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Kashan
کاشان
City
Kashan is located in Iran
Kashan
Kashan
Location in Iran
Coordinates: 33°58′57″N 51°25′57″E / 33.98250°N 51.43250°E / 33.98250; 51.43250[1]
CountryIran
ProvinceIsfahan
CountyKashan
DistrictCentral
Government
 • MayorKioumars Mohammadpour
Population
 (2016)[2]
 • Urban
304,487
 • Metro
432,557
Time zoneUTC+3:30 (IRST)
Websitewww.kashan.ir
Timcheh-e Amin o Dowleh, Kashan Bazaar (19th century). Persian architects used these structures to naturally decrease temperatures, regulate sunlight, and ventilate the interior spaces during the daytime.
Amin-o-Dowleh, Persian royal envoy to the court of Napoleon III.

Kashan (Persian: کاشان, romanizedKâšân [kɒːˈʃɒːn] ); Qashan; Cassan;[3] also romanized as Kāshān)[4] is a city in the Central District of Kashan County, in the northern part of Isfahan province, Iran, serving as capital of both the county and the district.[5]

At the 2006 National Census, its population was 248,789 in 67,464 households.[6] The following census in 2011 counted 275,325 people in 80,015 households.[7] The latest census in 2016 showed a population of 304,487 people in 91,935 households.[2]

Kashan is divided into two parts, mountainous and desert.

On August 9, 2007, Iran placed the Historical Axis of Fin, Sialk, Kashan on its Tentative List for possible future nomination as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The exact definition of what locations within Kashan proper might be nominated was not made clear. In 2012 Iran successfully nominated the Fin Garden separately for inscription by UNESCO as a part of its Persian Gardens World Heritage Site. Despite this the "Historical-Cultural Axis of Fin, Sialk, Kashan" remains in full on Iran's Tentative List. The Boroujerdiha house is one of the historical places from the Qajar period.

History

Earliest evidence of human presence around Kashan date back to Paleolithic period that have been found at Niasar, Kaftar Khoun and Sefid-Ab. Middle Paleolithic stone tools were discovered at travertine spring of Niasar and the travertine of Kaftar Khoun.[8] Upper Paleolithic groups were living around Sefid-Ab spring at SW of Kashan.[9]

By some accounts, although not all, Kashan was the origin of the three wise men who followed the star that guided them to Bethlehem to witness the nativity of Jesus, as recounted in the Bible.[10] For example, medieval traveler Friar Odoric of Pordenone related this story in 1330 after having visited there.[11]

According to a legend dating from the Safavid era, Abu Lu'lu'a, the Persian skilled craftsman who was enslaved by the Islamic conquerors and who eventually assassinated the caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab in 644, fled to Kashan after the assassination.[12] The shrine that was built over his supposed tomb is one of Kashan's landmarks (see gallery below).

During the rule of Timurid Empire, Kashan were patronized by Ulugh Beg, grandson of Timur.[13] After the era of Timurid rulers, Kashan then came simultaneously under the rule of Qara Qoyunlu, and then Aq Qoyunlu.[14] Kashan was also a leisure vacation spot for Safavid kings.[citation needed]

The earthquake of 1778 leveled the city of Kashan and all the edifices of Shah Abbas Safavi, leaving 8000 casualties. But the city started afresh.

Panorama of city
a view of Kashan around 17th century from Jean Chardin.

Geographical location

The city of Kashan is located in the north of Isfahan province, north of the Karkas Mountains and west of Dasht-e Kavir desert, where it is poor in terms of vegetation and where bushes and shrubs are more or less found. Dare mountain is next to Dare village and 14 kilometers southwest of Kashan with a height of 2,985 meters overlooking the city of Kashan, and Gargash peak is the highest peak of the Karkas mountain range, 33 kilometers southwest of Kashan and 12 kilometers southwest of Qamsar and 7 kilometers northeast of Kamu with a height of 3,600 meters is located near the city of Kamu and Chogan. Kashan has the least light and air pollution. For this reason, it was chosen by international experts as the most appropriate and best place to establish the National Observatory of Iran, and the home of one of the largest large telescopes in the Middle East with the latest technology. Ardahal peak is located 35 kilometers west of Kashan with a height of 3505 meters after Gargash, the highest point of Kashan heights (continuation of the central mountain range) in the vicinity of Niaser and the villages of Mazosh, Nashlej and Mashhad.[15][16]

Climate

Kashan has a hot desert climate (BWh) in Köppen climate classification and (BW) in Trewartha climate classification, with cold winters (although warmer than other Iranian cities) and hot, sometimes very hot summers. Kashan is significantly warmer than other cities in the Iranian Plateau due to its lower elevation.

Climate data for Kashan (1966–2010, records 1966-2020)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 22.0
(71.6)
27.0
(80.6)
36.4
(97.5)
37.0
(98.6)
42.0
(107.6)
48.0
(118.4)
48.0
(118.4)
47.0
(116.6)
43.0
(109.4)
39.0
(102.2)
32.2
(90.0)
24.5
(76.1)
48.0
(118.4)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 10.0
(50.0)
13.5
(56.3)
19.3
(66.7)
26.3
(79.3)
31.9
(89.4)
38.1
(100.6)
40.8
(105.4)
39.8
(103.6)
35.2
(95.4)
27.6
(81.7)
18.9
(66.0)
12.1
(53.8)
26.1
(79.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.7
(40.5)
7.6
(45.7)
12.9
(55.2)
19.2
(66.6)
24.4
(75.9)
30.1
(86.2)
32.9
(91.2)
31.5
(88.7)
26.8
(80.2)
20.1
(68.2)
12.5
(54.5)
6.7
(44.1)
19.1
(66.4)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −0.6
(30.9)
1.6
(34.9)
6.5
(43.7)
12.1
(53.8)
17.0
(62.6)
22.0
(71.6)
24.9
(76.8)
23.3
(73.9)
18.4
(65.1)
12.7
(54.9)
6.2
(43.2)
1.4
(34.5)
12.1
(53.8)
Record low °C (°F) −17.4
(0.7)
−10.0
(14.0)
−2.4
(27.7)
0.0
(32.0)
9.8
(49.6)
10.6
(51.1)
15.2
(59.4)
12.4
(54.3)
12.6
(54.7)
6.0
(42.8)
−8.6
(16.5)
−7.0
(19.4)
−17.4
(0.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 25.8
(1.02)
18.8
(0.74)
25.4
(1.00)
17.4
(0.69)
13.1
(0.52)
1.3
(0.05)
0.5
(0.02)
0.4
(0.02)
0.2
(0.01)
4.3
(0.17)
11.7
(0.46)
17.1
(0.67)
136
(5.37)
Average snowy days 2.7 1.2 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 1.0 5.5
Average relative humidity (%) 62 54 46 39 34 25 23 24 27 38 50 61 40
Source: [1]

Main sights

Bagh-e Fin.
Tabatabaeis House, early 1800s, Kashan. A fine example of traditional Persian architecture.
Aminoddole carvansarai.

Kashan's architectural sights include:

Today

Kashan is known for the manufacture of carpets, silk and other textiles.

Ameri House

Education

Sultan Amir Ahmad Bathhouse.
University of Kashan Entrance

There are more than 10,000 students currently studying in various fields (e.g.:Applied sciences, Engineering, Art, Law, Medical sciences, Nano technology, literature, Carpet and Handicrafts, etc.) at universities of Kashan. Colleges and universities in Kashan include:

Accessibility

Kashan is connected via freeways to Isfahan and Natanz to the South, and Qom, which is an hour drive away to the north. Kashan railway station is along the main north–south railways of Iran. Kashan Airport reopened on 2 June 2016 after twenty years hiatus with an ATA Airlines flight from Mashhad International Airport.

Kashan Former Entrance

Notable people

Sohrab Sepehri contemporary painter and poet

Twin towns – sister cities

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ OpenStreetMap contributors (16 June 2023). "Kashan, Kashan County" (Map). OpenStreetMap. Retrieved 16 June 2023.
  2. ^ a b "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1395 (2016)". AMAR (in Persian). The Statistical Center of Iran. p. 10. Archived from the original (Excel) on 19 October 2020. Retrieved 19 December 2022.
  3. ^ Henry Yule, Cathay and the Way Thither, Volume II, edited by Henri Cordier for the Hakluyt Society, 1913, p. 106, FN 4.
  4. ^ Kashan can be found at GEOnet Names Server, at this link, by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3069961" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database".
  5. ^ Habibi, Hassan (21 June 1369). "Approval of the organization and chain of citizenship of the elements and units of the national divisions of Isfahan province, centered in the city of Isfahan". Lamtakam (in Persian). Ministry of Interior, Defense Political Commission of the Government Board. Archived from the original on 4 February 2024. Retrieved 4 February 2024.
  6. ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)". AMAR (in Persian). The Statistical Center of Iran. p. 10. Archived from the original (Excel) on 20 September 2011. Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  7. ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1390 (2011)". Syracuse University (in Persian). The Statistical Center of Iran. p. 10. Archived from the original (Excel) on 17 January 2023. Retrieved 19 December 2022.
  8. ^ Biglari, F. (2004) The Preliminary Survey of Paleolithic Sites in the Kashan region., In S.M. Shahmirzadi (ed.), The Silversmiths of Sialk (Sialk Reconsideration Project), Report No. 2: 151-168. Archaeological Research Center. Iranian Cultural Heritage Organization,Tehran. (In Persian)
  9. ^ Shidrang, S 2009 A Typo-technological Study of an Upper Paleolithic Collection from Sefid-Ab, Central Iran, In: M. Otte, F. Biglari, and J. Jaubert (eds), Iran Palaeolithic. pp. 47–56, Proceedings of the XV World Congress UISPP, Lisbonne, Vol. 28, BAR International Series 1968
  10. ^ Elgood, Cyril. A Medical History of Persia and the Eastern Caliphate: From the Earliest Times Until the Year A.D. 1932. Cambridge Library Collection - History of Medicine. Cambridge University Press, 2010. ISBN 1108015883 p. 34
  11. ^ Henry Yule, Cathay and the Way Thither, Volume II, edited by Henri Cordier for the Hakluyt Society, 1913, p. 106.
  12. ^ Johnson, Rosemary Stanfield (1994). "Sunni Survival in Safavid Iran: Anti‐Sunni Activities During the Reign of Tahmasp I". Iranian Studies. 27 (1–4): 123–133. doi:10.1080/00210869408701823. JSTOR 4310889. p. 127, note 23. On Abu Lu'lu'a, see Pellat, Charles (2011). "Abū Loʾloʾa". In Yarshater, Ehsan (ed.). Encyclopaedia Iranica.
  13. ^ Roy P. Mottahedeh (19 January 2023). In the Shadow of the Prophet Essays in Islamic History (ebook). Oneworld Publications. ISBN 9780861545612. Retrieved 2 December 2023. Ulugh Beg, one of most mathematically gifted rulers of the medieval era. Jamshid's enormous talent had supposedly been immediately recognized by another astronomer, on discovering him in an astrolabe shop in Kashan.98
  14. ^ David Durand-Guédy; Jürgen Paul; Roy Mottahedeh (2020). Cities of Medieval Iran. Brill. p. 420. ISBN 9789004434332. Retrieved 2 December 2023. Kashan, showing that the latter also understood mathematics and astronomy. Applying the characteristic mix of ... Qara-Qoyunlu and subsequently the Aq-Qoyunlu.
  15. ^ "Kashan". www.visitiran.ir. Retrieved 17 March 2023.
  16. ^ Foundation, Encyclopaedia Iranica. "Welcome to Encyclopaedia Iranica". iranicaonline.org. Retrieved 17 March 2023.