In 1999, an estimated 5,000 deaths, 325,000 hospitalizations and 76 million illnesses were caused by foodborne illnesses within the US.[1] The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began tracking outbreaks starting in the 1970s.[2] By 2012, the figures were roughly 130,000 hospitalizations and 3,000 deaths.[3]










































See also


  1. ^ Mead, P.S.; et al. (October 1999). "Food-Related Illness and Death in the United States". Emerging Infectious Diseases. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 5 (5): 607–625. doi:10.3201/eid0505.990502. PMC 2627714. PMID 10511517.
  2. ^ a b c William Neuman (September 27, 2011). "Deaths From Cantaloupe Listeria Rise". The New York Times. Retrieved September 29, 2011. The deadliest outbreak in the United States since then occurred in 1985, when a wave of listeria illness, linked to Mexican-style fresh cheese, swept through California. A federal database says 52 deaths were attributed to the outbreak, but news reports at the time put the number as high as 84.
  3. ^ Stephanie Strom (January 4, 2013). "F.D.A. Offers Sweeping Rules to Fight Food Contamination". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-01-05. One in six Americans becomes ill from eating contaminated food each year, the government estimates; of those, roughly 130,000 are hospitalized and 3,000 die.
  4. ^ Connell, Joseph H. (2005). Sibbett, Steven; Ferguson, Louise (eds.). Olive Production Manual (2nd ed.). University of California. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-879906-14-3.
  5. ^ "Deaths Spur Tuna Hunt In Detroit Area". Toledo Blade. March 20, 1963. Retrieved 2011-10-10. Dr. Robert Solomon, who treated the second victim, said he and a pathologist attributed her death to "botulism" and that "everything points to type the ...
  6. ^ Lyons, Patrick J. (October 5, 2007). "In a Beef Packager's Demise, a Whiff of Vichyssoise". The New York Times. Retrieved October 9, 2007.
  7. ^ "Botulism Death in Westchester Brings Hunt for Soup". The New York Times. July 2, 1971. The death of a Westchester County man Wednesday night, apparently from botulism, and the serious illness of his wife has precipitated a nationwide search for 6,444 cans of vichyssoise marketed under the Bon Vivant label.
  8. ^ a b "An Examination of FDA's Recall Authority". Harvard Law School. Archived from the original on October 16, 2007. Retrieved September 25, 2007.
  9. ^ Cook, Joan (June 14, 1974). "Bon Vivant yields on Dumping Soup. Bankrupt Canner Cites Cost of Long U.S. Suit and Age of Stocks Seized in 1971. Cans to Be Buried". New York Times. Retrieved October 9, 2007.
  10. ^ "Fresh apple cider in the United States is amber golden, opaque, and entirely nonalcoholic". Archived from the original on May 23, 2001.
  11. ^ "5 new botulism cases appear in worst outbreak". The Daily Collegian. United Press International. April 7, 1977. p. 8. Retrieved May 2, 2018 – via Penn State University Libraries.
  12. ^ Kristine L. MacDonald; Mitchell L. Cohen; Paul A. Blake (1986). "The Changing Epidemiology of Adult Botulism in the United States". Am. J. Epidemiol. 124 (5): 794–799. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a114455. PMID 3766512.
  13. ^ McAlavy, Don (October 18, 2008). "Memory from 1978 Clovis tragedy endures". Clovis News Journal. Archived from the original on June 13, 2011.
  14. ^ Mann JM, Martin S, Hoffman R, Marrazzo S (March 1981). "Patient recovery from type A botulism: morbidity assessment following a large outbreak". American Journal of Public Health. 71 (3): 266–269. doi:10.2105/AJPH.71.3.266. PMC 1619789. PMID 7468858.
  15. ^ "Recalling The Big Botulism Outbreak of 1978 in Clovis, New Mexico". 20 October 2008.
  16. ^ Botulism Outbreak, Clovis, New Mexico, April 8–18, 1978 New Mexico. Health Services Division, 78 pp
  17. ^ "6 More in Illinois Hospitals As Possible Botulism Cases". The New York Times. Associated Press. October 20, 1983.
  18. ^ Hedberg CW, et al.: An outbreak of thyrotoxicosis caused by the consumption of bovine thyroid in ground beef. N Engl J Med 1987;316:993-8.
  19. ^ Kinney, Janet S., et al.: Community outbreak of thyrotoxicosis: Epidemiology, immunogenetic characteristics, and long-term outcome. The American Journal of Medicine, Volume 84 (January 1988), Issue 1, Pages 10–18.
  20. ^ Hamburger Thyrotoxicosis
  21. ^ Segal, Marian (1988). "Invisible villains; tiny microbes are biggest food hazard". FDA Consumer. Summer 1985: In Southern California, the largest number of food poisoning deaths recorded in recent U.S. history is traced to Mexican-style soft chesse. Of the 142 reported cases, there were 47 deaths, including 19 stillbirths and 10 infant deaths. The killer — Listeria monocytogenes.
  22. ^ a b "Witnesses Clash Over Blame For Deaths From Bad Cheese". The New York Times. Associated Press. July 12, 1989. Retrieved October 4, 2011. Alta-Dena, the largest dairy in California, supplied the raw milk to Jalisco to make the soft Mexican-style cheese, which was blamed for the outbreak of the severe, flu-like bacterial disease.
  23. ^ Lawrence Altman (July 2, 1985). "Cheese Microbe Underscores Mystery". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-10-10. In the California outbreak, there have been conflicting reports about the adequacy of the pasteurization. At first, California health officials said they had not found fault with Jalisco Mexican Products in Artesia, Calif., the manufacturer of the suspect cheese. Later, health officials said pasteurized milk might have been diluted with non-pasteurized milk. ...
  24. ^ "California Dairy Is Absolved Of Blame in Poisonings of 48". The New York Times. Reuters. July 15, 1989. Retrieved 2011-10-04. A jury today absolved California's largest dairy of any blame for a batch of bacteria-contaminated cheese that killed 48 people four years ago. The jury in Los Angeles Superior Court also rejected claims by the cheese manufacturer, Jalisco Mexican Products, now defunct, that the listeria bacteria were present in raw milk it purchased from the Alta-Dena Certified Dairy.
  25. ^ a b Chris Lecos (February 1, 1986). "Of microbes and milk; probing America's worst salmonella outbreak". FDA Consumer. At least 16,284 persons are known victims of the outbreak, all but 1,059 of them from Illinois. The others lived in Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota and Wisconsin
  26. ^ "Salmonella Outbreak is Traced". The New York Times. United Press International. April 17, 1985. Retrieved September 29, 2011.
  27. ^ "Botulism Reported In Fort Lee Family". The New York Times. Associated Press. May 7, 1992. Retrieved May 8, 2010.
  28. ^ "The New Regulatory Approach for Meat and Poultry Safety". Food Safety and Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on October 17, 2010. Retrieved February 16, 2011.
  29. ^ Angulo FJ, Getz J, Taylor JP, Hendricks KA, Hatheway CL, Barth SS, et al. (July 1998). "A large outbreak of botulism: the hazardous baked potato". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 178 (1): 172–7. doi:10.1086/515615. PMID 9652437.
  30. ^ Hennessy, Thomas W.; Hedberg, Craig W.; Slutsker, Laurence; White, Karen E.; Besser-Wiek, John M.; Moen, Michael E.; Feldman, John; Coleman, William W .; Edmonson, Larry M. (May 16, 1996). "A National Outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis Infections from Ice Cream". New England Journal of Medicine. 334 (20): 1281–1286. doi:10.1056/NEJM199605163342001. PMID 8609944.
  31. ^ Henkel, John (1995). "Ice cream firm linked to salmonella outbreak". FDA Consumer. Archived from the original on August 2, 2009.
  32. ^ "Ice Cream Linked to Salmonella in 15 States". The New York Times. October 16, 1994. Retrieved 2011-09-30. The manufacturer, Schwan's Sales Enterprises in Marshall, Minn., recalled its ice cream last week after the first reports of food poisoning. Investigators have found salmonella bacteria in samples of Schwan's ice cream eaten by people who became ill. ...
  33. ^ Belluck, Pam (May 27, 1998). "Accord Is Reached in Food-Poisoning Case". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
  34. ^ a b Christopher Drew; Pam Belluck (January 4, 1988). "Deadly Bacteria a New Threat To Fruit and Produce in U.S." The New York Times. Retrieved August 11, 2008. Interviews with former Odwalla managers and company documents show that in the weeks before the outbreak, Odwalla began relaxing its standards on accepting blemished fruit and reining in the authority of its own safety officials, culminating in tense, dramatic moments on the morning of Oct. 7, 1996, the day the contaminated juice was pressed.
  35. ^ "Thousands get hepatitis A inoculation". CNN. April 3, 1997. Archived from the original on August 28, 2008.
  36. ^ "Listeria Fear Forces Recall of Hot Dogs". The New York Times. Bloomberg News. March 26, 2000. Retrieved 2011-09-30. The move comes as the company tries to polish a wholesome image tarnished by the nationwide recall in December 1998 of about 15 million pounds of hot dogs and luncheon meat after listeria was spotted. The meat was linked 21 deaths and more than 100 illnesses in 22 states.
  37. ^ William Neuman (September 27, 2011). "Deaths From Cantaloupe Listeria Rise". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-09-29. The second deadliest outbreak was in 1998 and 1999, when there were at least 14 deaths and four miscarriages or stillbirths in a listeria outbreak linked to hot dogs and delicatessen meats. Some sources put the death toll in that outbreak as high as 21.
  38. ^ Drexler 2009, p. 75.
  39. ^ Centers for Disease Control Prevention (CDC) (July 16, 1999). "Outbreak of Salmonella Serotype Muenchen Infections Associated with Unpasteurized Orange Juice—United States and Canada, June 1999". Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 48 (27): 582–585. PMID 10428096.
  40. ^ Bell & Kyriakides 2008, p. 45.
  41. ^ "DNA links salmonella outbreak to Sun Orchard orange juice". Arizona Daily Sun. Flagstaff. June 28, 1999. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  42. ^ Winter, Greg (March 18, 2001). "Food safety serious U.S. health problem". Charleston Gazette-Mail. Charleston. Archived from the original on November 16, 2018. Retrieved June 5, 2015 – via HighBeam Research.
  43. ^ Foster & Vasavada 2003, p. 108.
  44. ^ "Health Commissioner Releases E. coli Outbreak Report". New York State Department of Health. Archived from the original on 8 May 2014. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
  45. ^ "Salmonellosis Outbreak Associated with Raw Mung Bean Sprouts SproutNet". Retrieved September 5, 2010.
  46. ^ "E. coli Food Poisoning".
  47. ^ Tom Held (August 25, 2000). "Beef grinder close to salad prep area, official says". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Archived from the original on March 9, 2006. Retrieved March 6, 2009.
  48. ^ "E. coli Food Poisoning".
  49. ^ Becker, Elizabeth (July 20, 2002). "19 Million Pounds Of Meat Recalled After 19 Fall Ill". The New York Times. Retrieved May 8, 2010.
  50. ^ Burros, Marian (October 30, 2002). "Eating Well; Listeria Thrives in a Political Hotbed". The New York Times. Retrieved May 8, 2010.
  51. ^ "Pilgrim's Pride Foods Turkey Deli Meat 2002". Marler Clark. Archived from the original on May 2, 2018. Retrieved May 2, 2018.
  52. ^ Centers for Disease Control Prevention (CDC) (January 17, 2003). "Outbreak of Botulism Type E Associated with Eating a Beached Whale - Western Alaska, July 2002". Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 52 (2): 24–26. PMID 12608715.
  53. ^ Johnson, Annysa (October 11, 2002). "Woman hospitalized with E. coli sues Emmpak". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Archived from the original on April 25, 2007.
  54. ^ Centers for Disease Control Prevention (CDC) (November 28, 2003). "Hepatitis A Outbreak Associated with Green Onions at a Restaurant – Monaca, Pennsylvania, 2003". Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 52 (47): 1155–1157. PMID 14647018. Retrieved October 8, 2011. The Pennsylvania Department of Health and CDC are investigating an outbreak of hepatitis A outbreak among patrons of a restaurant (Restaurant A) at the Beaver Valley Mall in the Pittsburgh suburb of Monaca, Pennsylvania. As of November 20, approximately 555 persons with hepatitis A have been identified, including at least 13 Restaurant A food service workers and 75 residents of six other states who dined at Restaurant A. Three persons have died. Preliminary sequence analysis of a 340 nucleotide region of viral RNA obtained from three patrons who had hepatitis A indicated that all three virus sequences were identical. Preliminary analysis of a case-control study implicated green onions as the source of the outbreak.
  55. ^ "E. coli Sickens More Than 35 in N.J. and L.I." The New York Times. Associated Press. December 4, 2006.
  56. ^ Bridges, Andrew. "Lettuce Suspected in Taco Bell E. coli". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 8, 2010.
  57. ^ "Update on Multi-State Outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 Infections From Fresh Spinach". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. September 23, 2006. Retrieved September 24, 2006.
  58. ^ "First case of contaminated spinach recorded in Canada". CBC News. September 25, 2006.
  59. ^ "Two dead from Whittier Farms milk contamination". Metro West Daily News. December 27, 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-12-31. Retrieved 2007-12-27. The Department of Public Health (DPH) has issued a warning to consumers not to drink any milk products from Whittier Farms in Shrewsbury because of listeria bacteria contamination, which has contributed to the death of two people
  60. ^ Anna Jo Bratton (October 12, 2007). "ConAgra Foods recalls all pot pies". Retrieved October 13, 2007.
  61. ^ a b Patrick Lyons (October 5, 2007). "In a Beef Packager's Demise, a Whiff of Vichyssoise". The New York Times. Retrieved October 9, 2007.
  62. ^ "Topps Meat Co. folds after beef recall". The New York Times. October 5, 2007. Retrieved September 25, 2007. Topps Meat Co. of Elizabeth, which is involved in the second-largest beef recall in U.S. history, said today it is going out of business after more than six decades
  63. ^ Garance Burke (August 31, 2007). "Spinach recall sparks oversight calls". USA Today. Associated Press. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
  64. ^ "Castleberry's Updates Status of National Canned Food Recall" (Press release). August 1, 2007. Archived from the original on March 25, 2010. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
  65. ^ "Botulism Associated with Commercially Canned Chili Sauce --- Texas and Indiana, July 2007". Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. July 30, 2007.
  66. ^ "Salmonella outbreak still a sticky mystery". MSNBC. Associated Press. February 15, 2007. Archived from the original on February 15, 2007.
  67. ^ "Supplier Expands Beef Recall Over Concerns of E. coli Contamination". The New York Times. Associated Press. June 10, 2007.
  68. ^ "Cases infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Saintpaul, United States". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. For some states, such as California, the CDC has recently[when?] revised the tally of identified illnesses downward.
  69. ^ "Investigation Outbreak of Infections Caused by Salmonella Saintpaul". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  70. ^ Voetsch, Andrew C.; Thomas J. Van Gilder; et al. (April 15, 2004). "FoodNet Estimate of the Burden of Illness Caused by Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infections in the United States". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 38 (Supp. 3): S127–S134. doi:10.1086/381578. PMID 15095181.
  71. ^ Moss, Michael; Martin, Andrew (March 5, 2009). "Food Safety Problems Slip Past Private Inspectors". The New York Times. Retrieved March 6, 2009.
  72. ^ Zhang, Jane (January 18, 2009). "FDA Warns Against Foods Containing Peanut Butter". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 18, 2009. Product samples from Peanut Corp. of America in Lynchburg, Va., were tested positive in Minnesota and Connecticut for the bacteria that have sickened at least 474 people in 43 states and may have contributed to six deaths, said officials from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  73. ^ "Update on Recalled Nestlé Toll House Cookie Dough". U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
  74. ^ "Nestlé Toll House Cookie Dough E. coli Outbreak".
  75. ^ Melanie S. Welte (20 August 2010). "Egg Recall Expands To More Than Half A Billion Nationwide". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 21 August 2010.
  76. ^ "Profits Over Safety: Egg Company's Fraudulent Practices Put Public at Risk". Federal Bureau of Investigation. May 8, 2015.
  77. ^ Philpott, Tom (June 6, 2014). "Over Easy: An Egg King Gets Dethroned". Mother Jones. Retrieved June 7, 2014.
  78. ^ "Multistate Outbreak of Listeriosis Linked to Whole Cantaloupes from Jensen Farms, Colorado". Listeriosis (Listeria infection). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved December 9, 2011.
  79. ^ William Neuman (September 27, 2011). "Deaths From Cantaloupe Listeria Rise". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-09-29. At least 13 people in eight states have died after eating cantaloupe contaminated with listeria, in the deadliest outbreak of food-borne illness in the United States in more than a decade, public health officials said on Tuesday.
  80. ^ Jane E. Allen (November 3, 2011). "Tainted Cantaloupes Behind Deadliest Food-Borne Outbreak". ABC News Medical Unit. Retrieved November 4, 2011.
  81. ^ a b c Huffstutter, P.J. (September 2, 2011). "Del Monte suit says FDA botched cantaloupe salmonella probe. Del Monte says officials weren't thorough in their investigation of an outbreak blamed on its imported melons. It wants an alert lifted". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 30, 2011.
  82. ^ a b William Neuman (September 21, 2011). "Produce Importer in Food Safety Fight". The New York Times. Retrieved September 30, 2011. The company, which is one of the country's largest produce marketers, says the restrictions could damage its reputation, and it has sued the Food and Drug Administration to lift them.
  83. ^ "Fresh strawberries from Washington County farm implicated in E. coli O157 outbreak in NW Oregon" (PDF). Oregon Health Authority. August 8, 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 12, 2012. Retrieved August 8, 2011.
  84. ^ Roos, Robert (August 8, 2011). "NEWS SCAN: Strawberry E coli outbreak, beef grinding and Salmonella, mass anthrax prophylaxis, measles hits refugees". Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy, University of Minnesota. Archived from the original on March 19, 2012. Retrieved August 10, 2011.
  85. ^ "Cargill initiates voluntary ground turkey recall". Cargill. Archived from the original on August 10, 2011. Retrieved August 7, 2011.
  86. ^ William Neuman (August 2, 2011). "Turkey Plant May Be Salmonella Link". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-09-30. Federal officials said on Tuesday that they were investigating an apparent link between ground turkey meat and a nationwide outbreak of salmonella illness that has so far killed one person in California and sickened at least 76 more people in 26 states.
  87. ^ JoNell Aleccia (April 4, 2011). "Drug-resistant salmonella possibly in turkey burgers". NBC News. Retrieved August 24, 2019.
  88. ^ "Dole Fresh Vegetables Announces Precautionary Recall of Limited Number of Italian Blend Salads". Food and Drug Administration. June 22, 2011. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
  89. ^ "Sunland, Inc. Announces Voluntary Extension of Ongoing Recall To Include Raw and Roasted Shelled and In-Shell Peanuts Due to Possible Health Risk". Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved October 10, 2013.
  90. ^ John Stucke (September 25, 2012). "Trader Joe's peanut butter recall expands". Retrieved October 13, 2012.
  91. ^ "Peanut butter recall over salmonella expands to 76 products". CBS News. Retrieved October 10, 2013.
  92. ^ "Sunland Peanut Butter Plant Shuttered By FDA, In First-Ever Use Of New Powers, After Huge Recall". Huffington Post. November 26, 2012. Retrieved October 10, 2013.
  93. ^ "FDA halts operations at peanut butter plant linked to salmonella outbreak". CBS News. Retrieved 26 November 2012.
  94. ^ "NM Peanut Butter Plant Closes, Files for Chapter 7". Associated Press. Archived from the original on October 16, 2013. Retrieved October 10, 2013.
  95. ^ a b "Multistate Outbreak of Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 Infections Linked to Organic Spinach and Spring Mix Blend (Final Update)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. January 17, 2019.
  96. ^ Josh Frigerio (August 20, 2013). "Federico's Mexican Restaurant E. coli outbreak: 74 sickened, 23 hospitalized". American Broadcasting Company. Archived from the original on 2013-08-22. Retrieved August 22, 2013.
  97. ^ Matthew Longdon (August 20, 2013). "Update: E. coli outbreak in West Valley has sickened 74". The Arizona Republic.
  98. ^ "Ariz. Corp. Comm. -- Corporations Division". Archived from the original on 1 January 2014. Retrieved 2 February 2022.
  99. ^ Kotwicki, Lauren. "Michigan Firm Recalls Ground Beef Products Due To Possible E. coli O157:H7". Food Safety and Inspection Service. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
  100. ^ Lee, Rhodi (May 20, 2014). "Wolverine Packing Company recalls 1.8 million pounds of beef due to E. coli contamination". Tech Times. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
  101. ^ Shoichet, Catherine E. (24 March 2015). "Amy's Kitchen recall: Products may contain Listeria". CNN.
  102. ^ "Multistate Outbreak of Salmonella Poona Infections Linked to Imported Cucumbers". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved September 12, 2015.
  103. ^ "Chipotle E. coli Outbreak Spreads to Six States". Think Progress.
  104. ^ "Listeria-Related CRF Frozen Food Recall Expands to Ajinomoto". NBC New York. May 10, 2016. Retrieved July 13, 2016.
  105. ^ "Amid frozen-food recall, more than 300 laid off at Pasco plant". Seattle Times. May 28, 2016. Retrieved June 3, 2016.
  106. ^ "State says botulism outbreak is limited; FDA won't talk". Food Safety News. May 24, 2017. Retrieved May 2, 2018.
  107. ^ "Hickory Harvest Recalls Certain Island Fruit Mix and Organic Nut Mix Products Because of Possible Health Risk". Food and Drug Administration. May 29, 2019.
  108. ^ Spalding, Ashley; Goodhue, Rachael E.; Kiesel, Kristin; Sexton, Richard J. (2022). "Economic impacts of food safety incidents in a modern supply chain: E. coli in the romaine lettuce industry". American Journal of Agricultural Economics. 105 (2): 597–623. doi:10.1111/ajae.12341. ISSN 0002-9092. S2CID 251713103.
  109. ^ "Outbreak of E. coli Infections Linked to Romaine Lettuce". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 23 November 2018.
  110. ^ "Public Health Notice - Outbreak of E. coli infections linked to romaine lettuce". Public Health Agency of Canada. Health Canada. 20 November 2018. Retrieved 23 November 2018.
  111. ^ Achenbach, Joel; Sun, Lena H (November 20, 2018). "Romaine lettuce is not safe to eat, CDC warns U.S. consumers". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 23, 2018.
  112. ^ Moore, Landen (2021-10-08). "Seafood from Colorado linked to multi-state salmonella outbreak". WLUK. Retrieved 2021-10-09.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  113. ^ Roznowski, Blayke (2021-10-09). "Salmonella Thompson multi-state outbreak linked to Denver seafood company". KMGH. Retrieved 2021-10-09.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)[permanent dead link]
  114. ^ Pittman, Travis (22 October 2021). "These brands of onions are recalled after salmonella outbreak in 37 states". KUSA-TV. Retrieved 24 October 2021.
  115. ^ "Over 3K pounds of meat recalled over possible e. Coli contamination". 25 March 2023.


  • Bell, Chris; Kyriakides, Alec (April 2008). Salmonella: A Practical Approach to the Organism and its Control in Foods. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-470-99944-8.
  • Drexler, Madeline (23 December 2009). Secret Agents: The Menace of Emerging Infections (Revised ed.). New York, NY: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-143-11717-9.
  • Foster, Tammy; Vasavada, Purnendu C., eds. (2003). Beverage Quality and Safety: Principles and Applications. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-587-16011-0.