, the parliament elected (61–6) Elbegdorj, chairman of the Democratic Union Coalition and the Majority Group in parliament as the prime minister.[16] Due to opposition MPRP's demand Elbegdorj lost confidence vote at the Parliament[17] and was replaced by Janlavyn Narantsatsralt (Democratic Party) on 9 December 1998.[18] Janlavyn Narantsatsralt worked as the prime minister for eight months until his resignation in July 1999. Rinchinnyamyn Amarjargal became Democratic Party's new chairman and served as the prime minister from 30 July 1999 to 26 July 2000.

In 1997 Natsagiin Bagabandi (MPRP) was elected as the country's president in 1997 Mongolian presidential election. He was re-elected as president in 2001 Mongolian presidential election and served as the country's president until 2005.

As a result of 2000 parliamentary elections MPRP was back in power in the parliament and the government as well as the presidency.

The vote in the 2004 parliamentary elections was evenly split between the two major political forces – Motherland-Democratic Coalition of Democratic Party and Motherland Party and the MPRP.[19] Thus it required the establishing of the first ever coalition government in Mongolia between the democratic coalition and the MPRP. On 20 August 2004, Elbegdorj became the prime minister of Mongolia for the second time leading a grand coalition government.[20]

In 2005 Mongolian presidential election Nambaryn Enkhbayar (MPRP) was elected as the country's president.

The MPRP won a majority (46 of 76 seats) in 2008 parliamentary elections. The Democratic Party won 27 seats with the three remaining seats going to minor parties and an independent. MPRP formed a coalition government with the Democratic Party although MPRP had enough seats to form a government alone in parliament.

On 24 May 2009, in 2009 Mongolian presidential election, Democratic Party candidate Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj made a victory over incumbent President Nambaryn Enkhbayar.[21] Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj was sworn into office and became the country's president on 18 June 2009.[22] Elbegdorj is Mongolia's first president to never have been a member of the former communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party and the first to obtain a Western education.[23]

In 2010 former communist party Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party reverted its name to its original name, the Mongolian People's Party. After his defeat in 2009 presidential election, Nambaryn Enkhbayar established a new political party and named it Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party after receiving the old name of Mongolian People's Party from the Supreme Court of Mongolia in 2010. Enkhbayar became the chairman of the new party.[24]

In June 2012 the Democratic Party won the 2012 parliamentary elections and became the majority in the parliament. The Democratic Party established a coalition government with Civil Will-Green Party, and Justice Coalition of new MPRP and Mongolian National Democratic Party due to Democratic Party having not enough seats at the parliament to establish a government on its own by law. Members of the parliament were: 35 from Democratic Party, 26 from Mongolian People's Party, 11 from Justice Coalition, 2 from Civil Will-Green Party, and 3 independents.[25]

Incumbent President Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj, candidate of Democratic Party won the 2013 Mongolian presidential election on 26 June 2013[26] and was sworn into office for his second term as President of Mongolia on 10 July 2013.[27] Thus, since 2012 the Democratic Party has been in power holding both presidency and government.

Subsequently, in 2016, the party suffered a landslide defeat in that year's parliamentary election, being reduced to only 9 seats, although they would narrowly retain the presidency in the presidential election held in 2017,[28] in which Khaltmaagiin Battulga was elected to succeed Elbegdorj, the outgoing president. Therefore, Mongolia then had divided government, with the Mongolian People's Party having an overwhelming majority in the Khural, while the Democratic Party held the presidency.[29]

On June 24, 2020, Mongolian People's Party was re-elected to the parliament with a landslide victory.[30] Prime Minister Ukhnaagiin Khurelsukh continued to head the cabinet providing government stability and policy certainty.[30]

After Prime Minister Ukhnaagiin Khürelsükh had resigned after protests over the treatment of a coronavirus patient, Luvsannamsrai Oyun-Erdene of MPP became the new prime minister on 27 January 2021. He represented a younger generation of leaders that had studied abroad.[31]

In June 2021, former Prime Minister Ukhnaa Khurelsukh, the candidate of the ruling Mongolian People's Party (MPP), became the country's sixth democratically elected president after winning the presidential election.[32]

In August 2022, Prime Minister Oyun-Erdene made a cabinet reshuffle to get legislative support in pushing his liberalization and privatization agenda forward.[33]

Executive branch

Main office-holders
Office Name Party Since
President Ukhnaagiin Khürelsükh Mongolian People's Party 25 June 2021
Prime Minister Luvsannamsrain Oyun-Erdene Mongolian People's Party 27 January 2021


President Ukhnaagiin Khurelsukh

The presidential candidates are usually nominated by parties having seats in the State Great Khural. The president is elected by popular vote for a non-renewable six-year term. The president is the head of state, commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces, and head of the National Security Council. The constitution empowers the president to propose a prime minister (upon the recommendation by the dominant political party), call for the government's dismissal (the two-thirds majority of vote needed in the State Great Khural), initiate legislation, veto all or parts of a legislation (the State Great Khural can override the veto with a two-thirds majority),[1][2] and issue decrees (effective with the prime minister's countersignature). In the absence, incapacity, or resignation of the president, the Speaker of the State Great Khural exercises presidential power until inauguration of a newly elected president. Although the president has limited executive powers, they represent the nation internationally, sign international treaties and conventions and advise the cabinet on important socioeconomic issues. After being elected, the president-elect must give up their party affiliations to act as the "symbol of unity".

In June 2021, former Prime Minister Ukhnaagiin Khurelsukh won the presidential election. He was inaugurated on 25 June 2021.[34]


The Cabinet, headed by the prime minister, has a four-year term. The president appoints the prime minister after each parliamentary election and appoints the members of the Government on the recommendation of the prime minister. If the president is not able to reach a consensus with the prime minister on the appointment of the Cabinet within a week, the issue is submitted the State Great Khural.[3] Dismissal of the government occurs upon the prime minister's resignation, simultaneous resignation of half the cabinet, or after the State Great Khural voted for a motion of censure.

The prime minister holds most of the executive powers in Mongolian politics. Unlike the president, the prime minister is chosen by the party (or coalition) with the majority of seats in the State Great Khural. Typically, the prime minister leads a major political party and generally commands the majority in the State Great Khural.

Ministers of the Government of Mongolia[35]
Picture Name Position Political party
Mr Luvsannamsrain Oyun-Erdene Prime Minister Mongolian People's Party
Mr Sainbuyany Amarsaikhan Deputy Prime Minister Mongolian People's Party
Ms Battsetseg Batmunkh Minister of Foreign Affairs Mongolian People's Party
Mr Khishgeegiin Nyambaatar Minister of Justice and Internal Affairs Mongolian People's Party
Mr Boldyn Javkhlan Minister of Finance Mongolian People's Party
Mr Chimediin Khurelbaatar Minister of Economy and Development Mongolian People's Party
Mr Bat-Ulziin Bat-Erdene Ministry of Environment and Tourism Mongolian People's Party
Mr Gursediin Saikhanbayar Minister of Defence Mongolian People's Party
Mr Luvsantserengiin Enkh-Amgalan Minister of Education and Science Mongolian People's Party
Mr Nyam-Osoryn Uchral Minister of Digital Development and Communications Mongolian People's Party
Mr Begjaviin Munkhbaatar Minister of Construction and Urban Development Mongolian People's Party
Mr Sandagiin Byambatsogt Minister of Road and Transport Development Mongolian People's Party
Ms Davaajantsangiin Sarangerel Minister of Labour and Social Protection Mongolian People's Party
Mr Jambalyn Ganbaatar Minister of Mining and Heavy Industry Mongolian People's Party
Ms Chinbatyn Nomin Minister of Culture Mongolian People's Party
Mr Khayangaagiin Bolorchuluun Minister of Food, Agriculture and Light Industry Mongolian People's Party
Mr Battogtokhyn Choijilsuren Minister of Energy Mongolian People's Party
Mr Sereejavyn Enkhbhold Minister of Health Mongolian People's Party
Mr Dashzegviin Amarbayasgalan Minister and Chief of Cabinet Mongolian People's Party
Mr Jamyankhorloogiin Sukhbaatar Minister in Charge of Ulaanbaatar City and Traffic Congestion Mongolian People's Party
Mr Badmaanyambuugiin Bat-Erdene Minister for Olympism, Physical Culture and Sports Mongolian People's Party
(Vacant) Minister for Border Port Revitalization


The Cabinet consists of the prime minister, the deputy prime minister, the cabinet secretary and 14 ministers. The government consists of six general function ministries, eight specialised ministries, four agencies for policy arrangement, 23 agencies for policy implementation, four agencies under direct control of the prime minister and five agencies under direct control of the deputy prime minister.[36]

The current prime minister of Mongolia is Mr Luvsannamsrain Oyun-Erdene (Mongolian People's Party).
Ministries of general function

Specialised Ministries

Agencies for Policy Implementation

Agencies Under Prime Minister

Agencies Under Deputy Minister


The State Great Khural (Ulsyn Ikh Khural in Mongolian, meaning State Great Assembly) is a unicameral legislative body with 76 seats. The State Great Khural wields some of the most important powers in Mongolian politics. Parliamentary elections are held every four years, and 76 representatives are chosen. The current electoral system is based on plurality-at-large with 29 electoral districts across the country. According to the Constitution, every Mongolian citizen over the age of 18 can participate in elections, or run for government offices including the State Great Khural. Although there are several controversies (such as the right to vote of prisoners and Mongolian nationals abroad), the US government-funded agency Freedom House considers Mongolia to be a free representative democracy.

The State Great Khural is charged with the passage of legislation, approval of treaties, confirmation of the Government ministers and hearings of various government officials. Members of the State Great Khural have immunity against court trials, and the right to inspect government documents as an accountability on the Government's activities.

The Parliament of Mongolia[37]
Picture Name Position Political Party
Mr Gombojaviin Zandanshatar Speaker of the State Great Khural Mongolian People's Party
Mr Tumurbaatariin Ayursaikhan Deputy Speaker of the State Great Khural Mongolian People's Party
Ms Saldangiin Odontuya Deputy Speaker of the State Great Khural Democratic Party
Mr Dulamdorjiin Togtokhsuren Leader of the Mongolian People's Party Caucus in the Parliament Mongolian People's Party
Mr Dashdondogiin Ganbat Leader of the Democratic Party Caucus in the Parliament Democratic Party
Mr Baagaagiin Battumur Chair of the Parliamentary Committee on the National Security and Foreign Affairs Mongolian People's Party
Mr Badmaanyambuugiin Bat-Erdene Chair of the Parliamentary Committee on Ethics, Discipline and Responsibility Mongolian People's Party
Mr Khyangaagiin Bolorchuluun Chair of the Parliamentary Committee on Environment, Food and Agriculture Mongolian People's Party
Mr Sandangiin Byambatsogt Chair of the Parliamentary Committee on Justice Mongolian People's Party
Mr Jambaliin Ganbaatar Chair of the Parliamentary Committee on Economy Mongolian People's Party
Mr Boldiin Javkhlan Chair of the Parliamentary Committee on Government Budget Mongolian People's Party
Mr Jamiyangiin Munkhbat Chair of the Parliamentary Committee on Education, Culture and Sports Mongolian People's Party
Ms Munkhuugiin Oyunchimeg Chair of the Parliamentary Committee on the Public Requests Mongolian People's Party
Mr Nyam-Osoriin Uchral Chair of the Parliamentary Committee on Innovation and Digital Strategy Mongolian People's Party
Mr Battogtokhiin Choijilsuren Chair of the Parliamentary Committee on Industrialisation Strategy Mongolian People's Party
Mr Luvsantserengiin Enkh-Amgalan Chair of the Parliamentary Committee on the Governmental Organisation Mongolian People's Party

Political parties and elections

Ger set up by the Democratic Party for an election campaign in Khövsgöl, 2006

Main articles: List of political parties in Mongolia and Elections in Mongolia

Mongolian politics is currently dominated by two major political parties: Mongolian People's Party (160,000 members) and Democratic Party (150,000 members).[38] After the 1990 Democratic Revolution, then-Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party transitioned into a centre-left social democratic party. In 2010, Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party changed its name to Mongolian People's Party along with modifications in the party manifesto and leadership; however, the former president Nambaryn Enkhbayar's faction and other conservative members departed from the party and created a new political party taking the original name, Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party. Since the fall of the Soviet regime, Mongolian People's Party has been able to maintain a high level of support. On the other hand, the Democratic Party was established in 2000, integrating minor political parties established by the leaders of the Democratic Revolution. The Democratic Party is a centre-right political party. In 2011, National Labour Party, a centre-left party, was established as an alternative to the Mongolian People's Party and the Democratic Party and gained a notable support from the populace. In 2020 elections, it was able to obtain a number of seats in both the State Great Khural and municipal councils with hopes to increase its political power in the upcoming elections.

There are 36 political parties recognised by the Supreme Court.[38] However, critics say there are no major ideological differences between the political parties on issues like economic policies and governance.

2017 presidential election

Main article: 2017 Mongolian presidential election

CandidatePartyFirst roundSecond round
Khaltmaagiin BattulgaDemocratic Party517,47838.64611,22655.15
Miyeegombyn EnkhboldMongolian People's Party411,74830.75497,06744.85
Sainkhüügiin GanbaatarMongolian People's Revolutionary Party409,89930.61
Valid votes1,339,12598.631,108,29391.76
Invalid/blank votes18,6631.3799,4948.24
Total votes1,357,788100.001,207,787100.00
Registered voters/turnout1,978,29868.631,990,78760.67
Source: GEC, GEC

2020 legislative election

Main article: 2020 Mongolian legislative election

In 2020 legislative election, Mongolian People's Party maintained its majority in the parliament.

Mongolian People's Party1,795,79344.9362–3
Democratic Party978,89024.4911+2
Our Coalition323,6758.1010
United Coalition of Just Citizens213,8125.350New
Right Person Electorate Coalition209,1045.231New
Keep Order! Constitution 19 Coalition41,4171.040New
Mongolian Green Party23,4730.5900
Love the People Party18,5420.4600
People's Majority Party13,7200.340New
Zon Olny Nam8,7100.220
Freedom Implementing Party5,1420.1300
Ger Area Development Party4,1760.100New
Ikh Ev Nam4,1180.100New
Development Programme Party3,5210.090New
People's Party3,3330.080New
World Mongols Party5910.010New
United Patriots Party4480.0100
Total votes1,475,895
Registered voters/turnout2,003,96973.65
Source: General Election Committee of Mongolia, Ikon

Legal system

The new constitution empowered a Judicial General Council (JGC) to select all judges and protect their rights. The Supreme Court is the highest judicial body. Justices are nominated by the JGC, confirmed by the State Great Khural and appointed by the president. The Supreme Court is constitutionally empowered to examine all lower court decisions—excluding specialized court rulings—upon appeal and provide official interpretations on all laws except the constitution.

Specialized civil, criminal, and administrative courts exist at all levels and are not subject to Supreme Court supervision. Local authorities—district and city governors—ensure that these courts abide by presidential decrees and SGKh decisions. At the apex of the judicial system is the Constitutional Court of Mongolia, which consists of nine members, including a chairman, appointed for six-year term, whose jurisdiction extends solely over the interpretation of the constitution.

The constitution states that the Judicial branch of the government should be independent of any outside influences and government officials. However, in 2019, the State Great Khural passed a law that allows the National Security Council (composed of speaker of parliament, president and prime minister) to dismiss judges who are "dishonest", effectively removing their immunity that meant to prevent outside interventions to court decisions. Various civil movements, international organisations and prominent individuals (including the former president Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj) have denounced the decision, but no action was made so far.

Administrative divisions

Mongolia is divided in 21 Aimags (provinces) and one municipality/city (khot): Arkhangai, Bayan-Ölgii, Bayankhongor, Bulgan, Darkhan-Uul, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Govi-Altai, Govisümber, Khentii, Khovd, Khövsgöl, Ömnögovi, Orkhon, Övörkhangai, Selenge, Sükhbaatar, Töv, Uvs, Zavkhan, and the city of Ulaanbaatar.

Local elections are held every four year in all 21 provinces and the capital, electing representatives to municipal councils. After each election, the newly elected municipal councils recommend a governor and their office, and meet semi-annually to discuss issues in their province, recommend and supervise the local government. However, the prime minister has the power to choose provincial governors. Unlike federal republics like Germany and the United States, local governments in Mongolia hold limited authority, and are generally tasked with implementing the central government policies.

On the next lower administrative level, representatives are elected in provincial subdivisions and urban sub-districts in Ulaanbaatar.

The latest municipal elections took place on 15 October 2020. A total of 17149 candidates ran for 8167 seats in provincial and county councils. Mongolian People's Party won a majority in 13 out of 21 provincial councils in Mongolia while the Democratic Party took the remaining eight provinces.[39]

Provincial councils
Council Available seats MPP DP National Labour Party MPRP Mongolian Green Party Coalition of Just Citizens Party Independent
Ulaanbaatar 45 34 8 3
Khovd 41 26 14 1
Orkhon 35 23 12
Khuvsgul 41 18 22 1
Dornogovi 33 28 4 1
Uvs 41 17 19 5
Bayankhongor 41 22 19
Arkhangai 39 19 20
Bulgan 33 13 19 1
Uvurkhangai 41 35 6
Umnugovi 33 13 20
Darkhan-Uul 33 32 1
Bayan-Ulgii 39 23 15 1
Govisumber 17 10 5 2
Tuv 41 26 13 1 1
Selenge 37 23 14
Zavkhan 41 21 18 1 1
Govi-Altai 41 29 11 1
Dundgovi 35 11 22 1 1
Khentii 39 32 7
Dornod 37 26 8 1 2
Sukhbaatar 33 6 27

See also

Further reading


  1. ^ a b Shugart, Matthew Søberg (September 2005). "Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual Executive and Mixed Authority Patterns" (PDF). Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies. United States: University of California, San Diego. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 August 2008. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
  2. ^ a b Shugart, Matthew Søberg (December 2005). "Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual Executive And Mixed Authority Patterns" (PDF). French Politics. 3 (3). Palgrave Macmillan Journals: 323–351. doi:10.1057/palgrave.fp.8200087. Retrieved 23 December 2015. Even if the president has no discretion in the forming of cabinets or the right to dissolve parliament, his or her constitutional authority can be regarded as 'quite considerable' in Duverger's sense if cabinet legislation approved in parliament can be blocked by the people's elected agent. Such powers are especially relevant if an extraordinary majority is required to override a veto, as in Mongolia, Poland and Senegal.
  3. ^ a b Odonkhuu, Munkhsaikhan (12 February 2016). "Mongolia: A Vain Constitutional Attempt to Consolidate Parliamentary Democracy". ConstitutionNet. International IDEA. Retrieved 17 February 2016. Mongolia is sometimes described as a semi-presidential system because, while the prime minister and cabinet are collectively responsible to the SGKh, the president is popularly elected, and his/her powers are much broader than the conventional powers of heads of state in parliamentary systems.
  4. ^ G., Dari (5 December 2011). "Democracy Days to be inaugurated". (in Mongolian). Archived from the original on 10 January 2012. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
  5. ^ "Tsakhia Elbegdorj". Community of Democracies Mongolia. Archived from the original on 10 June 2013. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
  6. ^ a b Ahmed and Norton, Nizam U. and Philip (1999). Parliaments in Asia. London: Frank Cass & Co.Ltd. p. 143. ISBN 0-7146-4951-1. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
  7. ^ Baabar (16 November 2009). "Democratic Revolution and Its Terrible Explanations". (in Mongolian). Archived from the original on 27 December 2012. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
  8. ^ "Democracy's Hero: Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj". Washington: The International Republican Institute. 21 July 2011. Archived from the original on 28 April 2012. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
  9. ^ "Mongolia Celebrates 20th Anniversary of Democratic Revolution". The International Republican Institute. 11 December 2009. Archived from the original on 19 December 2010. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
  10. ^ Wilhelm, Kathy (12 March 1990). "Mongolian Politburo resigns en masse". The Free Lance Star. Fredericksburg, VA. p. 4. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
  11. ^ "Entire Mongolian Politburo resigns". Lawrence Journal-World. Lawrence, KS. 12 March 1990. pp. 8A. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
  12. ^ Ch., Munkhbayar (13 March 2013). "What was the Mongolian democratic revolution?". (in Mongolian). Retrieved 8 July 2013.
  13. ^ Gamba, Ganbat (2004). "The Mass Public and Democratic Politics in Mongolia" (PDF). Taipei: Asian Barometer. p. 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 May 2011. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
  14. ^ Lawrence, Susan V. (14 June 2011). "Mongolia: Issues for Congress" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
  15. ^ "Constitution of Mongolia". World Intellectual Property Organization. 13 January 1992. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
  16. ^ "April 1998". April 1998. Retrieved 21 May 2009.
  17. ^ Sanders, Alan J.K. (2010). Historical Dictionary of Mongolia. Third edition. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press. pp. xviii. ISBN 978-0-8108-7452-7. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
  18. ^ Kohn, Michael (2006). Dateline Mongolia: An American Journalist in Nomad's Land. Muskegon, MI: RDR Books. p. 109. ISBN 978-1-57143-155-4. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
  19. ^ Zuckerman, Ethan (13 January 2006). "It is never too cold to riot in Ulaanbaatar". Retrieved 25 June 2013.
  20. ^ "Ts. Elbegdorj is Prime Minister (August 20, 2004)". Open Society Forum. 20 August 2004. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
  21. ^ "Mongolia Profile". BBC. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  22. ^ "Mongolia's new president sworn in". 18 June 2009. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
  23. ^ "Tsakhiagiyn Elbegdorj". Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  24. ^ "Former MPRP is reborn and former President named chairman". 2 February 2011. Archived from the original on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 30 June 2013.((cite web)): CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  25. ^ "Parliament of Mongolia (in Mongolian)". Retrieved 4 August 2013.
  26. ^ "Incumbent Mongolian president wins 2nd term on pro-Western, anti-graft platform". The Washington Post. Washington. 27 June 2013. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
  27. ^ Khuder (10 July 2013). "Ts. Elbegdorj takes oath". Montsame News Agency. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
  28. ^ Welle (, Deutsche. "Mongolia votes for new president in divisive election | DW | 26.06.2017". DW.COM.
  29. ^ "Mongolia Just Chose a New President. What Now?".
  30. ^ a b Weekly, Mongolia (2020-07-10). "Khurelsukh Reelected Prime Minister of Mongolia Amid Economic Downturn". Mongolia Weekly. Retrieved 2020-07-15.
  31. ^ "With New PM, a New Generation Taking Charge in Mongolia".
  32. ^ "Ex-Mongolian prime minister Khurelsukh wins presidential election in landslide". Reuters. 10 June 2021.
  33. ^ Adiya, Amar (2022-09-10). "Mongolia Unveils New Pro-Business Cabinet". Mongolia Weekly. Retrieved 2022-09-11.
  34. ^ "Ukhnaagiin Khürelsükh", Wikipedia, 2022-05-23, retrieved 2022-05-27
  35. ^ Adiya, Amar (2022-09-10). "Mongolia Unveils New Pro-Business Cabinet". Mongolia Weekly. Retrieved 2022-09-11.
  36. ^ "New government structure approved with 14 ministries and 17 ministers".
  37. ^ "Parliament". Retrieved 2020-12-13.
  38. ^ a b "Улс төрийн намын бүртгэл". Retrieved 2020-12-13.
  39. ^ "ИТХ-ын 2020 оны сонгууль". Retrieved 2020-12-15.