Brunch is a category of meal that usually is eaten between 10:00a.m. and 1:30 p.m.[1][2][3] The meal is occasionally accompanied with some form of alcoholic drink (typically champagne or a cocktail) as an accompaniment. The word brunch is a portmanteau of breakfast and lunch.[4] Brunch originated in England in the late 19th century and became popular in the United States in the 1930s.[5]

Origin of the word

The 1896 supplement to the Oxford English Dictionary cites Punch magazine, which wrote that the term was coined in Britain in 1895 to describe a Sunday meal for "Saturday-night carousers" in the writer Guy Beringer's article "Brunch: A Plea"[6] in Hunter's Weekly.[7][8]

Instead of England's early Sunday dinner, a postchurch ordeal of heavy meats and savory pies, the author wrote, why not a new meal, served around noon, that starts with tea or coffee, marmalade and other breakfast fixtures before moving along to the heavier fare

By eliminating the need to get up early on Sunday, brunch would make life brighter for Saturday-night carousers. It would promote human happiness in other ways as well.

"Brunch is cheerful, sociable and inciting", Beringer wrote. "It is talk-compelling. It puts you in a good temper, it makes you satisfied with yourself and your fellow beings, it sweeps away the worries and cobwebs of the week."

— William Grimes, "At Brunch, the More Bizarre the Better" New York Times, 1998[9]

It is sometimes credited to reporter Frank Ward O'Malley, who wrote for the New York newspaper The Sun from 1906 until 1919,[10] allegedly based on the typical mid-day eating habits of a newspaper reporter.[11][12]

At colleges and hotels

Some colleges and hotels serve brunch. Such brunches are often serve-yourself buffets, but menu-ordered meals may be available instead of, or with, the buffet. The meal usually involves standard breakfast foods such as eggs, sausages, bacon, ham, fruits, pastries, pancakes, waffles, scones, and the like.


The United States, Canada and United Kingdom militaries often serve weekend brunch in the dining facilities. They offer both breakfast and lunch options and are open from about 09:00-13:00 (though times vary).

Dim sum brunch

The dim sum brunch is popular in Chinese restaurants worldwide.[13] It consists of a variety of stuffed buns, dumplings, and other savory or sweet food items that have been steamed, deep-fried, or baked. Customers pick small portions from passing carts, as the kitchen continuously produces and sends out more freshly prepared dishes. Dim sum is usually eaten at a mid-morning, midday, and/or mid-afternoon teatime.

Special occasions

Brunch is prepared by restaurants and hotels for special occasions, such as weddings, Valentine's Day, St. Patrick's Day, Mother's Day, Father's Day, Halloween, Thanksgiving, Christmas, New Year's or Easter.

In other languages


The Chinese word "早午饭" (pinyin: zǎo wǔfàn) is defined as brunch, with "早饭" (zǎofàn; 早: morning, 饭: meal) meaning breakfast; and "午饭" (wǔfàn; 午: noon, 饭: meal) meaning lunch. The combination of "早饭" and "午饭" is thus "早午饭", brunch.


The Office québécois de la langue française accepts "brunch" as a valid word but also provides a synonym déjeuner-buffet. Note that, however, in Quebec, déjeuner alone (even without the qualifying adjective petit) means "breakfast".[14] In Quebec, the word—when francized—is pronounced [bʁɔ̃ʃ].[15]


In Italian, the English loanword "brunch" is generally used, though the neologism/calque "colanzo" is increasingly popular, being derived from "colazione" ("breakfast") and "pranzo" (lunch).[16] Even less common but occasionally used is "pranzolazione," derived from the same sources.[17]

Usage of these terms varies around Italy, as different regions have different cultural definitions of mealtimes and their names. Traditional usage, particularly in northern Italy, included calling the first meal of the day "prima colazione" (first colazione), and the second meal either "colazione" or "seconda colazione" (second colazione)—as distinguished from "pranzo," the evening meal (now generally used as the term for the midday meal).[18] In this scheme, a separate term for "brunch" would not be necessary, as "colazione" could be used as a general term for any meal taken in the morning or even early afternoon. Though Italian meal terminologies have generally shifted since widespread use of this naming scheme, the concept of a distinct mid-morning meal combining aspects of breakfast and lunch is largely one imported from the UK and North America in the last century, and so the Anglicism "brunch" is predominant.[19]

Other places


The area now known as Leslieville neighbourhood is sometimes called the brunch capital of Toronto as many renowned establishments serve brunch in that neighbourhood.[20] Brunch buffets also existed in other parts of Southern Ontario, including Kitchener-Waterloo, where the German-term Smorgasborgs was sometimes used, from the 1970s onward.

In Canada, brunch is served in private homes using homemade foods and in restaurants. In both cases, brunch typically consists of the same dishes as would be standard in an American brunch, namely coffee, tea, fruit juices, breakfast foods including pancakes, waffles, and french toast; meats such as ham, bacon and sausages; egg dishes such as scrambled eggs, omelettes and Eggs Benedict; bread products such as toast, bagels or croissants; pastries or cakes such as cinnamon rolls or coffee cake; and fresh, cut fruit pieces or fruit salad.[21][22][23][24][25][26] Brunches may also include foods not typically associated with breakfast, such as roasted meats, quiche, soup, smoked salmon, sandwiches, and salads such as Cobb salad.[21][22][25][27]

When served in a either a private home or a restaurant, a brunch may be served buffet style,[28] in which trays of foods and beverages are available and guests can serve themselves and select the items they want, often in an "all-you-can-eat" fashion.[29] Restaurant brunches may also be served from a menu, in which guests select specific items which are served to them by waitstaff. Restaurant brunch meals range from relatively inexpensive brunches available at diners and family restaurants to expensive brunches served at high-end restaurants and bistros.


Brunch in the Philippines is in between breakfast and lunch so by practice, it is around 9:00 am and 12:00 noon. Contrary to what is being observed in other countries, brunch in the afternoon between 3:00 and 4:00 pm is called merienda, a traditional snack carried over by Spanish colonialism.


See also


  1. ^ Palmatier, Robert Alan (2000). Food: A Dictionary of Literal and Nonliteral Terms. Greenwood Press. p. 40. ISBN 978-0313314360.
  2. ^ "brunch (meal)". Memidex/WordNet Dictionary. Archived from the original on 2 April 2019. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
  3. ^ "The Brief history of Brunch". 23 August 2016. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
  4. ^ "foodnetwork". Archived from the original on 5 August 2003. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
  5. ^ Rombauer, Irma S.; Becker, Marion Rombauer; Becker, Ethan (2001). Joy of Cooking: All About Breakfast and Brunch. Simon and Schuster. p. 8. ISBN 0743206428.
  6. ^ Gold, David L. (2009). Studies in etymology and etiology. Universidad de Alicante. p. 99. ISBN 978-84-7908-517-9.
  7. ^ Merriam-Webster's, Inc. (1994). Merriam-Webster's dictionary of English usage. Merrriam Webster. p. 203. ISBN 978-0-87779-132-4.
  8. ^ Beringer, Guy (1895). Brunch: a plea  – via Wikisource.
  9. ^ Grimes, William (8 July 1998). "At Brunch, The More Bizarre The Better". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
  10. ^ "The Press: O'Malley of the Sun". Time. 31 October 1932. Archived from the original on 21 October 2008. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  11. ^ Du, Lisa. "Finally: Confirmation That Brunch Really Was Invented To Cure Your Hangover". Business Insider. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
  12. ^ Pietrusza, David Rothstein: The Life, Times, and Murder of the Criminal Genius Google Books link 2007
  13. ^ "Dim Sum – History, Pictures, Recipes of Chinese Dim Sum". 13 July 2013. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
  14. ^ Office de la langue française, 1999, Le Grand Dictionnaire Archived 2 April 2003 at, entry "Brunch": "Repas combinant le petit déjeuner et le repas du midi, et habituellement constitué d'un buffet". (A meal that combines the breakfast and lunch and usually consists of a buffet.)
  15. ^ La Petite Larousse (2009), p. 140
  16. ^ "brunch". Dizionario delle alternative agli anglicismi in italiano (in Italian). 20 August 2018. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
  17. ^ "brunch - Wiktionary - Translations". Retrieved 25 April 2021.
  18. ^ "Italian Word of the Day: Colazione (breakfast) – Daily Italian Words". 2 July 2020. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
  19. ^ Tibaldi, Andrea. "Brunch". (in Italian). Retrieved 25 April 2021.
  20. ^ "Bonjour Brioche in Leslieville - My Destination Toronto". Retrieved 24 August 2013.
  21. ^ a b "Confederation Place Hotel & Western Cut : 2011 Catering Menus; including Brunch" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 October 2016. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
  22. ^ a b "Best Toronto Brunch 2013: 20 Top Brunch Picks From HuffPost Foodies". HuffPost Canada. 21 June 2013. Retrieved 31 August 2017.
  23. ^ "Easter Brunch: 25 Recipes For The Ultimate Brunch". HuffPost Canada. 21 March 2016. Retrieved 31 August 2017.
  24. ^ "Best Brunch in Vancouver - To Die For". Retrieved 31 August 2017.
  25. ^ a b "Canadian Living's best recipes, tested till perfect. - Canadian Living". Retrieved 31 August 2017.
  26. ^ "The Ultimate Vancouver Brunch Guide: Edible Canada". 18 September 2015. Archived from the original on 1 September 2017. Retrieved 31 August 2017.
  27. ^ "Canadian Living's best recipes, tested till perfect. - Canadian Living". Retrieved 31 August 2017.
  28. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 25 March 2016. Retrieved 9 April 2016.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  29. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 April 2016. Retrieved 9 April 2016.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
Wikisource has original text related to this article: Brunch: a plea