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Tvorog or twaróg
Country of originCentral and Eastern Europe
Source of milklow-fat cow milk
Texturesoft and creamy soupy
Fat content5%
Related media on Commons
Tvorog grained

Tvorog (Polish: twaróg Russian: творог[a]) is a European, non-liquid white fermented milk product, traditional for Eastern, Northern and (less often) Central Europe, obtained by fermenting milk with subsequent whey removal. It is officially customary to classify Tvorog produced in the traditional way, according to its fat content. According to GOST RF, according to physical and chemical indicators, Tvorog is divided into the following categories: fat-free, low-fat, classic and fatty. Also, according to the method of manufacture, such types of Tvorog are distinguished as simple, soft, and grained Tvorog, which is a type of low-fat Tvorog.

A milk-containing product with a milk fat substitute, produced in accordance with the technology for the production of Tvorog, is called not Творог, but a curd product. In Germany, for example, Quark is produced with linseed oil, which contains less than 0.5% of animal fats, and hence cholesterol, but contains unsaturated fatty acids, such as alpha-linolenic acid. Therefore, such a product may be useful for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.[8][9]

On the territory of the former USSR, Tvorog is made and directly consumed fresh or sweet, in other countries of Eastern and Central Europe - fresh or brackish, in Northern Europe - brackish. Cottage cheese is consumed to a small extent in Great Britain, North America, Japan and is almost completely absent in Southern Europe and other parts of the world.

In English-speaking cultures, cottage cheese is considered a type of young soft cheese, while in modern Russian-speaking environments, Tvorog is usually not considered a type of cheese.

Etymology and stress

Tvorog with sour cream and sugar

Comes from Proto Slavic tvarog  - from the same basis as to create, that is, processed milk.

Many dictionaries indicate two stresses in the word "Творог", however, in normalized speech, in particular on radio and television, as well as in a number of reference books, the stress on the second syllable is considered preferable.

Types of Tvorog

According to the method of preparation (production) there are two ways to produce Tvorog - traditional (regular) and separate.

According to the method of coagulation of milk proteins in the traditional way, Tvorog is divided into acid and acid-rennet.

By properties
By fillers


Traditional method of manufacture

The traditional way of making Tvorog involves the use of fermented milk with the separation (squeezing) of liquid whey in free-hanging bags. The finished Tvorog has a dense texture, smooth edges on the break, the separated whey is transparent, slightly greenish in color. When using fermented milk, the curd will turn out sour[11].

Polish twaróg in the traditional wedge shape

The process of industrial production of Tvorog looks like this: milk is normalized (the desired fat content is set), pasteurized and poured into baths (containers). The baths maintain a certain temperature (28-30 °C), which is necessary for the normal course of processes. Ferment and pepsin are added to warm milk. After some time (the average fermentation time is 8 hours), a curd grain is formed in the bath, which forms a monolith (milk proteins coagulate and precipitate, forming a sticky mass). Serum begins to separate - a clear yellowish liquid, a by-product of production. At the final stage, the curd monolith is cut with strings into small pieces in order to increase the surface area and facilitate the outflow of whey. Next, the curd grain is squeezed and cooled. At the end of the technological process, the curd is packaged.


According to the 1981 Dietetic Handbook,[12] Tvorog contains:

fat творог semi-fat творог low-fat творог diet творог
water 0,647 0,710 0,777 0,700
protein 0,140 0,167 0,180 0,160
fats 0,180 0,090 0,006 0,0011
carbohydrates ( lactose ) 0,013 0,013 0,015 0,010
ash 0,010 0,010 0,012 0,010
sodium (10 −5 ) 41 41 44 41
potassium (10 −5 ) 112 112 115 112
calcium (10 −5 ) 150 164 176 160
magnesium (10 −5 ) 23 23 24 23
phosphorus (10 −5 ) 217 220 224 224
iron (10 −5 ) 0,4 0,4 0,3 0,3
vitamin A (10 −5 ) 0,10 0,05 Footprints 0,06
β-carotene (10 −5 ) 0,06 0,03 Footprints 0,03
vitamin B 1 (10 −5 ) 0,05 0,04 0,04 0,04
vitamin B 2 (10 −5 ) 0,30 0,27 0,25 0,27
vitamin PP (10 −5 ) 0,30 0,40 0,64 0,40
vitamin C (10 −5 ) 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,5
vitamin E (10 −5 ) 0,38
vitamin B 12 (10 −7 ) 1,0
folic acid (10 −7 ) 35,0
copper (10 −7 ) 74
zinc (10 −7 ) 394
fluorine (10 −7 ) 32
energy value ( kcal / kg) 2260 1560 860 700
energy value ( kJ / kg) 9450 6520 3600 2930


Before using Tvorog for making culinary dishes, it is usually rubbed or passed through a meat grinder. Dishes containing Tvorog are cooked boiled, baked, fried. Tvorog is often served with sour cream, fermented baked milk, fruits, berries, honey or sweet sauce.

Use in clinical nutrition

Lithuanian postage stamp dedicated to traditional cottage cheese

Tvorog is one of the richest sources of complete protein.[13] Due to denaturation, milk protein becomes more available for cleavage by proteolytic enzymes, so Tvorog is easily digested.[13]

Tvorog contains a large amount of calcium in an easily digestible form, as well as vitamins B1, B2, PP, C and others. Promotes the formation of hemoglobin, improves the regenerative capacity of the nervous system, strengthens bone and cartilage tissue .[14]

It has a pronounced diuretic effect.[15]

It has been experimentally established that several times less gastric juice, hydrochloric acid and enzymes are released on Творог than on fermented and whole milk.[12]

In view of the foregoing, Tvorog is very widely used in dietary, as well as children's and sports nutrition, as well as in diets in the treatment of obesity,[13] heart disease, liver disease, atherosclerosis and hypertension, as it has a lipotropic property (improves fat metabolism).[16]

Use in religious rituals

Christian church of the first centuries

In a number of Christian churches of the first centuries there were ritual prohibitions on the use of Tvorog in the summer.[17]

In the "Apostolic Tradition"[18]  - the manual of the first Christians - there are ritual formulas with a play on words, pronounced during the consecration of Творог:[19] "Sanctify this milk that has curdled, and sanctify us, binding with your love."

Russian Orthodox ChurchMain article
Easter (dish)

In the central and northern regions of Russia, there is a custom to prepare a special dish of Tvorog for Easter - Paskha, which is consecrated in the church.

See also



  1. ^ Historically, only the second syllable could be stressed, but in modern Russian, the stress can be placed on either of the syllables.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7]


  1. ^ Творог // Толковый словарь Ожегова
  2. ^ Творог // Толковый словарь Кузнецова
  3. ^ Творог // Большая советская энциклопедия
  4. ^ Творог // Толковый словарь Ефремовой
  5. ^ Творог // Малый академический словарь
  6. ^ Проверка слова: творог Archived 2017-09-14 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ Ефремова Т. Ф. (2000). Новый словарь русского языка. Толково-словообразовательный. Vol. II. (П — Я) (5000 экз ed.). М.: Русский язык. ISBN 5-200-02858-2.
  8. ^ Ahmed, S. O., Awad, R. A., Ali, M. A., & Rashid, M. R. (2019). Chemical and biological studies on spreadable processed cheese made using flaxseed oil as butter substitute. Al-Azhar Journal of Agricultural Research, 44(2), 35-48. doi:10.21608/AJAR.2019.101823
  9. ^ Villamil, R. A., Guzmán, M. P., Ojeda-Arredondo, M., Cortés, L. Y., Archila, E. G., Giraldo, A., & Mondragón, A. I. (2021). Cheese fortification through the incorporation of UFA-rich sources: A review of recent (2010-2020) evidence. Heliyon, 7(1), e05785. PMID 33553712 PMC 7851337 doi:10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05785
  10. ^ ГОСТ Р 52096-2003 — Творог. Технические условия. Раздел 5.3, таблица 2.
  11. ^ Л. А. Старостина, М. Н. Вечтомова (1994). Блюда из творога. Самара: «Самарский Дом печати». p. 5. ISBN 5-7350-0018-7.
  12. ^ a b Справочник по диетологии. М.: Медицина. Под ред. А. А. Покровского, М. А. Самсонова. 1981.
  13. ^ a b c Кугенев П.В. (1981). Молоко и молочные продукты. М.: Россельхозиздат. Изд. 2-е, доп. и перераб. p. 72.
  14. ^ Пириев А.Ю., Гунькова П.И. (2014). "Перспективы использования различных заквасочных культур при выработке творога с добавлением белковых препаратов" (PDF) (2) (Науч. журн. НИУ ИТМО; серия «Процессы и аппараты пищевых производств» ed.). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-10-19. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  15. ^ Губергриц А. Я., Линевский Ю. В. (1977). Лечебное питание. К.: Вища школа. p. 54.
  16. ^ Анфимова Н. А., Татарская Л. Л., Захарова Т. И. (1978). Кулина́рия. М.: Экономика. p. 181.((cite book)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  17. ^ «Африканская церковь дала богослужению … обычай „четырёх времён“: выбор трёх суббот в году для особых форм пищевых запретов в соответствии с сезоном — творога (летом), вина (осенью) и масла (зимой) помимо строгого весеннего поста» (Донини А. (1989). У истоков христианства (от зарождения до Юстиниана). М.: Политиздат. Пер. с итальянского под ред. И. С. Свенцицкой. p. 166. ISBN 5-250-00632-9. Archived from the original on 2013-12-16. Retrieved 2022-12-22.).
  18. ^ Св. Ипполит Римский. Апостольское предание Archived 2014-06-05 at the Wayback Machine // «Седмица. RU»
  19. ^ «Самая интересная часть руководства — это та, что регламентирует обычный и пасхальный пост, угощение маслом, творогом и оливками, благословение фруктов» (Донини, с. 193). В русском переводе «Апостольского предания» используется термин «сыр».