Thakur is a historical feudal title of the Indian subcontinent. It is also used as a surname in the present day. The female variant of the title is Thakurani or Thakurain, and is also used to describe the wife of a Thakur.

There are varying opinions among scholars about its origin. Some scholars suggest that it is not mentioned in the Sanskrit texts preceding 500 BCE, but speculates that it might have been a part of the vocabulary of the dialects spoken in northern India before the Gupta Empire. It is viewed to have been derived from word Thakkura which, according to several scholars, was not an original word of the Sanskrit language but a borrowed word in the Indian lexis from the Tukhara regions of Inner Asia. Another view-point is that Thakkura is a loan word from the Prakrit language.

Scholars have suggested differing meanings for the word, i.e. "god", "lord", and "master of the estate". Academics have suggested that it was only a title, and in itself, did not grant any authority to its users "to wield some power in the state".

In India, the upper caste social groups which use this title include the Brahmins,[1]: 28  Kushwaha,[2] Rajputs (Rajputra),[3][4][5][6][7] Charans,[8][9][10] Ahirs,[11] Kolis,[12][13] and Jats.[14]

In Northern and Southern Region of India Thakur represents Rajput Forward caste.[15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][7] Most of the OBC caste to gain Political importance use Thakur as Title.[25][26][27][28][29][30][31]

Etymology and meaning

Sisir Kumar Das stated that the word Thakur is derived from the "late Sanskrit" word Thakkura.[1]: 28 

Harka Bahadur Gurung noted that the Nepalese version of the word Thakur is Thakuri.[32]

The meaning of the word Thakur was suggested to be "god" by S. K. Das;[1]: 31  "lord" by Blair B. Kling;[33] and "master of the estate" by H. B. Gurung.[32]

Origin

Nirmal Chandra Sinha stated that the word Thakura is "unknown" to the Vedic and Classical Sanskrit and finds no mention in the Sanskrit literature preceding 500 BCE. He suggests, however, that "the word was possibly current in many north Indian dialects before the Imperial Guptas". Sinha notes that many scholars, such as Buddha Prakash, Frederick Thomas, Harold Bailey, Prabodh Bagchi, Suniti Chatterji, and Sylvain Lévi, have suggested that Thakura is a borrowed word in the Indian lexis from the Tukhara regions of Inner Asia.[34] Sinha observed:

"It may be noted that in South India among orthodox Brahmins, Thakura or Thakur is not a popular term obviously because of its Tukhara or Turuska background."[34]

Byomkes Chakrabarti noted that the Sanskrit word Thakkura finds mention in "late Sanskrit". He doubted, however, that Thakkura is "an original Sanskrit word" and was of the opinion that Thakkura is probably a loan word from the Prakrit language.[35]

Usage

Thakur Lakhajirajsinhji II Bavajirajsinhji of Rajkot

Susan Snow Wadley noted that the title Thakur was used to refer to "a man of indeterminate but mid-level caste, usually implying a landowning caste". Wadley further notes that Thakur was viewed as a "more modest" title in comparison to "Rājā" (King).[14]

S. K. Das noted that while the word thakur means "god", it is also used to refer to the father-in-law of a woman.[1]: 31  It is also used for a Brahmin,[1]: 28  Rajput,[6] Ahir,[11] Charan,[9] and Jat.[14]

Some academics have suggested that "Thakur was merely a title and not an office whereby a holder was entitled to wield some power in the state".[36] However, some other academics have noted that this title had been used by "petty chiefs" in the western areas of Himachal Pradesh.[37]

The title was used by rulers of several princely states, including Ambliara, Vala, Morbi, Barsoda, and Rajkot State. Sons of thakurs were given the Sanskrit title of Kumara ('prince'), popular usage being Kunwar in the North and Kumar in Bengal and South India.[38]

The territory of land under the control of a Thakur was called thikana.[39]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Das, Sisir Kumar (April 1968). "Forms of Address and Terms of Reference in Bengali". Anthropological Linguistics. Trustees of Indiana University. 10 (4): 19–31. JSTOR 30029176.
  2. ^ Gujarat. Popular Prakashan. 2003. p. 1591. ISBN 978-81-7991-106-8.
  3. ^ Sharma, Kanhaiya Lal (1999). Chanderi: 1990-1995. Diffusion de Boccard. ISBN 978-2-86803-682-7.
  4. ^ General, India Office of the Registrar (1972). Census of India, 1961: Maharashtra. Manager of Publications.
  5. ^ Singh, K. S. (1996). Communities, Segments, Synonyms, Surnames and Titles. Anthropological Survey of India. ISBN 978-0-19-563357-3.
  6. ^ a b Ellinwood, DeWitt C. (January 2002). "A Perspective on the Western Front by an Indian Army Office on the Western Front". Western Front Association. Retrieved 9 November 2020. ...Thakur (title of respect for Rajput aristocrats whose father is deceased; usually a landowner)...
  7. ^ a b Lunheim, Rolf (1993). Desert People: Caste and Community--a Rajasthani Village. University of Trondheim. ISBN 978-82-90896-12-1.
  8. ^ The Researcher (in Hindi). Directorate of Archaeology & Museums, Government of Rajasthan. 1997. The celebrated Barhat family (Charan by birth) had a glorious role in the freedom movement, whose three generations viz. Thakur Kishan Singh, his sons Keshari Singh and Jorawar Singh and grandson Pratap Singh(son of Keshari Singh) took active part and staked their lives and belongings. Kunwar Pratap Singh sacrificed even himself for the cause of the mother-land.
  9. ^ a b Yadav, Kripal Chandra; Arya, Krishan Singh (1988). Arya Samaj and the Freedom Movement: 1875-1918. Manohar Publications. ISBN 978-81-85054-41-4. Thakur Kesari Singh was born on 21 November 1872 at Devpura, a small village near Shahpura in Udaipur state (Rajasthan) in a patriotic Charan family. His father, Thakur Kishan Singh a follower of Swami Dayananda was one of the chief counsellors of the ruler of Udaipur.
  10. ^ Gupta, Saurabh (1 October 2015). Politics of Water Conservation: Delivering Development in Rural Rajasthan, India. Springer. p. 42. ISBN 978-3-319-21392-7. Sharma (ibid) argues that the ex-Zamindars (or landlords) who own big landholdings even today are influential but those who do not retain it are not only less influential but have also slid down the scale of status hierarchy. The families most affected by this belong to the Rajputs, Jats, Charans and Brahmins (all traditionally powerful caste groups).
  11. ^ a b Sir Roper Lethbridge (2005). The Golden Book of India: A Genealogical and Biographical Dictionary of the Ruling Princes, Chiefs, Nobles, and Other Personages, Titled Or Decorated of the Indian Empire. Aakar Books. p. 371. ISBN 9788187879541. Retrieved 27 October 2014. Born 1839 ; succeeded to the gadi on the death of her late husband, the Kunwar Jagat Singh, 28th October 1867. Belongs to a Dawa Ahir family. Lachman Singh, father of the late Thakur, was originally a Sardar of Jaitpur; but having possessed himself of the territory of Naigaon Ribai, he received a sanad from the British Government in 1807, confirming him in the possession. He died in 1808, and was succeeded by his son, the late Kunwar Jagat Singh.
  12. ^ Lethbridge, Sir Roper (2005). The Golden Book of India: A Genealogical and Biographical Dictionary of the Ruling Princes, Chiefs, Nobles, and Other Personages, Titled Or Decorated of the Indian Empire. New Delhi, India: Aakar Books. pp. 27 to 530. ISBN 978-81-87879-54-1.((cite book)): CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  13. ^ Mishra, Kuldeep (18 December 2017). "गुजरात और उत्तर प्रदेश की राजनीति कैसे अलग है?". BBC News हिंदी (in Hindi). Retrieved 19 December 2021.
  14. ^ a b c Wadley, Susan S. (2004). Raja Nal and the Goddess: The North Indian Epic Dhola in Performance (illustrated ed.). Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. p. 60. ISBN 978-0253217240. LCCN 2004009434. Eventually he was awarded the title of rājā (king), although he preferred the more modest "Thakur" (a man of indeterminate but mid-level caste, usually implying a landowning caste, often Jat).
  15. ^ Ellinwood, DeWitt C. (2005). Between Two Worlds: A Rajput Officer in the Indian Army, 1905-21 : Based on the Diary of Amar Singh of Jaipur. University Press of America. ISBN 978-0-7618-3113-6.
  16. ^ Bayley, C. S. (2004). Chiefs and Leading Families in Rajputana. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 978-81-206-1066-8.
  17. ^ Singh, K. S. (1996). Communities, Segments, Synonyms, Surnames and Titles. Anthropological Survey of India. ISBN 978-0-19-563357-3.
  18. ^ Singhji, Virbhadra (1994). The Rajputs of Saurashtra. Popular Prakashan. ISBN 978-81-7154-546-9.
  19. ^ Singh, Kumar Suresh (1998). India's Communities: N - Z. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-563354-2.
  20. ^ Varma, Kumar Cheda Singh (1904). Kshatriyas and Would-be Kshatriyas: A Consideration of the Claims of Certain Hindu Castes to Rank with the Rajputs, the Descendants of the Ancient Kshatriyas. Printed at the Pioneer Press.
  21. ^ Seesodia, Jessrajsingh (1915). The Rajputs: a Fighting Race: A Short Account of the Rajput Race, Its Warlike Past, Its Early Connections with Great Britain, and Its Gallant Services at the Present Moment at the Front. East and West, Limited.
  22. ^ Ireland, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and (1889). Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland.
  23. ^ Tyagi, D.; Bhattacharya, K. K.; Chaudhuri, S. S. Datta; Xaviour, D. (2011). Nutritional Status of Indian Population: Central region. Anthropological Survey of India, Ministry of Tourism and Culture, Department of Culture, Government of India.
  24. ^ Sharma, Kanhaiya Lal (1999). Chanderi: 1990-1995. Diffusion de Boccard. ISBN 978-2-86803-682-7.
  25. ^ Hidden Apartheid Caste Discrimination against India's "Untouchables". Human Rights Watch. 2007.
  26. ^ Bagul, Baburao (10 July 2018). When I Hid My Caste: Stories. Speaking Tiger Books. ISBN 978-93-86702-95-1.
  27. ^ Asia, Human Rights Watch; Narula, Smita; Watch (Organization), Human Rights (1999). Broken People: Caste Violence Against India's "untouchables". Human Rights Watch. ISBN 978-1-56432-228-9.
  28. ^ Shepherd, Kancha Ilaiah; Karuppusamy, Karthik Raja (22 February 2021). The Shudra: Vision for a New Path. Penguin Random House India Private Limited. ISBN 978-93-90914-24-1.
  29. ^ Ambedkar, B. R. (7 July 2021). Annihilation of Caste. General Press. ISBN 978-93-90492-75-6.
  30. ^ Jaffrelot, Christophe (2003). India's Silent Revolution: The Rise of the Lower Castes in North India. Permanent Black. ISBN 978-81-7824-080-0.
  31. ^ Roy, Arundhati (22 April 2019). The Doctor and the Saint: The Ambedkar-Gandhi Debate: Caste, Race and Annihilation of Caste. Penguin Random House India Private Limited. ISBN 978-93-5305-515-8.
  32. ^ a b Gurung, Harka Bahadur (1996). Faces of Nepal. illustrated by Jan Salter. Himal. p. 29. ISBN 978-9993343509. The term Thakuri is a Nepali variation of the Hindi word thakur, which means 'master of the estate'. Indeed, Thakuris of Nepal are associated with some territory inherited from the days of Baisi and Chaubisi principalities; the term thakurai actually refers to 'fiefdom'. It is said that among those Rajputs fleeing to the hills after the Muslim invasion in India, successful adventurers among them were given the name and status of Thakuri by their Brahman followers.
  33. ^ Kling, Blair B. (1976). "The Home and the World". Partner in Empire: Dwarkanath Tagore and the Age of Enterprise in Eastern India. University of California Press. p. 10. ISBN 978-0520029279.
  34. ^ a b Sinha, Nirmal Chandra (1987). "Inner Asia and India Through the Ages" (PDF). Bulletin of Tibetology. New. Gangtok, India: Sikkim Research Institute of Tibetology. 23 (1): 18 – via University of Cambridge.
  35. ^ Chakrabarti, Byomkes (1992). A Comparative Study of Santali and Bengali. K. P. Bagchi & Company. p. 14. ISBN 978-8170741282. Mr. Risley has also drawn attention to the fact that the supreme God "Thakur" of the Santali traditions bears a Hindi name derived from the Sanskrit origin "thakkura". But there is much doubt whether "thakkura" itself is an original Sanskrit word. The word occurs in late Sanskrit possibly being borrowed from Prakrit. But if we make a careful analysis of the different languages of the western regions of Asia from Turkish to Bengali we would surely find out traces of similarities of most of these languages with Santali and this will go to show that the tribes had their historical wanderings from the Western part of Asia to the Eastern part of India.
  36. ^ Sharma, Ghanshyam Datt (1977). Rajput Polity: A Study of Politics and Administration of the State of Marwar, 1638–1749. Manohar. p. 18. ISBN 978-0883868874. Bose agrees with Dr. Kane (History of the Dharmasastras, iii, 984) that thakur was merely a title and not an office whereby a holder was entitled to wield some power in the state.
  37. ^ Ohri, Vishwa Chander; Khanna, Amar Nath (1989). "Influence of Rajasthani on Pahari". History and Culture of the Chamba State, a Western Himalayan Kingdom: Collected Papers of the Seminar Held at Chamba in 1983. Books & Books. p. 131. ISBN 9788185016252. ...in the hills refer to a time when petty chiefs bearing the title of Rana or Thakur exercised authority over their iminutive domains...
  38. ^ Vadivelu, A. The Aristocracy of Southern India, Volume 2.
  39. ^ Doornbos, Martin; Kaviraj, Sudipta (1997). Dynamics of State Formation: India and Europe Compared. Sage. p. 81. ISBN 978-8170365747. Rights to land within any particular Thakur domain, the thikana, became complicated by the 1600s.